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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The effect of educational intervention based on the self-efficacy theory of high school students in adopting preventive behaviors of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Zahra Rezaie; Vahid Kohpeima Jahromi; Vahid Rahmanian (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a major problem for education systems. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of educational intervention based on the self-efficacy theory of high-school students in adopting preventive behaviors of COVID-19. This quasi-experimental study was performed on Hazrat Zahra and Shahed high-school students in Jahrom (southern Iran) in 2021. In total, 160 students (80 each in the intervention group and the control group) were selected by multistage random sampling. Data collection tools included a demographic information questionnaire and self-efficacy in adopting preventive behaviors from COVID-19 researcher-made questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed by all participants before and 3 months after the educational intervention. The educational intervention was performed for 6 weeks by using an educational program based on Bandura self-efficacy theory. The intervention was performed during 12 sessions of face-to-face training in the classroom (two 1-h sessions per week), distributing educational packages and sending educational videos through cyberspace. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t test, paired t test, and linear regression.
Parental decision-making on summer program enrollment: a mixed methods Covid-19 impact study

AUTHOR(S)
Roddrick Dugger; Layton Reesor-Oyer; Michael W. Beets (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Evaluation and Program Planning

The closure of childcare organizations (e.g. schools, childcare centers, afterschool programs, summer camps) during the Covid-19 pandemic impacted the health and wellbeing of families. Despite their reopening, parents may be reluctant to enroll their children in summer programming. Knowledge of the beliefs that underlie parental concerns will inform best practices for organizations that serve children. Parents (n = 17) participated in qualitative interviews (October 2020) to discuss Covid-19 risk perceptions and summer program enrollment intentions. Based on interview responses to perceived Covid-19 risk, two groups emerged for analysis- “Elevated Risk (ER)” and “Conditional Risk (CR)”. Themes were identified utilizing independent coding and constant-comparison analysis. Follow-up interviews (n = 12) in the Spring of 2021 evaluated the impact of vaccine availability on parent risk perceptions. Additionally, parents (n = 17) completed the Covid-19 Impact survey to assess perceived exposure (Range: 0–25) and household impact (Range: 2–60) of the pandemic. Scores were summed and averaged for the sample and by risk classification group.

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on educational, psychosocial and behavioral aspects of children: a cross sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Ramya Pandi; Aradhya Korapati; Kanta Kumari (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics

The outbreak of COVID-19 appeared first in China and then, rapidly, spread to the rest of the world, and WHO declared it as a pandemic.A nation-wide closure of educational institutions was implemented as an emergency measure in India in March 2020. Meanwhile the traditional classroom instructions were replaced by online classes and home-based learning. Pandemic stressors such as boredom, being in isolation, one of the family members hospitalized/ succumbed to covid, etc, may have even more negative impact on children’s behaviour and emotions. Objectives were to study the impact of covid 19 pandemic on psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional survey conducted among the parents attending paediatric OPD in NRI general and superspeciality hospital, Mangalagiri, between September 2021 to December 2021 over a period of 70 day along with their children of age group between 3 years to 18 years with an aim to explore various psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children and their correlation.

Pandemic, a catalyst for change: Strategic planning for digital education in English secondary schools, before during and post Covid

AUTHOR(S)
Jacqueline Baxter; Alan Floyd; Katharine Jewitt

Published: December 2022   Journal: British Educational Research Journal
Following lockdowns in 2020 owing to Covid-19, schools needed to find a way to ensure the education of their pupils. In order to do this, they engaged in digital learning, to varying extents. Innovations emanated from all school staff including, for example, teachers, leaders and teaching assistants. Some were already innovating in this area and brought forward and implemented digital strategies, while others engaged with digital learning for the first time. While research is emerging about the effects of the pandemic restrictions on pupils and staff in relation to key issues such as mental health and educational attainment, very little is known about the impact on school leaders' strategic planning processes. To address this gap, this paper draws on a UK Research and Innovation funded study adopting a strategy as learning approach to report on 50 qualitative interviews with school leaders to examine digital strategy in English secondary schools, before, during and after July 2021, when restrictions were lifted in England. It draws on strategy as learning literature to evaluate if schools have changed their strategic planning for digital learning, as a direct response to having learned and innovated during the pandemic.
How parental internet use impacted parenting practices and children's behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Demetris Hadjicharalambous; Loucia Demetriou; Elena Michael–Hadjikyriakou

Published: December 2022   Journal: British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies

This survey aimed to investigate how online parental behavior affects their parenting practices and how such practices may affect their family relations, their children’s social competencies, school achievements, and self–esteem. It examined a sample of 357 Greek-speaking parents (77.3% mothers and 22.7% fathers). It applied Young's (1998) Internet Addiction Questionnaire, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), and Kontopoulou's (2008) questionnaire to assess children's school performance and social competencies, their self-esteem, and family relationships.

