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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Factors associated with parental COVID-19 vaccine attitudes and intentions among a national sample of United States adults ages 18–45

Lakeshia Cousin; Stephanie Roberts; Naomi C. Brownstein (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: About Journal of Pediatric Nursing
This study explored factors associated with parents' attitudes and intentions to seek information about the COVID-19 vaccine for their children (ages 0–18) and intentions to vaccinate their age-eligible children. As part of an anonymous online cross-sectional survey, parents' vaccine attitudes, COVID-19 vaccine intentions for their children, health literacy, health numeracy, and sociodemographic variables were assessed. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models identified factors associated with parents' COVID-19 vaccine intentions for their children.
School immunization coverage in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: a retrospective cohort study

Hannah Sell; Yuba Raj Paudel; Donald Voaklander (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccine

Few studies have assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on immunization coverage for adolescents, and little is known about how coverage has changed throughout the pandemic. This study aimed to: (1) assess the change in coverage for school-based vaccines in Alberta, Canada resulting from the pandemic; (2) determine whether coverage differed by geographic health zone and school type; and (3) ascertain whether coverage has returned to pre-pandemic levels. Using a retrospective cohort design, this study used administrative health data to compare coverage for human papillomavirus (HPV) and meningococcal conjugate A, C, Y, W-135 (MenC-ACYW) vaccines between pre-pandemic (2017–2018 school year) and pandemic (2019–2020 and 2020–2021 school years) cohorts (N = 289,420). Coverage was also compared by health zone and authority type. The 2019–2020 cohort was followed over one year to assess catch-up.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 41 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 1333-1341 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Canada
Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and factors associated with infection among adolescent men who have sex with men and transgender women in Salvador, Brazil

Carina C. Santos; Fernanda W. de M. Lima; Laio Magno (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: BMC Public Health

Brazil was strongly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the impact of the pandemic on sexual and gender minorities’ youth remains unknown. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and associated factors among adolescent men who have sex with men (AMSM) and transgender women (ATGW) participants of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis cohort study (PrEP1519). This is a cross-sectional design conducted between June and October 2020 in Salvador, Brazil. Serum samples were collected from AMSM and ATGW aged 16-21 years between June-October 2020. IgG and IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 were detected by chemiluminescence immunoassay, and data were collected through a socio-behavioral questionnaire.

Knowledge toward COVID-19 in children among undergraduate students at the beginning of COVID-19 era

Sawsan Abuhammad; Hossam Alhawatmeh; Ahlam Al-Natour (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Nursing Open

This study aimed to describe the level of knowledge of undergraduate students in Jordan toward COVID-19 in children in respect of the clinical signs of the disease, modes of transmission, protection measures against the disease and satisfaction with governmental measures. A cross-section was utilized in this study. An online survey questionnaire was utilized in this research study. All undergraduate students in Jordan were able to take part. The size of the sample was 799. Knowledge toward COVID-19 among children was used to assess the participants' knowledge about COVID-19.

Changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among parents with children aged 6–35 months in China: repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2020 and 2021

Kechun Zhang; Xue Liang; Karen Lau Wa Tam (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccines
China is considering to offer COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6–35 months. This study investigated the changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and associated factors among parents with children aged 6–35 months in 2020 and 2021. Two rounds of cross-sectional online surveys were conducted among adult factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A subset of 208 (first round) and 229 (second round) parents with at least one child aged 6–35 months was included in the study.
How to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake among children? determinants associated with vaccine compliance

Moshe Hoshen; Vered Shkalim Zemer; Shai Ashkenazi (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

This study has three aims: to elucidate determinants associated with COVID-19 vaccine uptake in children and the association with parental vaccination; to compare rates of PCR-positive SARS-CoV-2 results between vaccinated and unvaccinated children; to estimate the rate of parental COVID-19 vaccination and its association with the vaccination rate of their children. It performed a retrospective chart review of all children aged 5–11 years registered at a central district in Israel from November 21st, 2021 to April 30th, 2022, and characterized COVID-19 vaccinated vs. unvaccinated individuals. Data retrieved from the electronic medical files included: demographics [age, gender, sector, socioeconomic status (SES)]; COVID-19 vaccination (first and second doses) and influenza vaccination status; co-morbidities; and parental vaccinations for COVID-19. It divided the population into three distinct demographic groups: non-ultra-orthodox Jews (43,889 children), ultra-orthodox Jews (13,858 children), and Arabs (4,029 children).

