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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 235
Perinatal health care access, childbirth concerns, and birthing decision-making among pregnant people in California during COVID-19

Mackenzie D. M. Whipps; Jennifer E. Phipps; Leigh Ann Simmons

Published: July 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

During public health emergencies, including the COVID-19 pandemic, access to adequate healthcare is crucial for providing for the health and wellbeing of families. Pregnant and postpartum people are a particularly vulnerable subgroup to consider when studying healthcare access. Not only are perinatal people likely at higher risk for illness, mortality, and morbidity from COVID-19 infection, they are also at higher risk for negative outcomes due to delayed or inadequate access to routine care. This study surveyed 820 pregnant people in California over two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) a ‘non-surge’ wave (June 2020, n = 433), and (2) during a ‘surge’ in cases (December 2020, n = 387) to describe current access to perinatal healthcare, as well as concerns and decision-making regarding childbirth, over time. It also examined whether existing structural vulnerabilities – including acute financial insecurity and racial/ethnic minoritization – are associated with access, concerns, and decision-making over these two waves.

Development, feasibility, and acceptability of a nationally relevant parent training to improve service access during the transition to adulthood for youth with ASD

Julie Lounds Taylor; Florencia Pezzimenti; Meghan M. Burke (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Many youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face challenges accessing needed services as they transition to adulthood. The present study describes the development, feasibility and acceptability of a new intervention designed to teach parents of transition-aged youth with ASD about the adult service system and the most effective ways to access services and supports. As part of a randomized-controlled trial, the intervention—named ASSIST—was delivered to 91 participants in three states in the U.S. Results suggested that ASSIST is feasible and acceptable to participants. Though intended to be an in-person group-based program, due to COVID-19 restrictions ASSIST was primarily delivered online.
Depressive symptoms among adolescents: testing vulnerability-stress and protective models in the context of COVID-19

Tracy R. G. Gladstone; Jennifer A. J. Schwartz; Patrick Pössel (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
Adolescents who experience negative life events may be at risk for depression, particularly those with psychosocial vulnerabilities. This study investigates longitudinally the impact of vulnerability/protective factors on the relation between a large-scale negative life event, the COVID-19 pandemic, and depressive symptoms. Adolescents (N = 228, Mage = 14.5 years, 53% female, 73% white) self-reported depressive symptoms 2–4 months before the pandemic (Time 1), and again 2 months following stay-at-home orders (Time 2). At T2, adolescents also completed measures of vulnerability, protective factors, and COVID-19-related distress. Depressive symptoms increased at T2, and COVID-19 distress interacted with resilience and negative cognitive style in predicting increases in T2 depression. Focusing on vulnerability and protective factors in adolescents distressed by large scale negative life events appears crucial.
Passive and active immunity in infants born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy: prospective cohort study

Dongli Song; Mary Prahl; Stephanie L. Gaw (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This is a prospective observational study aiming toinvestigate maternal immunoglobulins’ (IgM, IgG) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and IgG transplacental transfer, to characterise neonatal antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to longitudinally follow actively and passively acquired antibodies in infants. It was performed in the public healthcare system in Santa Clara County (California, USA).

The influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on development and health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA: a review of the literature

Natalie Claypool; Arelis Moore de Peralta

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
The purpose of this review is to synthesize existing literature to analyze the influence of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on child development and lifelong health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA, utilizing the ACE framework. Without adequate protective factors, children’s early experiences with adversity and toxic stress have implications for their physiological, psychological, and social health. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown to exacerbate childhood adversity and toxic stress and has disproportionately harmed Latinx communities. In applying the ACE framework to US-Latinx populations, relevant findings concerning a potential failure of ACEs to accurately capture Latinx experiences of adversity were highlighted, as well as the need to classify the COVID-19 pandemic as an ACE. Research suggest that first-generation Latinx immigrants report lower-than-average rates of ACEs despite the various disparities ethnic minorities face in the USA.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and racial disparities in children: protective mechanisms and severe complications related to MIS-C

Sanjana Kurup; Regan Burgess; Fatou Tine (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
A novel coronavirus has resulted in a pandemic with over 176 million confirmed cases and over 3.8 million recorded deaths. In the USA, SARS-CoV-2 infection has a significant burden on minority communities, especially Hispanic and Black communities, which are overrepresented in cases compared to their percentage in the population. SARS-CoV-2 infection can manifest differently in children and adults, with children tending to have less severe disease. A review of current literature was performed to identify the hypothesized protective immune mechanisms in children, and to describe the rare complication of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) that has been documented in children post-SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on presentation and severity of traumatic injury due to physical child abuse across US children's hospitals

Christopher De Boer; Hassan Ghomrawi; Megan E. Bouchard (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Surgery

Physical child abuse affects 9 in every 1,000 children in the United States and associated traumatic injuries are often identified by the healthcare system. The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified risk factors for physical child abuse and increased avoidance of the healthcare system. This study examined the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on presentation and severity of physical child abuse. A retrospective, cross-sectional study utilizing the Pediatric Health Information System was performed. An interrupted time series analysis estimated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of children <15 years old presenting with physical child abuse to children's hospitals from March 1st to June 30th of 2020 by comparing to those presenting during the same period for years 2016-2019. Hierarchical regression models estimated the effect of the pandemic on likelihood of operative intervention, ICU admission, traumatic brain injury, and mortality.

