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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Mental health conditions among children and adolescents with a COVID-19 diagnosis.

AUTHOR(S)
Mir M. Ali; Alayna Schreier; Kristina D. West

Published: June 2022   Journal: Psychiatric Services
The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted a surge in mental health needs among children. However, few analyses of these needs have included children and youths of all ages, and although studies have found a heightened risk for new onset of mental health conditions after a COVID-19 diagnosis among adults, none has investigated the potential risk among youths. Utilizing a large nationwide claims database, this study estimated the rate of new onset of mental health conditions among children and adolescents who had received a COVID-19 diagnosis but had no recent history of mental health problems.
Recommending COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents in primary care.

AUTHOR(S)
Peyton Thompson; Lauren McCormick; Qian Huang (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Family Practice

COVID-19 vaccines are available for adolescents in the United States, but many parents are hesitant to have their children vaccinated. The advice of primary care professionals strongly influences vaccine uptake. We examined the willingness of primary care professionals (PCPs) to recommend COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents. Participants were a national sample of 1,047 US adolescent primary care professionals. They participated in an online survey in early 2021, after a COVID-19 vaccine had been approved for adults but before approval for adolescents. Respondents included physicians (71%), advanced practice providers (17%), and nurses (12%).

Covid-19 mortality in children and adolescents in Mexico

AUTHOR(S)
Dalia Stern; Eduardo Arias-de la Garza; María Teresa García-Romero (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Salud Pública de México
This study aimed to estimate Covid-19 and pre-pandemic low respiratory infection (LRI) mortality in children and adolescents in Mexico. Materials and methods. It estimated the percentage of total mortality attributable to Covid-19 (95% confidence intervals; 95%CI) and made the corresponding estimates for pre-pandemic LRI mortality.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 64 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, child mortality, COVID-19, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Mexico
Long COVID-19 in children: an Italian cohort study.

AUTHOR(S)
Gianfranco Trapani; Giuseppe Verlato; Enrico Bertino (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

Long COVID-19 syndrome is a complex of symptoms that occurs after the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, in the absence of other possible diagnoses. Studies on Long COVID-19 in pediatric population are scanty and heterogeneous in design, inclusion criteria, outcomes, and follow-up time. The objective of the present study is to assess the prevalence of Long COVID-19 syndrome in a cohort of Italian pediatric primary care patients, observed for a period of time of 8 to 36 weeks from healing. Prevalence was also assessed in a cohort of pediatric patients hospitalized during acute infection. Data concerning 629 primary care patients with previous acute SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected by a questionnaire filled in by Primary Care Pediatrician (PCP). The questionnaire was administrated to patients by 18 PCPs based in 8 different Italian regions from June to August 2021. Data concerning 60 hospitalized patients were also collected by consultation of clinical documents.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, infectious disease, pandemic, respiratory diseases | Countries: Italy
Impact of a focus education in Zoom on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Hong Kong parents of the preschoolers

AUTHOR(S)
Wilfred Hing-sang Wong; Hung-kwan So; Jaime S. Rosa Duque (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Parental vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier to achieving high vaccination uptake among children, particularly in young children during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Developing herd immunity is a critical concept for overcoming the current pandemic. The purpose of this study is to reduce parental vaccine hesitancy through a focused educational seminar in ZOOM and to empower parents who are concerned about vaccinating their children to communicate with medical experts during live seminars. Parents of preschoolers, teachers, and kindergarten principals from three local pre-school education and services associations attended live seminars. After attending seminars, parental willingness to vaccinate their children increased by 65%. The live Zoom seminar led by medical experts resulted in a decrease in vaccine hesitancy. Our findings support the creation of seminars that allow clients and medical specialists to communicate directly with one another. Offering an open and honest forum for people to express their concerns to medical experts could be a useful strategy for dealing with not only vaccination apprehension, but also other health-related emergencies.
Household and social characteristics associated with COVID-19 vaccine intent among Latino families in the San Francisco Bay Area

AUTHOR(S)
Janet M. Wojcicki; Milagro Escobar; Andrea DeCastro Mendez

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

Latinos have had higher case counts, hospitalization rates and deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic nationally and in the state of California. Meanwhile, Latino vaccination rates remain lower than those of non-Hispanic Whites. COVID-19 vaccine nonintent, defined as intent to not vaccinate against COVID-19, among Latino individuals continues to be an issue in the state of California. Families from three Latino longitudinal mother–child cohorts previously recruited in the San Francisco Bay Area were surveyed telephonically from February to June 2021 to assess attitudes towards vaccination against COVID-19 and prior vaccination, in general, for themselves and their children. Risk for vaccine nonintent was assessed using the Mann–Whitney rank sum non-parametric test for continuous predictors and chi-squared tests for categorical ones.