Cough, sneeze, pass it on – pupils' understanding of infectious diseases in the aftermath of COVID-19

Anna-Clara Rönner; Anna Jakobsson; Niklas Gericke

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Biological Education
The COVID-19 pandemic had an immense impact on communities around the world. We know that new epidemic-prone diseases will emerge in the future. Consequently, it is important to investigate what impact the current pandemic had on school children’s understanding of infectious diseases in order to develop biology education based on that novel understanding. The aim of this study was to explore Swedish middle school (10-12-year-old) pupils’ understanding of infectious diseases and their perceived sources of knowledge. Data was collected through individual semi-structured interviews with fifteen pupils and analysed by thematic coding.
A cross-sectional study to assess mRNA-COVID-19 vaccine safety among Indian children (5–17 years) living in Saudi Arabia

Marya Ahsan; Riyaz Ahamed Shaik; Ayaz K. Mallick (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccines
The objective of this study is to assess the frequency and severity of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in Indian children aged 5–17 years who received the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, as well as to investigate for predictors of AEFI. To examine AEFI following the first and second doses of Pfizer’s vaccine, semi-structured questionnaires were distributed as Google forms at Indian schools in Saudi Arabia. The 385 responses included 48.1% male and 51.9% female children, with 136 responses of children aged 5–11 years (group A) and 249 responses from children aged 12–17 years (group B). Overall, 84.4% of children had two shots. The frequency of AEFI was reported to be higher after the first dose than after the second (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.57–2.86). The reported AEFIs included myalgia, rhinitis, local reaction with fever, a temperature of 102 °F or higher, and mild to moderate injection site reactions. While group B frequently reported multiple AEFIs, group A typically reported just one. Local reaction with low grade fever was more frequently reported in group B after the first dose (24.1%) and second dose (15.4%), while local reaction without low grade fever was most frequently observed in group A after the first (36.8%) and second dose (30%). Only prior COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.44–6.2) was associated with AEFI after the second dose in the study sample, whereas male gender (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.13–2.6) and prior COVID-19 infection (OR = 2.95, 95% CI = 1.38–6.3) were predictors of AEFI after the first dose. Non-serious myocarditis was reported by only one child. According to the analysis conducted, the Pfizer’s mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was found to be safe in Indian children.
Safety, effectiveness and hesitancy of COVID-19 vaccination in children: a cross-sectional study in Pakistan

Zaufishan Zaufishan; Muhammad Usman; Khandah Fishan Mumtaz (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The elevated risk of serious complications like myocarditis and pericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination, especially in adolescent has been reported in some instances that need to be tested in regional populations and different ethnicity groups. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the side effects, hesitancy, and effectiveness outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination among children in Pakistan. The study was planned using a cross-sectional design and data from Children and Adolescents (CA) was collected through a convenient sampling method using a validated questionnaire between February to July 2022. A total of 1,108 CA between the age of 12–18 years who received one or two doses of vaccine were selected and data were collected through direct interviews with respondents.

Impact of prenatal COVID-19 vaccination on delivery and neonatal outcomes: results from a New York City cohort

Erona Ibroci; Xiaoqin Liu; Whitney Lieb (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccine
Research suggest prenatal vaccination against coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is safe. However, previous studies utilized retrospectively collected data or examined late pregnancy vaccinations. This study investigated the associations of COVID-19 vaccination throughout pregnancy with delivery and neonatal outcomes. It included 1,794 mother-neonate dyads enrolled in the Generation C Study with known prenatal COVID-19 vaccination status and complete covariate and outcome data. It used multivariable quantile regressions to estimate the effect of prenatal COVID-19 vaccination on birthweight, delivery gestational age, and blood loss at delivery; and Poisson generalized linear models for Caesarean delivery (CD) and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission.
The effect of educational intervention based on the self-efficacy theory of high school students in adopting preventive behaviors of COVID-19

