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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 659
Early experience of COVID-19 vaccine-related adverse events among adolescents and young adults with rheumatic diseases: a single-center study

Fatih Haslak; Aybuke Gunalp; Memnune Nur Cebi (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases

Considering the concerns regarding the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccine safety among pediatric patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) due to a lack of data, an urgent need for studies evaluating safety profiles of vaccines emerged. Among participants vaccinated by CoronaVac inactive SARS-CoV-2 or BNT162b2 messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine, healthy children under 18 and patients under 21 with an at least 1-year follow-up period in our department for a childhood-onset rheumatic disease were included into this cross-sectional study.

Scaling the children immunization app (CIMA) to support child refugees and parents in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic: a social capital approach to scale a smartphone application in Zaatari Camp, Jordan

Yousef S. Khader; Wadih Maalouf; Mohammad Abu Khdair (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Children vaccination is a key intervention for their survival, especially among refugees. Yet, children vaccination registration is done manually in refugees camps and there is no possibility to send reminders to parents to come back on time. This study aimed to boost the parental registration of children’s vaccination records on a Children Immunization app (CIMA) while also availing the parents with useful parenting skills under COVID-19-related stress. It incorporated United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Parenting Skills under COVID-19 information material, through CIMA in Arabic and English languages. 1100 children were recruited in February–March 2021, through a community health promotion dissemination approach. A team of two nurses from the local population and two volunteers (one trained nurse and one trained social worker), from the camp, was formed. They promoted the CIMA app at two clinics and through households visits in Zaatari refugee camp. Qualitative data on impressions and observations of the interactions with the Zaatari camp community were also collected.

The thoughts of parents to vaccinate their children against COVID-19: an assessment of situations that may affect them

Melike Y. Çelik

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing

This study examined what affects parents' thoughts about vaccinating their children. It explored whether parents' attitudes towards the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and their perception of control of COVID-19 were related to their thoughts about vaccinating their children. The sample of this descriptive study consisted of parents (n = 274) with children between the ages of 0–12. To collect data on parents’ thoughts and opinions participants completed the Attitudes Towards COVID-19 Vaccine Scale and the Perception of Control of COVID-19 Scale.

Parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza after the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective cross-sectional survey

Emad Salawati; Hassan Alwafi; Mohammed Samannodi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Patient Preference and Adherence
This paper aims to explore the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on caregivers’ willingness to vaccinate their children against influenza in 2021 in Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing this decision. An online survey of 2501 caregivers in Saudi Arabia with children aged 6 months– 18 years was conducted between July 15, 2021, and August 2, 2021. A convenience sample of participants that met the inclusion criteria was used as the study sample. Social Science Package Statistical (SPSS) was used for the statistical analysis. Categorical variables were reported as frequencies and percentages. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables to assess the difference between the variables and the parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza after the COVID-19 pandemic.
Stress, dependence, and COVID-19–related changes in past 30-day marijuana, electronic cigarette, and cigarette use among youth and young adults

Stephanie L. Clendennen; Kathleen R. Case; Aslesha Sumbe (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Tobacco Use Insights

Studies show smoking and vaping behaviors increase risk of contracting and worse symptoms of COVID-19. This study examines whether past 30-day youth and young adult users of marijuana, e-cigarettes, and cigarettes self-reported changes in their use of these substances due to the COVID-19 pandemic; and cross-sectional associations between perceived stress, nicotine or marijuana dependence, and COVID-19–related changes in use. Participants were 709 past 30-day self-reported substance users from the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance study (TATAMS; mean age = 19; 58% female; 38% Hispanic, 35% white). Multiple logistic regression models assessed cross-sectional associations between perceived stress and dependence and increased, decreased, or sustained past 30-day use of marijuana, e-cigarettes, and cigarettes due to COVID-19 (e.g., “Has your marijuana use changed due to the COVID-19 outbreak?”). Covariates included age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES), dependence (exposure: stress), and stress (exposure: dependence).