Development and validation of Health Belief Model based instrument to assess secondary school student's adherence to COVID-19 self-protective practices in Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Kasahun Girma Tareke; Genzebie Tesfaye; Zewdie Birhanu Koricha

Published: December 2022   Journal: Plos One

The study aimed in developing and validating a Health Belief Model (HBM) based instrument used for cross-sectional studies among secondary school students in Jimma town, Oromia, Ethiopia. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 25 to June 10, 2021. The sample size was 634, and students were randomly selected from public and private secondary schools. The 81 items were developed reviewing different literatures based on the constructs of HBM. The constructs were perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, self-efficacy, cues to action, perceived school support and self-protective practice. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were cleaned, entered into and analyzed using SPSS 23.0. A principal axis factoring with varimax rotation was carried out to extract items. Items with no loading factor or cross-loaded items were deleted. Items having factor loading coefficient of ≥0.4 were retained. An internal reliability was ensured at Cronbach’s alpha >0.70. All items with corrected item-total correlation coefficient below 0.30 were deleted from reliability analysis.

School nursing: New ways of working with children and young people during the Covid‐19 pandemic: a scoping review

AUTHOR(S)
Georgia Cook; Jane V. Appleton; Sarah Bekaert (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Advanced Nursing

This paper aimed to examine how school nurse practice evolved as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. A scoping review of international literature, conducted and reported in line with Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) framework. Searches were conducted in September 2021. Ten databases were searched: The British Nursing Database, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Consumer Health Database, Health and Medicine, Nursing and Allied Health, Public Health, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science. Relevant grey literature was identified through hand searching.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 79 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 471-501 | Language: English | Topics: Education, Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, lockdown, nurses, schools, social distance
The effect of school bullying on pupils' perceived stress and wellbeing during the Covid-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth J. Kirkham; C. F. Huggins; C. Fawns-Ritchie

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
Establishing how the Covid-19 pandemic and related lockdowns have affected adolescent mental health is a key societal priority. Though numerous studies have examined this topic, few have focused on the wellbeing of pupils who experience school bullying. This is particularly important as pupils who experience bullying represent a vulnerable group at increased risk of mental illness. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the relationship between experience of bullying and adolescent wellbeing during lockdown and subsequent re-opening of schools. It used the TeenCovidLife dataset to examine the relationship between experience of bullying and pupils’ perceived stress and wellbeing across three timepoints. Pupils aged 12–17 (n = 255) completed surveys during the first Covid-19 lockdown (May-July 2020), when they returned to school after the first lockdown (August-October 2020), and during the summer term of 2021 (May-June 2021).
A qualitative study about how families coped with managing their well-being, children's physical activity and education during the COVID-19 school closures in England

AUTHOR(S)
Lisa Woodland; Ava Hodson; Rebecca K. Webster (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Plos One
In 2020, schools in England closed for six months due to COVID-19, resulting in children being home-schooled. There is limited understanding about the impacts of this on children’s mental and physical health and their education. Therefore, This study explored how families coped with managing these issues during the school closures. 30 qualitative interviews with parents of children aged 18 years and under (who would usually be in school) were conducted between 16 and 21 April 2020. Three themes and eight sub-themes that impacted how families coped whilst schools were closed were identified.
Parents' competence, autonomy, and relatedness in supporting children with special educational needs in emergency remote teaching during COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Kaisa Pihlainen; Serja Turunen; Anitta Melasalmi (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: European Journal of Special Needs Education
Actions to mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as emergency remote teaching (ERT), affected the lives of school children, their parents, and schooling in spring 2020. Rapid changes in routines due to lockdown and ERT were challenging, especially for many children with special needs (SEN). This article focuses on parents’ perspectives regarding their basic psychological needs, i.e. competence, autonomy, and relatedness, in relation to the schooling of their children with SEN. Questionnaire data consisted of the views of 120 parents who described 179 resources and 151 challenges concerning their basic psychological needs during ERT of their children. Data were analysed following the principles of theoretical categorising.
Visualizing mental health through the lens of Pittsburgh youth: a collaborative filmmaking study during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sara E. Baumann; Brayden N. Kameg; Jessica G. Burke (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Health Promotion Practice
Youth mental health has been significantly impacted by COVID-19, with concerns of rising anxiety-related and depressive symptoms and reduced quality of life. This study provides a nuanced understanding of mental health stressors and supports in the lives of youth during the pandemic. Using Collaborative Filmmaking, an embodied, visual, and participatory research method, participants in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, were trained to create, analyze, and screen films about mental health. The films elucidated numerous stressors impacting youth mental health, including educational stressors (e.g., academic pressure and relationships with teachers), personal and social stressors (e.g., social and cultural expectations), and current events (e.g., the election and the political system). Supports included individual level supports (e.g., hobbies, self-care, spending time outdoors), and interpersonal level supports (e.g., family and socializing). Several themes were discussed as both stressors and supports, such as family, COVID-19, and social media.
A critical review on integration of virtual labs to enhance access to stem education for girls during and post Covid-19