Zahra Rezaie; Vahid Kohpeima Jahromi; Vahid Rahmanian (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a major problem for education systems. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of educational intervention based on the self-efficacy theory of high-school students in adopting preventive behaviors of COVID-19. This quasi-experimental study was performed on Hazrat Zahra and Shahed high-school students in Jahrom (southern Iran) in 2021. In total, 160 students (80 each in the intervention group and the control group) were selected by multistage random sampling. Data collection tools included a demographic information questionnaire and self-efficacy in adopting preventive behaviors from COVID-19 researcher-made questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed by all participants before and 3 months after the educational intervention. The educational intervention was performed for 6 weeks by using an educational program based on Bandura self-efficacy theory. The intervention was performed during 12 sessions of face-to-face training in the classroom (two 1-h sessions per week), distributing educational packages and sending educational videos through cyberspace. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t test, paired t test, and linear regression.
Menstrual disturbances in 12- to 15-year-old girls after one dose of COVID-19 Comirnaty vaccine: population-based cohort study in Norway

Ida Henriette Caspersen; Lene K. Juvet; Berit Feiring (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccine

A worldwide COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign targeting adults was launched in late December 2020. Subsequently, the Comirnaty (BNT162b2) vaccine was recommended for children aged 12–15 years in May 2021. In Norway, only one dose of the Comirnaty vaccine was recommended to children aged 12–15 years. Vaccination was not recommended for children who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2. In line with findings in older age groups, the most prevalent adverse events after vaccination that have been reported in 12- to 15-year-old adolescents are injection site pain (in 79 to 86 % of participants), fatigue (in 60 to 66 %), and headache (in 55 to 65 %). Adolescents aged 12–17 years have been found to have a moderately higher risk of adverse reactions than adults. For new vaccines, clinical trials typically collect data on commonly recognized adverse events and safety profiles. However, questions about the menstrual cycle have not been included in clinical studies. A significant number of reports on menstrual disturbances after COVID-19 vaccination have been registered in spontaneous adverse events surveillance systems in several countries (USA, UK, Norway, the Netherlands).

Factors associated with intention to vaccinate children 0-11 years of age against COVID-19

Melissa S. Stockwell; Christina A. Porucznik; Ashton Dixon (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine

Millions of children have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and over 1000 children have died in the US. However, vaccination rates for children 5 to 11 years old are low. Starting in August 2020, we conducted a prospective SARS-CoV-2 household surveillance study in Spanish and English-speaking households in New York City and Utah. From October 21 to 25, 2021, we asked caregivers about their likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccine for their child, and reasons that they might or might not vaccinate that child. We compared intent to vaccinate by site, demographic characteristics, SARS-CoV-2 infection detected by study surveillance, and parents’ COVID-19 vaccination status using Chi-square tests and a multivariable logistic regression model, accounting for within-household clustering.

COVID-19 vaccination in children: a public health priority

Eduardo Jorge da Fonseca Lima; Robério Dias Leite

Published: December 2022   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

Covid-19 had a direct impact on children's health. The aim of this review was to analyze epidemiological and clinical data, the consequences of the pandemic, and vaccination aspects in this group. The searches were carried out from January 2020 to November 2022, in the MEDLINE databases (PubMed) and publications of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics.

Willingness of Brazilian caregivers in having their children and adolescents vaccinated against Covid-19

Marcio Fernandes Nehab; Karla Gonçalves Camacho; Adriana Teixeira Reis (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The vaccination of children and adolescents for the prevention of Covid-19 is important to:decrease in deaths and hospitalizations, prevent multisystem inflammatory syndrome, avoid long-term complications and decrease the suspension of on-site classes. Despite of these benefits, some studies have shown that some caregivers are still hesitancy. This is a voluntary and anonymous online survey conducted from November 17 to December 14, 2021, in Brazil, through a free-of-charge platform with a link provided on social networks. A bivariate analysis was conducted with the independent variables, with vaccine hesitancy as the outcome variable, and a multivariate logistic model was used to calculated adjusted odds ratios.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 42 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 735-743 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Brazil
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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