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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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UNICEF Innocenti Publication
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31 - 45 of 2005
Preliminary evaluation of a multicomponent youth development program for siblings separated by foster care: pandemic related impacts to service delivery and youth well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Jeffrey Waid; Cynthia Dantas

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Public Child Welfare
A preliminary evaluation of a multicomponent youth development program for siblings in foster care was conducted prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pretest posttest measures of youth well-being were collected from sixteen youth, caregivers, and caseworkers over a six-month period. Caregivers reported increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors, sibling relationship difficulties, prosocial behavior, and resilience during the study period. Youth reported reduced school engagement, increased resilience, and prosocial behavior. In-person sibling programming was associated with increased prosocial behavior. Virtual sibling programming was associated with lower hyperactivity, increased prosocial behavior, and increased emotional problems. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Parental involvement during COVID-19: experiences from the special school

AUTHOR(S)
Una O'Connor; Jessica Bates; Jayne Finlay (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: European Journal of Special Needs Education
The closure of schools worldwide in response to the COVID-19 pandemic required parents to undertake key pedagogical roles to support their children’s education and movement to a remote, often virtual world of online teaching presented many challenges for families. For the parents of children attending special schools, the loss of educational, as well as therapeutic provision, added a further layer of complexity unique to this group. This paper presents findings from a Northern Ireland-wide survey undertaken during the first lockdown period. Using Hornby and Blackwell’s model of parental involvement (PI), the paper describes parents’ experiences relative to their child’s needs, family circumstances and societal expectations, and the intersection of these with teacher relationships and the wider school community. The findings reveal those factors that facilitated and inhibited PI and makes suggestions for improvements at school and policy levels in the short and longer term. The results have relevance and reach beyond the Northern Ireland context and should contribute to international dialogue on the synergy between PI and the special school setting.
Students’ affective engagement, parental involvement, and teacher support in emergency remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from a cross-sectional survey in China

AUTHOR(S)
Yang Yang; Keqiao Liu; Miao Li (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Technology in Education
Emergency remote teaching has been widely implemented in the education system worldwide to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing upon data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in eight middle schools in eastern China (a sample size of 1,550 students and 1,550 parents), we employed multiple linear regressions with school fixed effects to examine the associations among student affective engagement, parental involvement, and teacher support in an emergency remote teaching environment. Our results show that higher levels of parental involvement and teacher support are associated with higher levels of student affective engagement with teacher support presenting the strongest relationship with student engagement. These findings contribute to the understanding of emergency remote teaching in different countries where schools and individual households devise varying strategies and solutions.
Collaborating with parents during COVID-19 online teaching: special educator perspectives

AUTHOR(S)
Rachel K. Schuck; Rachel Lambert; Mian Wang

Published: August 2021   Journal: Education 3-13
Teachers whose students had trouble independently accessing the online curriculum during COVID-19 online learning had to rely heavily on parents. This paper presents findings from interviews with elementary special educators regarding their experiences collaborating with parents while teaching online. Thematic analysis generated four themes: prioritising non-academic support; increases in mutual understanding; parents implementing educational content; and providing feedback to parents. Teachers emphasised providing socio-emotional support to families and reported opportunities for teachers and parents to learn more about each other. They also highlighted several skills that were not smoothly translating to the home. Implications regarding strong teacher–parent partnerships are discussed.
Caring for children in foster and kinship care during a pandemic: lessons learned and recommendations

AUTHOR(S)
Hilda Loria; Jill McLeigh; Kristin Wolfe (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Public Child Welfare
Through qualitative feedback from professionals in healthcare, mental health, and child welfare, this study explored the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health and well-being of children in the child welfare system. Positive outcomes and challenges related to the care of children in foster or kinship care in Texas during the COVID-19 pandemic are described. Themes identified included disparities in the child welfare system; utilization of telehealth; cross-sector communication and collaboration; safety considerations; and placement stability and support. The article concludes with recommendations in each of these areas for ensuring the health and well-being of children in foster and kinship care during a pandemic.
Parents’ self-reported psychological impacts of COVID-19: associations with parental burnout, child behavior, and income