Debate in public versus independent secondary schools in New York City: post-COVID-19 health literacy and equal access to basic educational opportunities.

AUTHOR(S)
Erin T. Jacques; Corey H. Basch; Joseph Fera (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Community Health
Speech and debate (referred to hereafter as debate) has the potential to play an integral role in increasing the health literacy of secondary school students, yet we did not identify published studies examining the prevalence of debate programs in public and independent secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to describe the presence of debate in a probability sample of public and independent secondary schools in New York City (NYC) and explore whether there were differences in the availability of debate programs when schools were classified based on public versus independent status, school enrollment, borough location, and proportion of non-white students enrolled. The sampling frame was constructed using NYC Open Data for the public schools and the publicly available membership directory of the New York State Association of Independent Schools.
Parents' intentions and associated factors to vaccinating their children aged 12–17 years with COVID-19 vaccines: a cross sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Osama Al-Wutayd; Manal Al-Batanony; Nehad Badr (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccines
No available vaccine against COVID-19 had yet been proven for 12–17-year-olds in Egypt during the study period. This is the first study to assess Egyptian parents’ intentions and associated factors in relation to vaccinating their children with COVID-19 vaccines. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was conducted between 17 October and 17 November 2021, via social media platforms. The target group was parents with children aged 12–17 years. Parents’ intention to vaccinate their children and factors associated with vaccinating their children, reasons for not intending to vaccinate their children, and circumstances whereby the parents would change their mind were recorded. Among the 1458 parents recruited, 65.6% were planning to vaccinate their children. The main concerns were fear of the vaccine’s side-effects (68.3%) and conspiracy theories (18%). The factors associated with parents’ intention to vaccinate their children were mother’s older age (40–49 years: aOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.05–1.99; ≥50 years: aOR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.16–3.75), high family income (aOR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.41–2.79), and children with a history of chronic conditions (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.25–3.25), while higher mother’s education level was negatively associated (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.64). A comprehensive health education program regarding vaccinating children with COVID-19 vaccines is highly recommended for parents, particularly for young and highly educated mothers, to enhance children vaccination rate when the vaccine becomes available.
The mediating role of the perceived COVID-19 vaccine benefits: examining Israeli parents' perceptions regarding their adolescents' vaccination

AUTHOR(S)
Shiran Bord; Carmit Satran; Ayelet Schor

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Israel was among the first countries to initiate adolescent COVID-19 vaccination. As adolescent vaccination requires parental consent, this study evaluated the factors associated with parents’ willingness to vaccinate their adolescents and their point of view regarding adolescents’ involvement in this decision. An online survey was completed by 581 parents of adolescents aged 16–18. The main independent variables included trust in the healthcare system, components of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and adolescents’ involvement in the decision, as well as background data, including demographics. Analysis included a multiple logistic regression and mediation examination. Parents reported that 446 adolescents (76.8%) have been or will soon be vaccinated against COVID-19, 12.2% chose not to vaccinate their child and 11% have not yet decided. Vaccination was significantly associated with HBM components and with adolescents’ involvement in the decision. The perceived vaccination benefits acted as a mediator in the association between parents’ COVID-19 perceived threat and adolescent vaccination, as well as between parents’ trust in the healthcare system and adolescent vaccination. Addressing vaccination benefits and barriers is pivotal in the attempt to enhance adolescents’ vaccination adherence. Considering the importance of adolescents’ involvement in the decision, addressing them directly may also be beneficial in improving vaccination rates.
Risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization in school-age children

AUTHOR(S)
Liam O’Neill; Neale R. Chumbler

Published: June 2022   Journal: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology

With the recent emergence of the Omicron variant, there has been a rapid and alarming increase in the number of COVID-19 cases among pediatric populations. Yet few US pediatric cohort studies have characterized the clinical features of children with severe COVID-19. The objective of this study was to identify those chronic comorbidities that increase the risk of hospitalization for pediatric populations with severe COVID-19. A retrospective cohort study that utilized the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data file was conducted. The study included 1187 patients (ages 5 to 19) from 164 acute-care Texas hospitals with the primary or secondary ICD-10CM diagnosis code U07.1 (COVID-19, virus identified). The baseline comparison group included 38 838 pediatric patients who were hospitalized in 2020. Multivariable binary logistic regression, controlling for patient characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and health insurance, was used to estimate the adjusted risk of hospitalization for COVID-19.