AUTHOR(S)
Amos Omamo; Sarah Wandili; Stephen Mutua (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: African Journal of Science, Technology and Social Sciences,
Practical activities are extremely important in teaching sciences as they aid the students in comprehending scientific concepts through participatory learning. However, most Kenyan public schools lack well equipped laboratories. Additionally, the diminishing resources resulting from post-COVID effects offer no beam of hope. Disruption from COVID also poses critical challenges of handling physical devices in times of such pandemics. To address this, the Integration of Virtual Labs to Enhance STEM Education for Girls (IVLESTEG) project was conceptualized to enhance girl’s access to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematic (STEM) subjects in Kenyan secondary schools. The aim of this research study was to critically appraise the current technology models in relation  to girls’ access to STEM education with the overall objective of exploring the potential of e-learning in promoting participation of female students in STEM subjects in Kenya.
Screen exposure time and computer vision syndrome in school-age children during COVID-19 era: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Nandita Chaturvedi; Pooja Singh; Malobika Bhattacharya

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research
With the advent of COVID-19 era, teaching activities have migrated from offline to online platform. This study aimed to assess whether the increased exposure to visual display terminal (VDT) devices is affecting the health of school-age children with regard to computer vision syndrome (CVS). This cross-sectional study was carried out by means of an online questionnaire. Participants were students ranging from Class 1 to Class 12. Questions were posed to participants pertaining to screen exposure time, physical activity levels, dry eye symptoms, and asthenopia symptoms. The dry eye part was adapted from the 5 Item Dry Eye Questionnaire (DEQ5 questionnaire), and the asthenopia part was adapted from the questionnaire developed by Ames et al. A total of 554 students were included in the study. The data received were statistically analyzed.
Experiences of parents and teachers with virtual classrooms during the COVID-19 restrictions: a study focusing on inclusive education in Malaysia

AUTHOR(S)
Chu Yun Phua; Kah Heng Chua; Way Kiat Bong

Published: December 2022   Journal: Education Sciences
The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in emergency remote teaching in many countries. In Malaysia, not all households were prepared for remote teaching. This has caused some groups of students to be left out. Therefore, in this study we aim to investigate the experiences of parents and teachers concerning inclusiveness of the education delivered via virtual classrooms during the pandemic time in Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed online to gather feedback from parents, teachers and anyone having both roles. 379 respondents completed the questionnaire.
Barriers and facilitators to comprehensive, school-based physical activity promotion for adolescents prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Ashleigh M. Johnson; Pooja S. Tandon; Kiana R. Hafferty (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Health Education Research
This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to comprehensive, school-based physical activity (PA) promotion among adolescents prior to and during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, considering the perspectives of students, parents, and school staff. Data were collected from 2020 to 2021 using semi-structured individual interviews with students (n = 15), parents (n = 20), and school staff (n = 8) at a Title I middle school (i.e. high percentage of students from low-income families). Two theoretical frameworks guided analysis: the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program framework and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory. Using an iteratively developed codebook, data were coded, thematically analyzed, and synthesized. PA barriers and facilitators were present throughout the school day, at home, and in the community. Key determinants included pandemic-induced challenges (e.g. COVID-19 exposure); neighborhood characteristics/weather (e.g. neighborhood safety); school–family communication/collaboration; implementation climate (i.e. school staff’s support for programming); time, spatial, and monetary resources (e.g. funding); staffing capacity/continuity and school champions; staffing creativity and adaptability; PA opportunities before, during, and after school; and child’s motivation/engagement.
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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.