AUTHOR(S)
Margaret L Kerr; Kerrie A. Fanning; Tuyen Huynh (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

The current study investigates associations between parents’ perceived coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) psychological impacts and experiences of parental burnout, children’s behaviors, and income. Data were collected during an online survey of parents’ (N = 1000) pandemic experiences in April 2020. Parents (M = 36.5 years old, SD = 6.0; 82.1% White) with at least one child 12 years or younger reported on measures of mental health, perceived COVID-19 impacts, parental burnout, and perceived increases in children’s stress and positive behaviors.

COVID-19 instructional approaches (in-person, online, hybrid), school start times, and sleep in over 5,000 U.S. adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Lisa J. Meltzer; Jared M. Saletin; Sarah M. Honaker (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Sleep

This study aims to examine associations among instructional approaches, school start times, and sleep during the COVID-19 pandemic in a large, nationwide sample of U.S. adolescents. Cross-sectional, anonymous self-report survey study of a community-dwelling sample of adolescents (grades 6–12), recruited through social media outlets in October/November 2020. Participants reported on instructional approach (in-person, online/synchronous, online/asynchronous) for each weekday (past week), school start times (in-person or online/synchronous days), and bedtimes (BT) and wake times (WT) for each identified school type and weekends/no school days. Sleep opportunity was calculated as BT-to-WT interval. Night-to-night sleep variability was calculated with mean square successive differences.

Are working children in developing countries hidden victims of pandemics?

AUTHOR(S)
Polyxeni Kechagia; Theodore Metaxas (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Social Sciences
The consequences of the recent pandemic have been disproportionately disruptive to several social groups, including children. As developing economies have been firefighting the recent pandemic, the welfare of minors could be affected and children’s economic exploitation and abuse could increase. Therefore, the present research aims to shed light on and to investigate the association between child labour in developing countries and pandemics, including the coronavirus, through conducting a systematic literature review on previous empirical studies. The present research concludes that previous studies on non-COVID-19 pandemics have mainly focused on the African economies, while studies on the recent pandemic have focused on Asian countries. In addition, differences were observed in relation to the methodological approaches and the characteristics of minor employees and the protection services in certain countries have proven to be insufficient.
Association of COVID-19 mitigation measures with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index among children aged 7 to 10 years in Austria

AUTHOR(S)
Gerald Jarnig; Johannes Jaunig; Mireille N. M. van Poppel (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Were COVID-19 mitigation measures associated with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness measures and body mass index among primary schoolchildren in Austria? In this cohort study of 764 primary schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years, COVID-19 mitigation measures were associated with substantial reductions in cardiorespiratory fitness measures and increases in body mass index SD scores and the proportion of children with overweight or obesity. The findings suggest that collaborative efforts are needed to improve children’s health and fitness to prevent long-term negative health outcomes.

The impact of COVID-19 on adolescents’ daily lives: the role of parent–child relationship quality

