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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 1261
COVID-19 and school closures: one year of education disruption
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: March 2021

We are facing a COVID-19 education crisis. As this report finds, schools for more than 168 million children globally have been closed for almost a full year. With every day that goes by, these children will fall further behind and the most vulnerable will pay the heaviest price. The unique findings presented in this report provide an overview of school closures from March 11, 2020 to February 2, 2021 in more than 200 countries and territories, relying primarily on the data from the UNESCO tracker of school closures and UIS database on school enrollment. As we enter the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic, no effort should be spared to keep schools open or prioritize them in reopening plans. Children cannot afford another year of school closures.

Our Europe, our rights, our future: children and young people's contribution to the new EU strategy on the rights of the child and the child guarantee
Institution: Save the Children, Eurochild, *UNICEF
Published: March 2021

The European Union (EU) is committed to promoting and protecting the rights of children. It is undertaking two major pieces of work to contribute to making this commitment a reality: a strategy on the rights of the child 2021-2024 and a child guarantee to ensure every child in Europe at risk of poverty has access to essential services. To find out what children are experiencing and what they say needs to change, the EU approached five child rights organizations – Child Fund Alliance, Eurochild, Save the Children, UNICEF and World Vision – to consult with children on their lives, aspirations and concerns for the future. This report presents the findings of that consultation with over 10,000 children aged 11–17 across Europe and beyond.

The effects of school closures on SARS-CoV-2 among parents and teachers

AUTHOR(S)
Jonas Vlachos; Edvin Hertegard; Helena B. Svaleryd

Published: March 2021   Journal: PNAS
To reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), most countries closed schools, despite uncertainty if school closures are an effective containment measure. At the onset of the pandemic, Swedish upper-secondary schools moved to online instruction, while lower-secondary schools remained open. This allows for a comparison of parents and teachers differently exposed to open and closed schools, but otherwise facing similar conditions. Leveraging rich Swedish register data, this paper connects all students and teachers in Sweden to their families and study the impact of moving to online instruction on the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.
Why do children still have preventable caries?

AUTHOR(S)
Alizey Kazmi; Maryam Ismail; Nadia Kazmi

Published: February 2021   Journal: BDJ Team
Despite extensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of caries, improvements in general oral health and preventive evidencebased toolkits such as Delivering better oral health, 1 childhood caries continues to be the leading cause of paediatric admission to hospital for extraction under general anaesthesia (GA). With caries being a preventable disease2,3 and the rationale to use GA being complicated with the risk of morbidity and mortality,4 the issue of childhood caries needs to be addressed. Te COVID-19 pandemic has further complicated the situation, as routine access to care is limited.
Harnessing technological solutions for childhood obesity prevention and treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of current applications

AUTHOR(S)
Lauren A. Fowler; Anne Claire Grammer; Amanda E. Staiano (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: International Journal of Obesity
Technology holds promise for delivery of accessible, individualized, and destigmatized obesity prevention and treatment to youth. This review examined the efficacy of recent technology-based interventions on weight outcomes.
Innate cell profiles during the acute and convalescent phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children

AUTHOR(S)
Melanie R. Neeland; Samantha Bannister; Vanessa Clifford (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Nature Communications volume
Children have mild severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) confirmed disease (COVID-19) compared to adults and the immunological mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. Here, it is reported acute and convalescent innate immune responses in 48 children and 70 adults infected with, or exposed to, SARS-CoV-2. It has been found clinically that mild SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is characterised by reduced circulating subsets of monocytes (classical, intermediate, non-classical), dendritic cells and natural killer cells during the acute phase. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2-infected adults show reduced proportions of non-classical monocytes only. It has also been observed increased proportions of CD63+ activated neutrophils during the acute phase to SARS-CoV-2 in infected children. Children and adults exposed to SARS-CoV-2 but negative on PCR testing display increased proportions of low-density neutrophils that have been observed up to 7 weeks post exposure. This study characterises the innate immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection and household exposure in children.
35. SARS-CoV-2 vaccine testing and trials in the pediatric population: biologic, ethical, research, and implementation challenges

AUTHOR(S)
Dan M. Cooper; Behnoush Afghani; Carrie L. Byington

Published: February 2021   Journal: Pediatric Research
As the nation implements SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in adults at an unprecedented scale, it is now essential to focus on the prospect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in pediatric populations. To date, no children younger than 12 years have been enrolled in clinical trials. Key challenges and knowledge gaps that must be addressed include (1) rationale for vaccines in children, (2) possible effects of immune maturation during childhood, (3) ethical concerns, (4) unique needs of children with developmental disorders and chronic conditions, (5) health inequities, and (6) vaccine hesitancy.
Breastfeeding and COVID-19 vaccination: position statement of the Italian scientific societies

