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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 575
A critical assessment of the potential vertical transmission hypotheses: Implications for research on the early-life infection with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Mengqin Yang; Qiuqin Wang; Yulei Song (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Placenta
The risk of potential vertical transmission in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women is currently a topic of debate. To explore the correlation between the two, this study searched PubMed, Embase®, and Web of Science for studies on vertical transmission of COVID-19. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Detailed information of each included case including methods of delivery, protection measures for mothers and neonates at birth, types of specimens, inspection time, results of testing and feeding patterns was collected to assess the possibility of vertical transmission.
Early exploration of COVID-19 vaccination safety and effectiveness during pregnancy: interim descriptive data from a prospective observational study

AUTHOR(S)
Inna Bleicher; Einav Kadour-Peero; Lena Sagi-Dain (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vaccine
During December 2020, a massive vaccination program was introduced in our country. The Pfizer-BioNTech, BNT162b2 vaccine was first offered exclusively to high-risk population, such as medical personnel (including pregnant women). This study compares short term outcomes in vaccinated vs. non-vaccinated pregnant women. In this prospective observational cohort study, vaccinated and non-vaccinated pregnant women were recruited using an online Google forms questionnaire targeting medical groups on Facebook and WhatsApp. A second questionnaire was sent one month after the first one for interim analysis.
Adolescent consent to COVID-19 vaccination: the need for law reform

AUTHOR(S)
Robert S. Olick; Y. Tony Yang; Jana Shaw (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Public Health Reports
With the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) emergency use authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for adolescents aged 12-15 years on May 10, 2021, COVID-19 vaccination is now available to all adolescents aged 12-17 years. Moderna has also applied for emergency use authorization approval for this age group.1 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention strongly recommends vaccination of the adolescent population, which comprises approximately 25 million people in the United States. Comprehensive protection is critical to adolescent and population health and is a big step toward a return to “normal life” for young people, including in-person school. Vaccine hesitancy—the reluctance or refusal to choose vaccination—identified by the World Health Organization as a top 10 global health threat, undermines these goals. According to a June 2021 Kaiser Family Foundation COVID-19 poll, 42% of parents with adolescents aged 12-17 years said they had either already vaccinated their children or planned to vaccinate their children, 18% said they would “wait a while to see how it is working,” 25% were definitely opposed, and 10% would choose vaccination only if required for school.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on delayed/missed routine immunization in children (0-24 months) in Islamabad, Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Sabeen Abid Khan; Muhammad Imran; Rabia Tabassum (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
It is very important to understand the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunization uptake in children in Islamabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study was done from November 2020 to January 2021. Children aged 0 to 24 months were enrolled from vaccination centers in public and private sector hospitals. In the private center vaccination services were suspended from March 20 2020 till August 2020. The public center continued to provide vaccination service during the lockdown. Delayed vaccination was defined as a lapse of 4 weeks from the due date. Children who had missed vaccination due to health issue or on doctors' recommendations were excluded.
How parents share and limit their child’s access to information about COVID-19: a mixed methods online survey study

AUTHOR(S)
Marla A. Garcia de Avila; Bernie Carter; Lucy Blake (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Child Health Care
This study aimed to understand the role that parents play in sharing or limiting their child’s access to information about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A subset of data from an international mixed methods online survey study was analysed to elucidate the findings from Brazil. An online survey, conducted between April and June 2020, gathered closed and open text views from parents of children aged 7–12 years old. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative open text data were analysed using the three stages of the Bardin content analysis framework: pre-analysis (data organisation and initial full-content reading); exploration of the material (thematic coding to identify major motifs and develop thematic categories) and interpretation (treating the data as significant and valid). The sample consisted of 112 (89%) mothers and 14 (11%) fathers. The analysis of the parents open text resulted in two categories: ‘How parents share information with their children about COVID-19’ and ‘How parents limit information to their children about COVID-19’. Some parents reported adopting an honest and open approach on how they shared information with their children, whilst some parents chose to minimise their child’s access to information about the pandemic over concerns of the mortality related to COVID-19.
Preterm birth among women with and without severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection

AUTHOR(S)
Matthew J. Blitz; Rachel P. Gerber; Moti Gulersen (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

Studies directly comparing preterm birth rates in women with and without severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are limited. This study's objective was to determine whether preterm birth was affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection within a large integrated health system in New York with a universal testing protocol. This retrospective cohort study evaluated data from seven hospitals in New York City and Long Island between March 2020 and June 2021, incorporating both the first and second waves of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the USA. All patients with live singleton gestations who had SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing at delivery were included. Deliveries before 20 weeks of gestation were excluded.

Covid-19 vaccination during the third trimester of pregnancy: rate of vaccination and maternal and neonatal outcomes, a multicentre retrospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
M. Rottenstreich; HY Sela; R. Rotem (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BJOG

This study aims to evaluate the impact of Covid-19 vaccination (Pfizer–BioNTech BNT162b2) during the third trimester of pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes.Women who received two doses of the vaccine were compared with unvaccinated women. Women who were recorded as having disease or a positive Covid-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swab during pregnancy or delivery were excluded from both study groups. Univariate analysis was followed by multivariate logistic regression.

