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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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61 - 75 of 2450
‘Lockdown's changed everything’: mothering adult children in prison in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic

Kelly Lockwood

Published: October 2021   Journal: Probation Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic occurred at a time when families of prisoners were gaining visibility in both academia and policy. Research exploring the experiences of families of prison residents has tended to focus on intimate partners and children, despite parents of those in prison being more likely than partners or children to maintain contact. The small body of work focusing on parents has identified their continued care for their children and highlights the burden of providing this care. With the ethics of care posing an ideological expectation on women to provide familial care, the care for adult children in custody is likely to fall to mothers. However, with restricted prison regimes, the pandemic has significantly impeded mothers’ ability to provide this ‘care’. Adopting a qualitative methodology, this paper explores the accounts of mothers to adult children in custody during the pandemic across two UK prison systems, England and Wales, and Scotland; exploring the negotiation of mothering in the context of imprisonment and the pandemic and highlighting important lessons for policy and practice.
Humour and TikTok memes during the 2020 pandemic lockdown: tensions of gender and care faced by Chinese mothers working from home

Xiao Han; Giselinde Kuipers

Published: October 2021   Journal: China Information
This article examines a humorous meme that emerged on Chinese TikTok during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Using #workfromhomewithchildcare, Chinese working mothers shared humorous clips of their experience of working from home with their children who were also at home during the pandemic lockdown. By analysing the themes, protagonists, and humour techniques of a sample of 85 videos, we ask why the mood of these clips is so strongly marked by humour, and what this tells us about contemporary Chinese society, particularly about the position of women and mothers. This study shows that these memetic clips consist of three distinct genres of mothers working from home: (1) ‘balancing mothers’ who balance between work and childcare, (2) ‘pedagogic mothers’ who give childcare tips, and (3) ‘commercially oriented’ mothers who offer tutorials by means of product placement and advertisement. While these memes express what Mary Douglas called ‘a joke in the social structure’ without offering either relief or critique, they do create an online joking culture that offers temporary relief as well as awareness that others are in the same position.
Parental support, learning performance, and socioemotional development of children and teenagers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Bhoj B. Balayar; Michael R. Langlais

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Family Journal
In spring and fall 2020, most schools across the globe closed due to the ongoing threat of the COVID-19 pandemic. Online and remote learning (ORL) modalities were implemented to continue children’s education and development. Yet, the change in educational delivery increased parental responsibilities in cultivating their children. This study examined the determinants related to students’ learning performance before and during the COVID-19 period in association with psychosocial behaviors (such as socialization, internalizing and externalizing behavior, and motivation) and other factors, including parents’ support received, the teaching modality, and access to digital resources. The current study included 80 parents of elementary and middle school children who completed an online survey.
Children and adolescents’ lived experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jacqueline M. Swank; Jo Lauren Weaver; Alena Prikhidko (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Family Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic affected people across the life span, including children and adolescents. This study focuses on exploring the lived experiences of children and adolescents in the United States during the pandemic. 12 children and adolescents have been interviewed in April 2020 and four themes were identified: (a) change in school environment, (b) connection, (c) creative celebrations, and (d) hope. Limitations, recommendations for future research, and implications for counseling are discussed.
Education and digital inequalities during COVID-19 confinement: from the perspective of teachers in the French speaking community of Belgium

Natacha Duroisin; Romain Beauset; Chloé Tanghe

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
To curb the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the federal government and the federated entities of Belgium suspended all face-to-face learning starting 14 March, 2020. A continuity of learning was to be ensured by teachers through distance-learning. However, teaching during the confinement period was complicated for teachers: the respect for policies and rules differs from one teacher to another and there has been a lack of follow-up on online learning for some learners. The purpose of this article is to contribute to initial responses to the vast question of educational inequalities created and exacerbated during the crisis. More particularly, this article provides a situational analysis of some potential causes for inequalities in primary and secondary schools and identifies differences between the two education levels.
From “nobody's clapping for us” to “bad moms”: COVID-19 and the circle of childcare in Canada