AUTHOR(S)
Riccardo Davanzo; Massimo Agosti; Irene Cetin (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has raised the issue of its compatibility with breastfeeding. Consequently, the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN), the Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), the Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (SIMP), the Italian Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (SIGO), the Italian Association of Hospital ObstetriciansGynecologists (AOGOI) and the Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases (SIMIT) have made an ad hoc consensus statement. Currently, knowledge regarding the administration of COVID-19 vaccine to the breastfeeding mother is limited. Nevertheless, as health benefits of breastfeeding are well demonstrated and since biological plausibility suggests that the health risk for the nursed infant is unlikely, Italian scientific societies conclude that COVID-19 vaccination is compatible with breastfeeding.
Assessment of midwifery care providers intrapartum care competencies, in four sub-Saharan countries: a mixed-method study protocol

AUTHOR(S)
Ann‑Beth Moller; Joanne Welsh; Mechthild M. Gross (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Reproductive Health
This study aims to assess competencies (knowledge, skills and attitudes) of midwifery care providers as well as their experiences and perceptions of in-service training in the four study countries; Benin, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda as part of the Action Leveraging Evidence to Reduce perinatal mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa project (ALERT). While today more women in low- and middle-income countries give birth in health care facilities, reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality have been less than expected. This paradox may be explained by the standard and quality of intrapartum care provision which depends on several factors such as health workforce capacity and the readiness of the health system as well as access to care.
The impact of coronavirus lockdown on oral healthcare and its associated issues of pre-schoolers in China: an online cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Chang Liu; Shuang Zhang; Chenzheng Zhang (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: BMC Oral Health
The sudden outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic infuenced people’s daily life. During lockdown of Wuhan city, the oral health and its associated issues of preschool children were investigated and guidance for dental clinics when the epidemic were controlled in the future were also provided.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: medical care, preschool children, COVID-19 response | Countries: China
School in Italy: a safe place for children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Alberto Villani; Luana Coltella; Stefania Ranno

Published: February 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
During the first SARS-CoV-2 pandemic phase, the sudden closure of schools was one of the main measures to minimize the spread of the virus. In the second phase, several safety procedures were implemented to avoid school closure. To evaluate if the school is a safe place, students and staff of two school complexes of Rome were monitored to evaluate the efficacy of prevention measures inside the school buildings.
Health anxiety and related factors among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study from Iran

AUTHOR(S)
Najmieh Saadati; Poorandokht Afshari; Hatam Boostani

Published: February 2021   Journal: BMC Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many countries around the world and Iran was no exception. The aim of this study was to evaluate health anxiety of Iranian pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Comparison of acute pneumonia caused by SARS-COV-2 and other respiratory viruses in children: a retrospective multi-center cohort study during COVID-19 outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Guang-Li Ren; Xian-Feng Wang; Jun Xu (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Military Medical Research
Until January 18, 2021, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 93 million individuals and has caused a certain degree of panic. Viral pneumonia caused by common viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus, and parainfluenza viruses have been more common in children. However, the incidence of COVID-19 in children was significantly lower than that in adults. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations, treatment and outcomes of COVID-19 in children compared with those of other sources of viral pneumonia diagnosed during the COVID-19 outbreak.
Changes in emotions and worries during the Covid-19 pandemic: an online-survey with children and adults with and without mental health conditions

AUTHOR(S)
Josefne Rothe; Judith Buse; Anne Uhlmann

Published: February 2021   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
The novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) has spread quickly worldwide with dramatic consequences on our daily lives. Adverse psychosocial consequences of Covid-19 might be particularly severe for children and adolescents, parents of young children and people with mental health conditions (mhc), who are more prone to the experience of psychosocial stress and who are more dependent on the access to professional psychosocial support. The present survey therefore aimed to explore perceived stress and the emotional responses of children and adolescents as well as adults with and without mhc during the social restrictions due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of adolescents: the crucial role of technology

AUTHOR(S)
Giuseppina Salzano; Stefano Passanisi; Francesco Pira

Published: February 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
The year 2020 will be remembered as the “year of the COVID-19 pandemic”. The world population had to familiarize themselves with words as swabs, personal protective equipment, pandemic. To curb the wave of the pandemic, almost all the countries imposed self-isolation and social distancing. This is a web-based survey investigating the behavioural responses during the quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 1860 youth aged 12–18 years attending lower secondary schools and upper secondary schools. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, lifestyle changes during the quarantine period, and the psychological impact of the lock-down on adolescents’ life.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.