Recommendations for the urgent need to vaccinate school-aged and adolescent children against COVID-19 in the Asia–Pacific region

AUTHOR(S)
Jun Kobayashi; Rie Takeuchi; Fumiko Shibuya (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Tropical Medicine and Health
This study recommends urgent expansion of a vaccination program for adolescents and school-age children against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Western Pacific region. Since July 2021, SARS-CoV-2 infections in children have increased rapidly in this region. As infection rates rise due to the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, current preventive strategies such as mask wearing and social distancing have controlled its spread effectively. Prolonged school closure is currently being promoted to suppress virus spread among children. However, the negative impact of prolonged school closure is significant. Although vaccination of children under 12 is still controversial, preparations must be made now for their vaccination.
COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy and lactation: current research and gaps in understanding

AUTHOR(S)
Lydia L. Shook; Parisa N. Fallah; Jason N. Silberman (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Infection
The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the urgent need to develop vaccine strategies optimized for pregnant people and their newborns, as both populations are at risk of developing severe disease. Although not included in COVID-19 vaccine development trials, pregnant people have had access to these vaccines since their initial release in the US and abroad. The rapid development and distribution of novel COVID-19 vaccines to people at risk, including those who are pregnant and lactating, presents an unprecedented opportunity to further our understanding of vaccine-induced immunity in these populations. This review aims to summarize the literature to date on COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy and lactation and highlight opportunities for investigation that may inform future maternal vaccine development and implementation strategies.
The approach of pregnant women to vaccination based on a COVID-19 systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Sławomir M. Januszek; Anna Faryniak-Zuzak; Edyta Barnaś (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Medicina
Pregnant women are more likely to develop a more severe course of COVID-19 than their non-pregnant peers. There are many arguments for the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnant women. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review concerning the approach of pregnant women towards vaccination against COVID-19, with particular regard to determinants of vaccination acceptance.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 57 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, pregnancy, pregnant women, vaccination, vaccination policies
Prevalence and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with and without symptoms seeking care in Managua, Nicaragua: results of a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Jorge A. Huete-Pérez; Kacey C. Ernst; Cristiana Cabezas-Robelo (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aimed to capture key epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nicaraguan children (≤18 years) seeking medical care, between 6 October and 16 November 2020. In this cross-sectional study, 418 children were recruited: 319 with symptoms characteristic of COVID-19 and 99 with no symptoms of illness. Children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. A questionnaire was employed to identify symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities and COVID-19 prevention measures. Research was carried out in four hospitals and two clinics in Managua, Nicaragua, where schools and businesses remained open throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease | Countries: Nicaragua
Assessment of a program for SARS-CoV-2 screening and environmental monitoring in an urban public school district

AUTHOR(S)
John Crowe; Andy T. Schnaubelt; Scott SchmidtBonne (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: JAMA Netw Open

Scalable programs for school-based SARS-CoV-2 testing and surveillance are needed to guide in-person learning practices and inform risk assessments in kindergarten through 12th grade settings. To characterize SARS-CoV-2 infections in staff and students in an urban public school setting and evaluate test-based strategies to support ongoing risk assessment and mitigation for kindergarten through 12th grade in-person learning. This pilot quality improvement program engaged 3 schools in Omaha, Nebraska, for weekly saliva polymerase chain reaction testing of staff and students participating in in-person learning over a 5-week period from November 9 to December 11, 2020. Wastewater, air, and surface samples were collected weekly and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA to evaluate surrogacy for case detection and interrogate transmission risk of in-building activities.

Education level and COVID-19 vaccination willingness in adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Elke Humer; Andrea Jesser; Paul L. Plener (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Vaccination is essential to control the COVID-19 pandemic. High vaccination willingness is a key for successful vaccination programs. This study assessed attitudes toward vaccination in Austrian adolescents and determined whether there are differences in vaccination readiness regarding education status, gender and migration background. Two cross-sectional online surveys were conducted from March to July 2021 in apprentices and high school students. Willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination was rated on a 5-point scale. In total, n = 2006 (n = 1442 apprentices and n = 564 high school students) completed the survey. Willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccination was higher in students compared to apprentices (p < 0.001). Furthermore, migration background (p = 0.023) and female gender (p = 0.001) were associated with lower vaccination willingness. In conclusion, more efforts are required to improve confidence and willingness to vaccinate adolescents with lower educational levels, those with migrant backgrounds and females.
Global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health: Results of an international survey

AUTHOR(S)
Melanie Etti; Jackeline Alger; Sofía P. Salas (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Plos One

The World Health Organization’s “Coordinated Global Research Roadmap: 2019 Novel Coronavirus” outlined the need for research that focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and children. More than one year after the first reported case significant knowledge gaps remain, highlighting the need for a coordinated approach. To address this need, the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Working Group (MNCH WG) of the COVID-19 Clinical Research Coalition conducted an international survey to identify global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health. This project was undertaken using a modified Delphi method. An electronic questionnaire was disseminated to clinicians and researchers in three different languages (English, French and Spanish) via MNCH WG affiliated networks. Respondents were asked to select the five most urgent research priorities among a list of 17 identified by the MNCH

Reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and their role in the transmission of infection according to age: a case-control study

AUTHOR(S)
Mauro Calvani; Giulia Cantiello; Maria Cavani (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

The locations where children get exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and their contribution in spreading the infection are still not fully understood. Aim of the article is to verify the most frequent reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and their role in the secondary transmission of the infection. A case-control study was performed in all SARS-CoV-2 positive children (n = 81) and an equal number of age- and sex- matched controls who were referred to the S. Camillo-Forlanini Pediatric Walk-in Center of Rome. The results of all SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs performed in children aged < 18 years from October 16 to December 19, 2020 were analyzed.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.