The roles of stress, coping, and parental support in adolescent psychological well-being in the context of COVID-19: a daily-diary study

Ming-Te Wang; Juan Del Toro; Christina L. Scanlon (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

COVID-19 has introduced novel stressors into American adolescents’ lives. Studies have shown that adolescents adopt an array of coping mechanisms and social supports when contending with stress. It is unclear, though, which strategies are most effective in mitigating daily pandemic-related stress, as few micro-longitudinal studies have explored adolescents’ daily affect during COVID-19. Parental support may also be a critical component of adolescents’ pandemic-related coping, as adolescents’ peer networks have been limited by public health measures. This longitudinal study examined links between stress, coping, parental support, and affect across 14 consecutive days and 6216 assessments from a national sample of adolescents (N=444; Mage=15.0; 60% female; 44% Black/African American, 39% White/Europen American, 9% Latinx, 6% Asian American, 2% Native American) during school closures and state-mandated stay-at-home orders between April 8 and April 21, 2021.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the number of adolescents/young adults seeking eating disorder-related care

Jessica A. Lin; Sydney M. Hartman-Munick; Meredith R. Kells (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the development and worsening of eating disorder (ED) symptoms in adolescents and young adults. In order to examine COVID-19-related trends in ED care-seeking at our institution. This study used interrupted time series regression to examine pre- and postpandemic monthly summary data of the following: ED-related inpatient admissions for medical stabilization; ED-related hospital bed-days; completed outpatient ED assessments; and ED outpatient care-related inquiries at a children’s hospital in Boston, MA.

Unintended trauma: the role of public health policy in the detention of migrant children

Michele Statz; Lauren Heidbrink

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Americas
Within the first three months of 2021, an unprecedented 33,000 unaccompanied children arrived at the United States-Mexico border. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) responded by opening new facilities for detained migrant children in converted convention centers, stadiums, and military bases. Ranging from 1000 to 5000 beds, these facilities are not unique to the U.S.: Europe and Australia have adopted similar models of detaining arriving migrants and refugees.1 Responding to these trends, global public health scholars have identified how large post-reception models negatively impact migrants’ mental and physical health and further contribute to increased vulnerability to COVID-19.2 Considerably less attention has been paid to how pandemic-related public health policies have actually fueled the recent demand for mass detention facilities.
Pediatric BMI changes during COVID-19 pandemic: an electronic health record-based retrospective cohort study

Corinne G. Brooks; Jessica R. Spencer; J. Michael Sprafka (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
Beginning March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted different aspects of life. The impact on children's rate of weight gain has not been analysed. This retrospective cohort study used United States (US) Electronic Health Record (EHR) data from Optum® to calculate the age- and sex- adjusted change in BMI (∆BMIadj) in individual 6-to-17-year-old children between two well child checks (WCCs). The mean of individual ∆BMIadj during 2017–2020 was calculated by month. For September-December WCCs, the mean of individual ∆BMIadj (overall and by subgroup) was reported for 2020 and 2017–2019, and the impact of 2020 vs 2017–2019 was tested by multivariable linear regression.
Early influenza vaccination rates decline in children during the COVID-19 pandemic

Benjamin Fogel; Eric W. Schaefer; Steven D. Hicks

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine

This investigation sought to determine whether early season rates of pediatric influenza vaccination changed in a season when there was a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. This study used cohort and cross sectional data from an academic primary care division in Southcentral Pennsylvania that serves approximately 17,500 patients across 4 practice sites. Early season (prior to November 1) vaccination rates in 2018, 2019 and 2020 were recorded for children, age 6 months to 17 years.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 31 | No. of pages: 4291-4295 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child immunization, COVID-19, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Adolescent drug use before and during U.S. national COVID-19 social distancing policies

Richard Miech; Megan E. Patrick; Katherine Keyes (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Drug and Alcohol Dependence

How adolescent substance use and perceived availability of substances have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic remain largely unknown. Substantial reduction in availability of substances would present a unique opportunity to consider the supply-side hypothesis that reductions in drug availability will lead to reductions in drug prevalence. Longitudinal data come from Monitoring the Future and are based on responses from 582 adolescents who were originally surveyed as part of a national sample of 12th grade students in early 2020, one month before social distancing policies began. They were surveyed again after social distancing policies were implemented, in the summer of 2020.

Impact of school reopening on pandemic spread: a case study using an agent-based model for COVID-19

Hanisha Tatapudi; Tapas K. Das

Published: June 2021   Journal: Infectious Disease Modelling
This article examines the impact of partial/full reopening of school/college campuses on the spread of a pandemic using COVID-19 as a case study. The study uses an agent-based simulation model that replicates community spread in an urban region of U.S.A. via daily social mixing of susceptible and infected individuals. Data representing population demographics, SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology, and social interventions guides the model's behavior, which is calibrated and validated using data reported by the government.
Toward quality online physical education: research questions and future directions

David N. Daum; Tyler Goad; Brian Mosier (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education
Before the COVID-19 pandemic, online education had grown steadily over the past decade as more K-12 schools and districts expanded their educational options. This included the use of virtual school days, hybrid learning, and fully online courses. Enrollments in K-12 Online Physical Education (OLPE) had also increased steadily over the past decade, representing almost ten percent of total online course completions (Distance Learning Collaborative (DLC), (2019). The purpose of this article is to present a coherent agenda for future research related to K-12 OLPE using current research as a foundation. The Society of Health and Physical Education (SHAPE) America’s Essential Components of Physical Education served as the framework for this article. Overall, limited research has been conducted regarding the policies and decisions that drive the development and implementation of OLPE. Current research does, however, provide some clarity related to OLPE curriculum, instructional practices, and student assessment. K-12 OLPE is not an abstract idea that might come about in the future. It is part of the here and now, especially considering the shift toward distance learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Scholars must cultivate a coherent research agenda and move beyond the current exploratory studies to answer some of the most poignant questions surrounding OLPE.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.