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children and young people in households and schools: a meta-analysis of population-based and contact-tracing studies

Russell Viner; Claire Waddington; Oliver Mytton (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection
The role of children and young people (CYP) in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in household and educational settings remains unclear. This study undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of contact-tracing and population-based studies at low risk of bias. It searched 4 electronic databases on 28 July 2021 for contact-tracing studies and population-based studies informative about transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from 0-19 year olds in household or educational settings. It excluded studies at high risk of bias, including from under-ascertainment of asymptomatic infections. It undertook multilevel random effects meta-analyses of secondary attack rates (SAR: contact-tracing studies) and school infection prevalence, and used meta-regression to examine the impact of community SARS-CoV-2 incidence on school infection prevalence.
Students’ age and parental level of education influence COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy

Anna Zychlinsky Scharff; Mira Paulsen; Paula Schaefer (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Widespread vaccination in pursuit of herd immunity has been recognized as the most promising approach to ending the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The vaccination of children and adolescents has been extensively debated and the first COVID-19 vaccine is now approved in European countries for children aged > 12 years of age. This study investigates vaccination hesitancy in a cohort of German secondary school students. It assessed 903 students between age 9 and 20 in the period between 17 May 2021 and 30 June 2021. 68.3% (n = 617) reported intention to undergo COVID-19 vaccination, while 7% (n = 62) did not want to receive the vaccine and 15% (n = 135) were not yet certain. Age and parental level of education influenced COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Children under the age of 16 as well as students whose parents had lower education levels showed significantly higher vaccine hesitancy.
Decreased risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in children and adolescents during the Delta variant emergence

Efrén Murillo-Zamora; Xóchitl Trujillo; Miguel Huerta (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Public Health

This study aims to evaluate factors associated with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in children (<10 years old) and adolescents (10 - 19 years old) before (March 2020 - April 2021) and during (May - July 2021) the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant emergence. A retrospective and nationwide cohort study was conducted in Mexico. Data from 26,961 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (IC) were used to evaluate the association of the evaluated exposures with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia.

COVID-19 and routine childhood and adolescent immunizations: evidence from Louisiana medicaid

Brigham Walker; Andrew Anderson; Charles Stoecker (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Vaccine
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted routine vaccinations for children and adolescents. However, it remains unclear whether the impact has been different for children and adolescents from low-income families. To address this, this study compared monthly routine vaccination use per 1,000 vaccine-eligible children and adolescents enrolled in Louisiana Medicaid in the years before (2017-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). Compared to the 2017-2019 average vaccination rates, it found a 28% reduction in measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), a 35% reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV), and a 30% reduction in tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap) vaccinations in 2020. Vaccine uptake was lower in April 2020 after the declaration of a state of emergency and in late summer when back-to-school vaccinations ordinarily occur.
Characteristics, contacts, and relative risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children during school closures

Jun Yi Sim; Ping-Sheng Wu; Ching-Feng Cheng (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection

Characteristics of children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Taiwanese households is nascent. This study sought to characterize SARS-CoV-2 infection, and estimate the relative risk of infection among children within households during school closures in Taipei and New Taipei City. It reviewed consecutive children below 18 years presenting to our emergency department from May 18, 2021 to July 12, 2021 who underwent real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory swabs. Demographics, symptoms, and contacts were captured from medical records. Household contact was defined as an individual with confirmed COVID-19 living in the same residence as the child.

