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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 109
Parental buffering of stress in the time of COVID-19: family-level factors may moderate the association between pandemic-related stress and youth symptomatology

AUTHOR(S)
Emily M. Cohodes; Sarah McCauley; Dylan G. Gee

Published: February 2021   Journal: Research on child and adolescent psychopathology
Nearly all families in the United States were exposed to varying degrees of stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic during the spring of 2020. Building on previous research documenting the pernicious effects of stress on youth mental health, this paper aimed to test the effects of exposure to COVID-19-related stress on youth symptomatology. Further, in light of evidence suggesting that parents play an important role in buffering children from environmental stress, it assessed how specific parental behaviors (i.e., parental emotion socialization, maintenance of home routines, and availability to discuss the pandemic with child) contributed to effective parental buffering of the impact of pandemic-related stress on children’s symptomatology.
Higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in pregnant patients

AUTHOR(S)
Erica M. Lokken; G. Gray Taylor; Emily M. Huebner (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: American journal of obstetrics and gynecology

During the early months of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, risks to pregnant women of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were uncertain. Pregnant patients can serve as a model for the success of the clinical and public health response during public health emergencies as they are typically in frequent contact with the medical system. Population-based estimates of SARS-CoV-2 infections in pregnancy are unknown due to incomplete ascertainment of pregnancy status or inclusion of only single centers or hospitalized cases. Whether pregnant women were protected by the public health response or through their interactions with obstetrical providers in the early pandemic is poorly understood. This study aims to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in pregnancy and examine disparities by race/ethnicity and English-language proficiency in Washington State.

U.S. children “learning online” during COVID-19 without the internet or a computer: visualizing the gradient by race/ethnicity and parental educational attainment

AUTHOR(S)
Joseph Friedman; Hunter York; Ali H. Mokdad (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Socius
The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has caused unprecedented disruptions to education in the United States, with a large proportion of schooling moving to online formats, which has the potential to exacerbate existing racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in learning. The authors visualize access to online learning technologies using data from the Household Pulse Survey from the early fall 2020 school period (August 19 to October 26). The authors find that 10.1 percent of children participating in online learning nationally did not have adequate access to the Internet and a computer. Rates of inadequate access varied nearly 20-fold across the gradient of parental race/ethnicity and education, from 1.9 percent for children of Asian parents with graduate degrees to 35.5 percent among children of Black parents with less than a high school education.
Parents who first allowed adolescents to drink alcohol in a family context during spring 2020 COVID-19 emergency shutdowns

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer L. Maggs; Jenna R. Cassinat; Brian C. Kelly

Published: February 2021   Journal: The Journal of adolescent health
COVID-19 stay-at-home orders during Spring 2020 dramatically changed daily life and created significant challenges for families. We document levels and predictors of U.S. parents who newly allowed adolescents to drink alcohol at home during the shutdown.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on economic security and pregnancy intentions among people at risk of pregnancy

AUTHOR(S)
Tracy Kuo Lin; Rachel Law; Jessica Beaman

Published: February 2021   Journal: Contraception
This study aims to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic affected women of reproductive age, specifically their economic conditions, desire for pregnancy, and access to contraceptive services during the pandemic. A total of 554 women respondents age 18 to 49 and reside in the United States were recruited using social media between May 16, 2020 and June 16, 2020. Logistic regression models assessed predictors of reporting pandemic-related changes in economic conditions, desire for pregnancy, and contraceptive access
What the COVID-19 pandemic reveals about racial differences in child welfare and child well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Zachary Parolin

Published: February 2021   Journal: Race and Social Problems
This paper introduces the special issue on race, child welfare, and child well-being. In doing so, I summarize the evidence of racial/ethnic disparities in child well-being after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent findings demonstrate that, compared to white children, black and Latino children are more likely to have experienced poverty and food insufficiency, to have had parents lose their jobs, and to be exposed to distance learning and school closures during the pandemic. I argue that though COVID-19 has indeed worsened racial/ethnic disparities in child well-being, it has also served to place a spotlight on the American welfare state’s historical mistreatment of low-income families and black and Latino families in particular. Consider that around three-fourths of black and Latino children facing food insufficiency during the pandemic also experienced food insufficiency prior to the onset of the pandemic. Moving forward, analyses of racial/ethnic disparities in child well-being during the pandemic, I argue, must not only consider the economic shock and high unemployment rates of 2020, but the failure of the American welfare state to adequately support jobless parents, and black and Latino parents in particular, long before the COVID-19 pandemic arrived.
Prospective impact of COVID‐19 on mental health functioning in adolescents with and without ADHD: protective role of emotion regulation abilities

AUTHOR(S)
Rosanna Breaux; Melissa R. Dvorsky; Nicholas P. Marsh (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry

The impact of chronic stressors like the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to be magnified in adolescents with pre-existing mental health risk, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined changes in and predictors of adolescent mental health from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Southeastern and Midwestern United States.

What is the association between income loss during the COVID-19 pandemic and children’s dental care?

