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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Gaps in formal education in Iraq
Institution: Norwegian Refugee Council, Save the Children
Published: April 2022
The formal education system in Iraq has been significantly disrupted over the last several years as a result of conflict and displacement. Damaged infrastructure, limited investment in teachers and curriculum, ongoing waves of displacement, and nationwide Covid-19 school closures have had a detrimental impact on access to and quality of education. Learning levels in Iraq are among the lowest in the region and a lack of education is consistently the top protection risk for Iraqi children.A generation of young people now face an increasingly uncertain future in Iraq, particularly among the most vulnerable that include refugee children, displaced children, and children with disabilities.To address these gaps, the Education Consortium of Iraq (ECI) - comprising the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), Save the Children (Save), Mercy Corps (MC), and Nonviolent Peaceforce (NP) - conducted a research study to better understand the barriers in the provision of inclusive and equitable formal education. Data collection encompassed a school infrastructure assessment, 39 key informant interviews with local and international NGO and UN staff, community leaders and Ministry of Education (MoE) and Departments of Education (DoE) staff, as well as 41 focus group discussions with teachers, parents and children across Anbar, Diyala, Dohuk, Kirkuk, Ninewa, and Salah ad-Din governorates.
Learning on the margins: The evolving nature of educational vulnerability in the occupied Palestinian territory in the time of Covid-19

AUTHOR(S)
Ritesh Shah; Anran Zhao

Institution: Norwegian Refugee Council, University of Aukland
Published: April 2021

Covid-19 has been a significant shock on the education system and Palestinian society more broadly. The severity and prevalence of Covid-19 in the West Bank and Gaza has varied since the coronavirus was first detected in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) in early March 2020, as has the nature of the response from Palestinian government and educational service providers. The study explores the differential impacts Covid-19 has on various sub-groups of students, based on age, gender, location, and vulnerability status of the school and wider community, using existing data collected through NRC’s flagship psychosocial support and social emotional learning programme (PSS/SEL), known as the Better Learning Programme (BLP). The study compares 2019 and 2020 data, collected as part of the BLP's implementation in Palestinian Ministry of Education schools in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and Gaza Strip. The analysis also compares results between the most vulnerable and less vulnerable schools in Gaza and the West Bank.


Working children in crisis-hit Lebanon: exploring the linkages between food insecurity and child labour
Food insecurity has increased significantly in Lebanon during the past year; nearly 97% of the Syrian refugees on Lebanese soil are marginally or completely food insecure. Food basednegative coping mechanisms have also increased and infant and young child feeding practices have deteriorated. Food is the main expenditure for the most vulnerable households. According to the last available figure on this topic (2016), at least 100,000 children were working in Lebanon and this trend is expected increase. The objective of this report is to draw attention to the linkage between food insecurity and child labour, and its recent evolution in Lebanon. ACF and IRC developed questionnaires and interviewed 648 individuals between July and September 2020 in the Bekaa, Beirut, North and South Lebanon. The interviewees were mostly Syrian refugees but also Lebanese individuals and working children were included. The survey findings were complemented by existing research findings from NRC and CAMEALEON and data from the Lebanon Protection Consortium (LPC).
The great disconnect: how remote learning in Iraq is leaving the most vulnerable further behind editorial
Institution: Norwegian Refugee Council
Published: October 2020
Seven months after schools shut down due to Covid-19, re-opening dates in Iraq remain unclear and classes limited to certain grades. Millions of children are expected to start the new academic year exclusively through distance-learning programs, at least for the upcoming semester and with a few exceptions1 . Just as last year, many displacement-affected children and their families may find themselves struggling with self-learning and unable to access online platforms while also having to cope with the practical burden and psychosocial toll of homeschooling within the precarious context of displacement in and out of camps. An assessment conducted by Mercy Hands over the Spring found that 83% of the 6,305 children surveyed in camps for internally displaced Iraqis did not receive any type of schooling in April.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.