AUTHOR(S)
Julie J. Janssens; Robin Achterhof; Ginette Lafit (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
COVID-19 lockdown measures have profoundly impacted adolescent’ daily life, with research suggesting an increase in irritability, stress, loneliness, and family conflict. A potential protective factor is parent–child relationship quality; however, no studies have investigated this. This study used data from SIGMA, a longitudinal, experience sampling cohort study, in which N = 173 adolescents aged 11 to 20 were tested before and during COVID-19. Multilevel analyses showed decreased daily-life irritability and increased loneliness from pre- to mid-pandemic. Daily-life stress levels were unchanged. Relationship quality was negatively associated with irritability and loneliness and buffered against the increase in loneliness. Effect sizes were small and do not support a strong effect of the first lockdown on irritability, stress, loneliness, and family conflict in adolescents.
Egyptian and Roma adolescents’ perspectives on their developmental assets in Albania during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Diana Miconi; Eglantina Dervishi; Nora Wiium (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
This mixed-method study explores the accessibility of developmental assets among Egyptian and Roma minority youth in Albania during the COVID-19 pandemic. Six focus groups were conducted in August 2020 with Egyptian (n = 16) and Roma (n = 15) adolescents (14–20 years, Mage = 16.71; SDage = 2.00; 14 girls and 17 boys). In addition, adolescents rated how much they experienced each developmental asset. Descriptive and thematic analyses highlighted: (1) low developmental assets and barriers to accessing resources, (2) mental health concerns and coping strategies, (3) the role of proximal contexts of life, and (4) experiences within the society in terms of discrimination, integration, and contribution to society. Inter-sectoral community-based interventions are urgently needed to mitigate the impact of the pandemic on minority youth.
Risk and protective factors for changes in adolescent psychosocial adjustment during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Katelyn F. Romm; Yea Won Park; Jeffrey L. Hughes (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
The current study examined (1) changes in psychosocial adjustment among adolescents completing two surveys before COVID-19 and those completing the final survey during COVID-19 and (2) related risk/protective factors. Participants were 208 US adolescents (Mage = 15.09, SD = 0.50, 48.8% female, 86.1% White; 40.9% COVID group) who completed longitudinal surveys assessing psychosocial adjustment and related risk/protective factors (e.g., emotion regulation, well-being pursuits). Only adolescents completing Wave 3 during COVID-19 experienced increases in depressive symptoms, negative affect, and isolation and decreases in positive affect and friendship. Several variables served as risk (i.e., dampening) and protective (i.e., eudaimonic and hedonic motives) factors of these changes. Findings highlight the range of factors that are distinctly associated with negative changes in adolescent adjustment during COVID-19.
Prepandemic risk factors of COVID-19-related concerns in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Amanda W. G. van Loon; Hanneke E. Creemers; Simone Vogelaar (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence:
To identify adolescents who may be at risk for adverse outcomes, this study examined the extent of COVID-19-related concerns reported by adolescents and investigated which prepandemic risk and protective factors predicted these concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dutch adolescents (N = 188; Mage = 13.49, SD = .81) were assessed before the pandemic and at eight and ten months into the pandemic. Results demonstrated that adolescents’ most frequently reported COVID-19-related concerns were about social activities and getting delayed in school. Adolescents that have specific vulnerabilities before the pandemic (i.e., higher stress, maladaptive coping, or internalizing problems) experience more concerns during the pandemic, stressing the importance of guiding and supporting these adolescents in order to prevent adverse developmental outcomes.
Adolescent and maternal anxiety symptoms decreased but depressive symptoms increased before to during COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Tom Hollenstein; Tyler Colasante; Jessica P. Lougheed

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
Mothers (n = 155) and their adolescent children (n = 146; aged 12–13 at pre-COVID wave [Time 1, September 2019 to March 2020]) repeated measures of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and details about the impacts of the pandemic and social distancing at Time 2 (May-June 2020). Average slopes of mother and adolescent depression increased but anxiety symptoms decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. Adolescent decreases in anxiety symptoms were driven by males, whereas depression increase was driven by females. Adolescents’ depression slopes were steeper for those who reported more negative changes. Implications are discussed relative to findings from other regions and later phases of the pandemic.
Predicting negative and positive affect during COVID-19: a daily diary study in youths

AUTHOR(S)
Wisteria Deng; Reuma Gadassi Polack; Mackenzie Creighton (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence:
The COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to profoundly affect youths’ mental health. Understanding predictors of affective responding to the pandemic is critical for prevention and intervention efforts. This study examines emotion regulation as an important predictor of youth’s changes in positive and negative affect. The present study of 115 participants (62 girls, Mage = 11.77) explores the relation between pre-existing emotion regulation strategies, as measured by multi-week daily diaries pre-COVID, and youths’ mean positive and negative affect levels and variability during a 28-day period amidst the pandemic, while including COVID-related worries and isolation as important moderators. The findings provide important insight into interactions between pre-existing vulnerabilities and COVID-related stressors in predicting affective adjustment in youth.
31 - 45 of 2005

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.