AUTHOR(S)
Jacqueline M. Burgette; Robert J. Weyant; Anna Ettinger

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of the American Dental Association
The degree to which children experience unmet need for dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic, and its association with pandemic-related household job or income loss, is unknown. The authors performed a cross-sectional household survey of 348 families in Pittsburgh, PA during the week June 25 to July 2, 2020. Unmet need for child dental care and pandemic-related household job or income loss were assessed using caregiver self-report.
COVID-19 is associated with traumatic childbirth and subsequent mother-infant bonding problems

AUTHOR(S)
Gus A. Mayopoulos; Tsachi Ein-Dor; Gabriella A. Dishy (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders
Knowledge of women’s experience of childbirth in the outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and associated maternal health outcomes is scarce. A sample of primarily American women who gave birth around the height of COVID-19 (n =1,611) and matched controls, i.e., women who gave birth before COVID-19 (n =640), completed an anonymous Internet survey about recent childbirth, birth-related traumatic stress (peritraumatic distress inventory; PTSD-checklist), maternal bonding (maternal attachment inventory; mother-to-infant bonding scale) and breastfeeding status. Groups (n =637 in each) were matched on demographics, prior mental health/trauma and childbirth factors to determine the unique contribution of COVID-19 to the psychological experience of childbirth.
Remote teaching during COVID-19: Implications from a national survey of language educators

AUTHOR(S)
Kelly M. Moser; Tianlan Wei; Devon Brenner

Published: January 2021   Journal: System

To mitigate transmission of COVID-19, rapid changes in instructional delivery moved from in-person to remote instruction. Although literature from before the crisis suggests that online language learners fare at least as well as their face-to-face counterparts, the abrupt shift from face-to-face contexts to remote learning is fundamentally different from planned on line learning. Understanding the nature of this shift can inform future online and remote teaching. This national survey study was guided by research questions that explore any substantive change in the practices and perceptions of PreK-12 and post-secondary language teachers' instruction during COVID-19. It explores any change as related to class-room setting (PreK-12 vs post-secondary) and prior experience with distance education.

Willingness to vaccinate children against Influenza after the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ran D. Goldman; Sophie McGregor; Shashidhar R. Marneni (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
This study aims to determine factors associated with parents who plan to vaccinate their children against influenza next year, especially those who did not vaccinate against influenza last year using a global survey. A survey of caregivers accompanying their children aged 1-19 years old in 17 pediatric emergency departments in 6 countries at the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Anonymous online survey included caregiver and child demographic information, vaccination history and future intentions, and concern about the child and caregiver having COVID-19 at the time of emergency department visit.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 228 | No. of pages: 87-93.e2 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: immunization programmes, parents, vaccination, vaccination policies, COVID-19 response | Countries: United States
Corona pandemic in the United States shapes new normal for young children and their families

AUTHOR(S)
W. Steven Barnett; Rolf Grafwallner; Georgenne G. Weisenfeld

Published: January 2021   Journal: European Early Childhood Education Research Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic tremendously disrupted ECE in the U.S., closing many private programs and nearly all public preschool and primary classrooms. To understand this impact, this study used multiple strategies, including a nationwide survey of parents; a review of state policies, guidance and resource documents; and scans of media coverage to obtain information on how the pandemic has shaped policy and the ECE experiences of young children and their families across the U.S. beginning in the spring and continuing through the fall of 2020.
Child maltreatment in the time of COVID-19: changes in the Florida foster care system surrounding the COVID-19 safer-at-home order

AUTHOR(S)
Erica D. Musser; Cameron Riopelle; Robert Latham

Published: January 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Media outlets have suggested that rates of child maltreatment may increase during the global COVID-19 pandemic. The few empirical studies that have examined pandemic related changes in rates of child maltreatment have relied predominantly on reports of suspected maltreatment. This study examines rates of documented, substantiated child maltreatment resulting in foster care placement, as well as demographic correlates of child maltreatment within the foster care system, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

We’re all teachers now: remote learning during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Dick Carpenter; Joshua Dunn

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of School Choice
This study examined educational experiences of families under COVID and their schooling decisions in the 2021 school year. Results from a survey of 1743 parents indicate most schools provided educational resources ranging from hardcopy packets to live online instruction. Parents were generally positive about the experience. Parents in private and charter schools reported a more positive experience than those in traditional public schools. Only a small percentage of respondents said they were going to homeschool in fall 2020, but more than a third planned to send their child to a virtual school out of concern about their child’s health.
Gender differences in couples’ division of childcare, work and mental health during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Gema Zamarro; María J. Prados

Published: January 2021   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
The current COVID-19 crisis, with its associated school and daycare closures as well as social-distancing requirements, has the potential to magnify gender differences both in terms of childcare arrangements within the household and at work. This study used data from a nationally representative sample of the United States from the Understanding Coronavirus in America tracking survey to understand gender differences within households on the impact of the COVID-19 crisis. It also studied how fathers and mothers are coping with this crisis in terms of childcare provision, employment, working arrangements, and psychological distress levels.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.