Covid-19 vaccine in prison: a not-to-be-missed opportunity to promote access to vaccination in adolescents.

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Mazzilli; Babak Moazen; Heino Stover (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMJ
Covid-19 vaccination campaigns for adolescents have been taking place in many countries for some months. The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunisation have called for vaccine prioritisation within countries to take into account the needs of those groups that, due to underlying social, ethnic, geographic, or biomedical factors, are at greater risk of getting infected or suffering most severe consequences from covid-19. Since the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considerably higher in prisons and detention facilities than elsewhere, adolescents who are detained in juvenile institutions should be prioritised for vaccination.
Experiences with antenatal care, breastfeeding education, and employment during the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectives from mothers and healthcare workers in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Scott Ickes; Hellen Lemein; Kelly Arensen (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breastfeeding practices in low and middle-income countries is not well understood. Modifications in breastfeeding guidelines and delivery platforms for breastfeeding education are hypothesized to have affected breastfeeding practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to understand the experiences with perinatal care, breastfeeding education and practice among mothers who delivered infants during the COVID-19 pandemic. It conducted key informant interviews among 35 mothers with deliveries since March 2020 and 10 healthcare workers (HCW) from two public health facilities in Naivasha, Kenya.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: Supplement 1 | No. of pages: 1 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: breastfeeding, COVID-19, infectious disease, maternal and child health, pandemic, pregnancy, pregnant women | Countries: Kenya
Incidence and clinical phenotype of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant by vaccination status: a Danish nationwide prospective cohort study.

AUTHOR(S)
Ulrikka Nygaard; Mette Holm; Ulla Birgitte Hartling (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its incidence is likely to depend on multiple factors, including the variant of the preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine effectiveness. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of MIS-C, and describe the clinical phenotype, following the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.2 and sublineages) according to vaccination status. It aimed to compare the incidence and clinical phenotype of MIS-C from our cohort during the pre-delta era. This prospective, population-based cohort study included patients aged 0–17 years hospitalised with MIS-C in Denmark, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition, from Aug 1, 2021, to Feb 1, 2022, a period dominated by the delta variant. It identified MIS-C cases via a nationwide research collaboration involving real-time data collection from all 18 paediatric departments. Aggregated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections by vaccination status was obtained from the Danish COVID-19 surveillance registries. The incidence of MIS-C was calculated using the estimated number of infected individuals by vaccination status
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 459-465 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Denmark
Towards prevention of COVID‐19 among children in Ghana: parents’ views about children wearing nose masks in public gatherings

AUTHOR(S)
Fred Yao Gbagbo; Rosemary Quarcoo

Published: June 2022   Journal: Public Health in Practice

The authors examined parents’ views about children nose-masking in public gatherings in Ghana between January and May 2021. This is exploratory sequential mixed methods study comprising qualitative and quantitative components. Four hundred and thirty-nine parents were interviewed using author-developed structured questionnaires and interview guides in a public University in Ghana. Ten respondents in the company of at least three children and of high academic status were further interviewed in-depth to obtain some qualitative information on the research topic. All interviews were conducted in English. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 whiles qualitative data were analyzed thematically.

Parents' and caregivers' role toward childhood vaccination in Albania: assessment of predictors of vaccine hesitancy.

AUTHOR(S)
E. Gjini; S. Moramarco; M. C. Carestia (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunità

Vaccination has saved millions of lives through the protection of individuals and populations from communicable diseases. Vaccine hesitancy, defined as the delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite the availability of vaccination services, has become a growing global concern. The objective of this study was to investigate parents'/caregivers' hesitancy toward childhood vaccination and its predictors in Albania. The data comes from a survey conducted on a sample of parents/caregivers (89.6% mothers) of children aged 6 months to 8 years at health care vaccination centers in seven Albanian cities from December 2020 to February 2021. Parents/caregivers (one per child) were interviewed by trained healthcare staff using a standardized questionnaire on six main content domains, including immunization behavior, beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy, attitudes about vaccines, vaccination confidence, estimation of vaccine delay, and the intention to immunize children against SARS-CoV-2, and a self-reported hesitancy.

1 - 15 of 863

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.