search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   3718     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 3718
Adolescent compliance with anti-COVID measures. Is it related to substance use?

Joaquín Rodríguez-Ruiz; Izabela Zych; Vicente J. Llorent

Published: January 2022   Journal: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Prevalence rates of compliance with anti-COVID measures have been widely studied, but little is known about this issue in early adolescence. Moreover, the relation between substance use and compliance with anti-COVID regulations is still unexplored. Thus, this study aimed to determine the level of compliance with anti-COVID measures by adolescents and the link between substance use and compliance with anti-COVID regulations. This was a cross-sectional study including 909 participants (Mage = 12.57; SD = 0.81). The most complied measure was mask-wearing, followed by avoiding hug/kiss friends and, finally, social distancing. All substance use negatively correlated with compliance with measures. However, strong alcohol and tobacco were the only substances significantly related to less compliance of anti-COVID measures after controlling for covariates.
The role of cognitive appraisals in parental burnout: a preliminary analysis during the COVID-19 quarantine

Aline Woine; Moïra Mikolajczak; James Gross (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
Counter-intuitively, sociodemographic characteristics account for a small proportion of explained variance in parental burnout. The present study conducted during the Covid-19 pandemic asks whether (i) sociodemographic characteristics are more predictive of parental burnout than usual in a situation of lockdown, (ii) situational factors, that is, the specific restrictive living conditions inherent in the context of lockdown, predict parental burnout better than sociodemographic characteristics do, and (iii) the impact of both sociodemographic and situational factors is moderated or mediated by the parents’ subjective perception of the impact that the health crisis has had on their parenting circumstances.
Western Australian adolescent emotional wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020

H. M. Thomas; K. C. Runions; L. Lester (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic have been vast and are not limited to physical health. Many adolescents have experienced disruptions to daily life, including changes in their school routine and family’s financial or emotional security, potentially impacting their emotional wellbeing. In low COVID-19 prevalence settings, the impact of isolation has been mitigated for most young people through continued face-to-face schooling, yet there may still be significant impacts on their wellbeing that could be attributed to the pandemic. This study reports on data from 32,849 surveys from Year 7–12 students in 40 schools over two 2020 survey cycles (June/July: 19,240; October: 13,609), drawn from a study of 79 primary and secondary schools across Western Australia, Australia. The Child Health Utility Index (CHU9D) was used to measure difficulties and distress in responding secondary school students only. Using comparable Australian data collected six years prior to the pandemic, the CHU9D was calibrated against the Kessler-10 to establish a reliable threshold for CHU9D-rated distress.

What could we do differently next time? Australian parents’ experiences of the short-term and long-term impacts of home schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic

Alyssa R. Morse; Michelle Banfield; Philip J. Batterham (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

COVID-19 lockdowns have resulted in school closures worldwide, requiring curriculum to be delivered to children remotely (home schooling). Qualitative evidence is needed to provide important context to the positive and negative impacts of home schooling and inform strategies to support caregivers and children as the pandemic continues. This study aimed to explore the experiences of home schooling caregivers at multiple time-points during the pandemic. Data were obtained from a longitudinal survey of a representative Australian sample conducted over 8 waves during 2020 and 2021. Participants who had home schooled at least one child during COVID-19 completed open-ended questions at Wave 4 (May 2020; n = 176), Wave 7 (June 2020; n = 145), and Wave 8 (March 2021; n = 57). Participants were asked to describe what they found positive and challenging about home schooling (Wave 4), what they would do differently if they home schooled their children again (Wave 7), and the longer-term impacts of home schooling on caregivers and children (Wave 8).