Levels of uncertainty, fear and satisfaction with health professionals: experiences of parents whose children are hospitalized for COVID-19

Meryem Türkan Isik; Rana Can Özdemır; Elif Karadeniz (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
This study tried to determine the fear and tolerance of uncertainty levels of the parents of children hospitalized with COVID-19, and their satisfaction with the health care received during this time. Data were collected from 130 literate parents. A significant difference was found between the mean scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12) and the age of the parents and the presence of COVID-19 in other family members and the IUS-12. Also, a significant correlation was found between parents’ fear of COVID-19 and IUS-12 scores. Parents had good levels of satisfaction with health care received and moderate fear of COVID-19 and intolerance of uncertainty levels. As parents’ fear of COVID-19 increased, intolerance of uncertainty increased. The demographic characteristics, levels of fear of COVID-19, and intolerance of uncertainty did not affect the satisfaction levels.
Chinese parents’ intentions to vaccinate their children against SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine preferences

Yulan Lin; Zhijian Hu; Qinjian Zhao (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
This study aims to determine the intention of Chinese parents to vaccinate their children against SARS-CoV-2. Secondly, preferences for foreign- or domestically made COVID-19 vaccines were also explored. A nationwide, cross-sectional, self-administered online survey based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and new vaccine concerns was used. Participants were eligible if they were residents of China with children aged 12 years old or younger. A total of 2,026 parents responded to the survey. Half reported a probable intent (50.7%) and 26.9% reported a definite intent. The results of the data analysis of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) found that perceived cost barriers (B = −0.210, p < .001) and new vaccine concerns (B = −0.201, p < .001) had major effects in vaccination intent. Important constructs of vaccine concerns that predict vaccination intent were efficacy (B = 0.898, p < .001), followed by safety (B = 0.861, p < .001), side-effect (B = 0.806, p < .001) and faulty/fake vaccine (B = 0.579, p < .001).
Lived experiences of frontline healthcare providers offering maternal and newborn services amidst the novel corona virus disease 19 pandemic in Uganda: a qualitative study

Herbert Kayiga; Diane Achanda Genevive; Pauline Mary Amuge (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Plos One

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought many health systems in low resource settings to their knees. The pandemic has had crippling effects on the already strained health systems in provision of maternal and newborn healthcare. With the travel restrictions, social distancing associated with the containment of theCOVID-19 pandemic, healthcare providers could be faced with challenges of accessing their work stations, and risked burnout as they offered maternal and newborn services. This study sought to understand the experiences and perceptions of healthcare providers at the frontline during the first phase of the lockdown as they offered maternal and newborn health care services in both public and private health facilities in Uganda with the aim of streamlining patient care in face of the current COVID-19 pandemic and in future disasters. Between June 2020 and December 2020, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted among healthcare providers of different cadres in eight Public, Private-Not-for Profit and Private Health facilities in Kampala, Uganda. The interview guide primarily explored the lived experiences of healthcare providers as they offered maternal and newborn healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. All of the in depth interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes and subthemes were identified using both inductive thematic and phenomenological approaches.

Health care providers’ awareness of breastfeeding practice recommendations during COVID-19 pandemic and associated factors in Northwest Ethiopia, 2021: a multicenter study

Azmeraw Ambachew Kebede; Birhan Tsegaw Taye; Kindu Yinges Wondie (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Plos One

Prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission to newborns is one of the basic components of perinatal care in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. As such, scientific evidence is compulsory for evidence-based practices. However, there was a scarcity of evidence on health care providers’ awareness of breastfeeding practice recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia, particularly in the study setting. The study aimed at assessing healthcare providers’ awareness of breastfeeding practice recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated factors among healthcare providers in northwest Ethiopia, 2021.

Guardians’ willingness to vaccinate their teenagers against COVID-19 in China: a national cross-sectional survey

Jian Wu; Lipei Zhao; Meiyun Wang (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

To investigate Chinese guardians’ willingness to vaccinate teenagers (WVT) against COVID-19, this study conducted a national wide survey in 31 provinces in mainland China. It involved 16133 guardians from 31 provinces in Chinese Mainland from August 6th to 9th, 2021. The question “Are you willing to vaccinate teenagers of COVID-19 vaccine?” was designed to capture WVT. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for potential factors of WVT were estimated using multiple logistic regression models.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.