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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 474
Leukaemia and lockdown: The delayed infection model of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Katy Lillie

Published: July 2021   Journal: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukaemia diagnosed in children. The prevailing hypothesis regarding pathogenesis of childhood ALL was developed by Greaves, and states that ALL is caused by an abnormal immune response to a common infection. The response arises either due to naivety of the immune system caused by a lack of common childhood infections, or genetic susceptibility due to specific alleles. The former explanation is known as the delayed infection hypothesis. COVID-19 is a new infection that no children in the UK were exposed to prior to 2020. Furthermore, the lockdown measures designed to prevent spread of this virus have also greatly reduced spread of other common infections. It is therefore important to examine the evidence for this hypothesis, and to consider it in the context of the pandemic to determine what effect lockdown measures may have on incidence of ALL in children.
SARS-CoV-2 antibodies started to decline just four months after COVID-19 infection in a paediatric population

AUTHOR(S)
Adin Breuer; Allon Raphael; Hagay Stern (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

This study evaluated the prevalence of paediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections using antibody testing and characterised antibody titres by time from exposure. This was a single-centre, prospective, cross-sectional cohort study. Patients under 18 years old were eligible to participate if they attended the paediatric emergency department at the tertiary Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel, from 18 October 2020 to 12 January 2021 and required blood tests or intravenous access. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and antibody levels were tested by a dual-assay model.

Impact of nonpharmacological COVID-19 interventions in hospitalizations for childhood pneumonia in Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Frederico Friedrich; Laura de Castro e Garcia; Lucas Montiel Petry (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

The knowledge about the impact of the nonpharmacological measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic can give insight into ways in which they can also be applied for other respiratory diseases. To assess the impact of containment measures of the COVID-19 pandemic on pneumonia hospitalizations in children from 0 to 14 years of age in Brazil. Data from hospital admissions for pneumonia were obtained from the Department of Informatics of Brazilian Public Health System database in the period of 2015–2020 and analyzed by macroregions and age groups. To evaluate the effect of containment measures, on the incidence of pneumonia, the absolute reduction and relative reduction were calculated by analyzing the subsets 2015-2019 vs. 2020.

Maternal outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19 severity among pregnant women

AUTHOR(S)
Manon Vouga; Guillaume Favre; Oscar Martinez‑Perez (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
Pregnant women may be at higher risk of severe complications associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may lead to obstetrical complications. We performed a case control study comparing pregnant women with severe coronavirus disease 19 (cases) to pregnant women with a milder form (controls) enrolled in the COVI-Preg international registry cohort between March 24 and July 26, 2020. Risk factors for severity, obstetrical and immediate neonatal outcomes were assessed. A total of 926 pregnant women with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 were included, among which 92 (9.9%) presented with severe COVID-19 disease. Risk factors for severe maternal outcomes were pulmonary comorbidities [aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.9–9.5], hypertensive disorders [aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0–7.0] and diabetes [aOR2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.5].
Children’s role in the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review of early surveillance data on susceptibility, severity, and transmissibility

AUTHOR(S)
KatyA. M. Gaythorpe; Sangeeta Bhatia; Tara Mangal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in all age groups including infants, children, and adolescents. However, the role of children in the COVID-19 pandemic is still uncertain. This systematic review of early studies synthesises evidence on the susceptibility of children to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the severity and clinical outcomes in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 by children in the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Reviewers extracted data from relevant, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 4th 2020 during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak using a standardised form and assessed quality using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.
Glycemic control among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt: a pilot study

AUTHOR(S)
Yasmine Ibrahim Elhenawy; Khadiga Yehia Eltonbary

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries

The COVID-19 pandemic and the consequences of lockdown significantly impacted glycemic control. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the pandemic and lockdown on glycemic control among Egyptian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Cross-sectional study conducted through an online questionnaire. The participants were patients with type 1 diabetes and/or their caregivers

Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and lifestyle changes in children and adolescents with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

AUTHOR(S)
Hooi Peng Cheng; Jeanne Sze Lyn Wong; Nalini M. Selveindran (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Endocrine

Malaysia implemented nationwide lockdown from 18th March till 3rd May 2020 to mitigate the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine the impact of the lockdown on glycaemic control and lifestyle changes in children and adolescents with type 1 (T1DM) and 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aged less than 18 years old. In this cross-sectional study, interviews and a standardised questionnaire comparing lifestyle changes before and during the lockdown were performed in follow-up clinic visits after the lockdown. Anthropometry measurements and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values were compared 3 months prior and after the lockdown.

The influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on development and health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA: a review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Claypool; Arelis Moore de Peralta

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
The purpose of this review is to synthesize existing literature to analyze the influence of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on child development and lifelong health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA, utilizing the ACE framework. Without adequate protective factors, children’s early experiences with adversity and toxic stress have implications for their physiological, psychological, and social health. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown to exacerbate childhood adversity and toxic stress and has disproportionately harmed Latinx communities. In applying the ACE framework to US-Latinx populations, relevant findings concerning a potential failure of ACEs to accurately capture Latinx experiences of adversity were highlighted, as well as the need to classify the COVID-19 pandemic as an ACE. Research suggest that first-generation Latinx immigrants report lower-than-average rates of ACEs despite the various disparities ethnic minorities face in the USA.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and racial disparities in children: protective mechanisms and severe complications related to MIS-C

AUTHOR(S)
Sanjana Kurup; Regan Burgess; Fatou Tine (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
A novel coronavirus has resulted in a pandemic with over 176 million confirmed cases and over 3.8 million recorded deaths. In the USA, SARS-CoV-2 infection has a significant burden on minority communities, especially Hispanic and Black communities, which are overrepresented in cases compared to their percentage in the population. SARS-CoV-2 infection can manifest differently in children and adults, with children tending to have less severe disease. A review of current literature was performed to identify the hypothesized protective immune mechanisms in children, and to describe the rare complication of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) that has been documented in children post-SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 testing in children during a low prevalence period (VIGIL study 1)

AUTHOR(S)
Eleonore Eskander; Camille Jung; Corinne Levy (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Infectious Diseases Now

SARS-CoV-2 induces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, which overlap with other viral infections very common in children. This study aimed to describe the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests in symptomatic and asymptomatic ambulatory children and to determine the predictive factors for positivity. From June 1 to July 31, 2020,  a cross-sectional prospective, multicenter study (13 hospital emergency units and 59 ambulatory pediatricians) was conducted throughout France. Children under 15 years of age with a prescription of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test were enrolled.

Presentation of a participatory approach to develop preventive measures to reduce COVID-19 transmission in child care

AUTHOR(S)
Mathias Diebig; Susan Gritzka; Nico Dragano (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology volume
It can be suspected that work in child care facilities is associated with an elevated exposure risk towards SARS-CoV-2 infections. It is still unclear under which conditions employees in those facilities can safely pursue their work. Preventive workplace-related measures to reduce transmission dynamics in this work environment need to be developed. These measures need to build on a solid scientific foundation and be ready for practical use at the same time. Therefore, the aim of the study is to present a participatory approach to identify, minimize, and eliminate workplace-specific COVID-19 transmission within child care. The approach presented combines quantitative as well as qualitative elements and includes a screening of critical workplace conditions and the development of preventive measures to foster a safe workplace design.
Predictive value of cardiac markers in the prognosis of COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Ufuk Utku Güllü; Şükrü Güngör; Sevcan İpek

Published: July 2021   Journal: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Occasionally, children with COVID-19 may develop arrhythmia, myocarditis, and cardiogenic shock involving multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study aimed to identify the laboratory parameters that may predict early cardiovascular involvement in these patients.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 43 | No. of pages: 307-311 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, Heart diseases, infectious disease
COVID-19 in children: where do we stand?

AUTHOR(S)
Georgia B. Nikolopoulou; Helena C. Maltezou

Published: July 2021   Journal: Archives of Medical Research
From the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic it became evident that children infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain mostly asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. This study reviewed the epidemiologic and clinical features of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The true prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is most likely underestimated, as asymptomatic children are less frequently tested. Serologic surveys indicate that half of children tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 report no symptoms. Anosmia/ageusia is not frequent in children but it is the strongest predictor of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In general, children with COVID-19 are at lower risk of hospitalization and life-threatening complications. Nevertheless, cases of severe disease or a post-infectious multisystem hyperinflammatory syndrome named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been described. Rarely children with severe COVID-19 develop neurologic complications.
Factors associated with preventive behaviors for COVID-19 among adolescents in South Korea

AUTHOR(S)
Sunhee Park; Sumi Oh

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
COVID-19's infection rate among adolescents is increasing; hence, it is important to prevent it as it can spread in the community through transmission in schools. It is crucial to determine the extent to which adolescents follow COVID-19 preventive measures and identify factors relating to such behaviors to implement more effective health education. This study aimed to understand factors related to COVID-19 preventive behaviors using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) among adolescents in South Korea.
Healthcare professionals’ experiences of the barriers and facilitators to paediatric pain management in the community at end-of-life: a qualitative interview study

AUTHOR(S)
Katie Greenfield; Bernie Carter; Emily Harrop (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management

Inadequate pain management in community paediatric palliative care is common. Evidence to inform improved pain management in this population is limited. To explore the barriers and facilitators to paediatric community-based pain management for infants, children and young people at end-of-life as perceived by healthcare professionals.

1 - 15 of 474

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.