COVID-19 infections in day care centres in Germany: social and organisational determinants of infections in children and staff in the second and third wave of the pandemic

Franz Neuberger; Mariana Grgic; Svenja Diefenbacher (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, German early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres organised children’s attendance in different ways, they reduced opening hours, provided emergency support for a few children, or closed completely. Further, protection and hygiene measures like fixed children-staff groups, ventilation and surface disinfection were introduced in ECEC centres. To inform or modify public health measures in ECEC, we investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in ECEC centres in light of social determinants (i.e. the socioeconomic status of the children) and recommended structural and hygiene measures. We focus on the question if the relevant factors differ between the 2nd (when no variant of concern (VOC) circulated) and the 3rd wave (when VOC B.1.1.7 (Alpha) predominated).
Women’s views on accepting COVID-19 vaccination during and after pregnancy, and for their babies: a multi-methods study in the UK

Helen Skirrow; Sara Barnett; Sadie Bell (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

COVID-19 vaccines are advised for pregnant women in the United Kingdom (UK) however COVID-19 vaccine uptake among pregnant women is inadequate. An online survey and semi-structured interviews were used to investigate pregnant women’s views on COVID-19 vaccine acceptability for themselves when pregnant, not pregnant and for their babies. One thousand one hundred eighty-one women, aged over 16 years, who had been pregnant since 23rd March 2020, were surveyed between 3rd August–11th October 2020. Ten women were interviewed.

Parental support for young learners’ online learning of English in a Chinese primary school

Jian Tao; Yueting Xu

Published: January 2022   Journal: System
Online language learning is challenging to young learners who often need high levels of support from teachers and parents due to their limited skills in self-regulated learning. While technology integration in education is on the rise, there continues to be a lack of research into how young learners can be better supported in online language learning. This qualitative study examines how parents support young learners' online learning of English during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on interviews with 30 parents of students in Grades 1–5 at a Chinese primary school. The study reveals a range of supportive practices: monitoring of learning emerged as the top priority for parents, followed by affective, academic and technology support. Most of these parental support strategies were mediated primarily by the children's grade level and/or parents' socioeconomic background. Parents also sought teachers' help and played bridging roles to enable teacher-student interaction, particularly when they were unable to provide direct help themselves.
Mental health & maltreatment risk of children with special educational needs during COVID-19

Winnie W. Y. Tso; Ko Ling Chan; Tatia M. C. Lee (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Children with special educational needs (SEN) are more vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic with risk of poor mental wellbeing and child maltreatment. To examine the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of children with SEN and their maltreatment risk. 417 children with SEN studying at special schools and 25,427 children with typical development (TD) studying at mainstream schools completed an online survey in April 2020 in Hong Kong during school closures due to COVID-19.

Children and adolescents’ sleep patterns and their associations with mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Shanghai, China

Jian Zhao; Jiawei Xu; Yaping He (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

School closures and home confinement due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may lead to disrupted sleep patterns. Consequently, it could increase the risk of children and adolescents’ mental health disorders. In this prospective study, we randomly selected ten schools in Shanghai and conducted cluster sampling of students from each school. The first wave of the survey was conducted between January 3 and 21, 2020. Approximately two months after the COVID-19 outbreak declared, a second wave of the survey was conducted. In total, 2427 individuals were surveyed in both waves using the same sampling method. Participants’ mental health status (depression, anxiety and stress), sleep patterns and other demographic information were measured in both waves. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the associations between sleep patterns and mental health status.

Severe COVID-19 and MIS-C in children & adolescents

Allison M. Blatz; Adrienne G. Randolph

Published: January 2022   Journal: Critical Care Clinics
Severe complications related to COVID-19 occur infrequently in children and adolescents. The two major types of life-threatening complications are acute respiratory failure from acute COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). MIS-C is a post-infectious complication occurring approximately 3-6 weeks after an asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. For both types of complications, supportive ICU care is provided. For MIS-C critical illness, immunomodulation is prescribed to reverse hyperinflammation and its cardiac and other sequelae
Comparison of the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in children and adolescents in a middle-income country: Clinical impact associated with SARS-CoV-2 gamma lineage

Eduardo A. Oliveira; Ana Cristina Simões e Silva; Maria Christina L. Oliveira (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics

To evaluate the severity and clinical outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant in children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in Brazil. In this observational retrospective cohort study, we performed an analysis of all 21,591 hospitalized patients aged < 20 years with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection registered in a national database in Brazil. The cohort was divided into two groups according to the predominance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages (WAVE1, n = 11,574 and WAVE2, n = 10,017). The characteristics of interest were age, sex, geographic region, ethnicity, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated by competing-risks analysis, using cumulative incidence function. A predictive Fine-Gray competitive risks model was developed based on WAVE1 cohort with temporal validation in WAVE2 cohort.

Brief, parent-led, transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral teletherapy for youth with emotional problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic

Andrew G. Guzick; Alicia W. Leong; Emily M. Dickinson (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increased stress, anxiety, and depression in children. A six-session, parent-led, transdiagnostic, cognitive-behavioral teletherapy program was adapted from an established protocol to help youth aged between 5 and 13 years manage emotional problems during the pandemic. One-hundred twenty-nine parents of youth struggling with emotional problems during the COVID-19 pandemic participated in the program. Parents reported on their children's psychosocial functioning before and after treatment using validated assessments. They also reported on treatment satisfaction. Clinician-rated global improvement was assessed at each session to determine clinically significant treatment response.

Are there any changes in mothers' attitudes? Analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on child-rearing attitudes

Mehmet Toran; Bülent Özden

Published: January 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The present study aims to examine the impact of the time spent by mothers at home with their children during the quarantine period that was implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the mothers’ child-rearing attitudes, taking into consideration some variables and the experiences of mothers. The study was designed using embedded mixed design, in which qualitative and quantitative research methods were used together. The quantitative research group consisted of 673 mothers and the qualitative research group consisted of 16 mothers. The research data was gathered online using the Lime Survey platform, and the interviews with the mothers were also held online. Demographic information form, the Child Rearing Attitude Scale, and a semi-structured interview form were used as data collection tools. Moderator variable analysis was used for the quantitative research data and descriptive analysis was used for the qualitative research data in support of the quantitative data.
Pedi-R-MAPP: The development of a nutritional awareness tool for use in remote paediatric consultations using a modified Delphi consensus

J. J. Ashton; R. M. Beattie; S. Cader (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Clinical Nutrition

The Remote Malnutrition Application (R-MAPP) was developed during the COVID-19 pandemic to provide support for health care professionals (HCPs) working in the community to complete remote nutritional assessments, and provide practical guidance for nutritional care. The aim of this study was to modify the R-MAPP into a version suitable for children, Pediatric Remote Malnutrition Application (Pedi-R-MAPP), and provide a structured approach to completing a nutrition focused assessment as part of a technology enabled care service (TECS) consultation. A ten-step process was completed: 1) permission to modify adult R-MAPP, 2) literature search to inform the Pedi-R-MAPP content, 3) Pedi-R-MAPP draft, 4) international survey of HCP practice using TECS, 5) nutrition experts invited to participate in a modified Delphi process, 6) first stakeholder meeting to agree purpose/draft of the tool, 7) round-one online survey, 8) statements with consensus removed from survey, 9) round-two online survey for statements with no consensus and 10) second stakeholder meeting with finalisation of the Pedi-R-MAPP nutrition awareness tool.

The visual consequences of virtual school: acute eye symptoms in healthy children

Jordan L. Hamburger; Judith B. Lavrich; Alexander M. Rusakevich (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

To investigate acute eye symptoms in healthy children after a typical day of virtual school during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study population included 110 healthy children 10-17 years of age who were enrolled in full-time or hybrid virtual school. Children with a history of central nervous system or ocular pathology, recent concussions, reported poor vision, convergence insufficiency, history of orthoptic therapy, strabismus, amblyopia, or learning disorders were excluded. Background information was collected, including demographics, family and personal ocular history, and virtual school specifications. Eligible children completed a modified convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS) and an asthenopia survey before and after a virtual school session. CISS and asthenopia survey symptoms were scored, and the differences in symptomatology before and after school were calculated.

1 - 15 of 3718

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on violence against children and women during COVID-19.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.