Julia Smith

Published: October 2021   Journal: Gender, Work & Organization
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of childcare to national economies in general and women's economic participation in particular, spurring renewed interest in childcare policy in many countries that have implemented lockdowns. This paper adopts a circle of care framework to analyzes how COVID-19 has affected paid childcare, unpaid childcare and other paid work, and the relationship between these sectors. Analysis is grounded in the lived experiences of parents and childcare educators, documented through 16 semi-structured interviews during the initial lockdown (March–June 2020) in British Columbia, Canada. Experiences from educators suggest their safety was not prioritized, and that their contributions were undervalued and went unrecognized. Mothers, who provided the majority of unpaid care, not only lost income due to care demands, but struggled to access necessities, with some reporting increased personal insecurity. Those attempting to work from home also experienced feelings of guilt and distress as they tried to manage the triple burden. Similarities of experiences across the circle of care suggest the COVID-19 childcare policy response in BC Canada downloaded care responsibilities on to women without corresponding recognition or support, causing women to absorb the costs of care work, with potential long-term negative effects on women's careers and well-being, as well as on the resilience of the circle of care.
Families between care, education and work: the effects of the pandemic on educational inequalities in Italy and Milan

Marta Cordini; Gianluca De Angelis

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
Italy was the first Western country affected by the pandemic. The school closures that followed lasted for a full school semester, including final exams. Italy is already known as a country with a high degree of educational inequality, where reproduction of social disadvantages by social origins is prominent. In such a situation, this study hypothesises that a prolonged lockdown and the consequent reliance on remote education have played an important role in exacerbating existing inequalities. Families were forced to take on the full responsibility of educating their children, which has reinforced the role of household resources. The analysis presented in this article draws on results from an online survey of the effects of school closures on educational practices, the analysis focused on responses from parents of primary school students.
‘The pandemic affected my life in a negative way’: the experiences of Estonian children in child protective services during the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

Karmen Toros

Published: October 2021   Journal: Children & Society
This study investigates children's experiences concerning the effect of the containment measures associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on their daily lives. A small-scale study using in-depth, semi-structured interviews was conducted in Estonia with 10 children registered with Child Protective Services (CPS) as in need of assistance. The COVID-19 pandemic generally negatively affected the children, who struggled with e-schooling, social relationships and emotional well-being. Most of the children reported struggling with their emotional well-being, using words such as anxiety, tension, fear, sadness, and depressing. Not all of the children received the necessary support or assistance from the CPS. The children reported a few positive experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as attaining a more personalised method and schedule for studying and receiving parental support during e-schooling.
The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in primary schools in the Czech Republic: parental perspectives

Irena Smetackova; Stanislav Stech

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
The article presents results of a survey among parents of primary-school pupils, in which they commented on education during school closures due to the COVID-19 disease pandemic in the spring of 2020. The questionnaire mapped family arrangements, parents' competencies, parenting practices concerning learning, and communication with the school. It was administered to more than 2,500 respondents at the end of the period of school closures (May–June 2020). The analysis focused on the question of whether the parents of pupils in primary schools assessed the home-based distance learning as well handled and whether they felt concerned about their child's future school results.
Actor–partner association of work–family conflict and parental depressive symptoms during COVID-19 in China: does coparenting matter?

Shengqi Zou; Xinchun Wu; Yizhen Ren (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being
Parental depressive symptoms and their related factors have not been widely examined during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the current study examined the actor and partner associations of work–family conflict and parental depressive symptoms. Considering the new demands and challenges for families during the COVID-19 pandemic, we further explored the moderation effect of coparenting. A cross-sectional online survey with 985 paired fathers and mothers was conducted in Mainland China. In 11.6% of families, only mothers reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; in 10.6% families, only fathers reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; in 9.5% families, the mother and father reported mild to moderate depressive symptoms.
Disrupted education trajectories: exploring the effects of Covid-19 on adolescent learning and priorities for “building back better” education systems in Ethiopia

Nicola Jones; Megan Devonald; Rebecca Dutton (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Development Policy Review

The Covid-19 pandemic delivered an unprecedented shock to education systems globally, with school closures affecting 1.6 billion children. Education systems in LMICs are facing significant budget cuts further constraining capacities to adapt to Covid-19 impacts. The need for evidence to inform policy dialogues about how best to mitigate impacts and support education systems to “build back better” is pressing. In Ethiopia, schools reopened in October 2020 after a 7-month pandemic-related closure. Employing an adapted resilience systems analysis framework, this article focuses on the extent to which Ethiopia’s education system—which has in recent decades seen rapid progress in enrolment rates—has adapted to the impacts of the pandemic on adolescents’ education and learning, and has achieved this equitably.

Online learning performances of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic

Shan He; Lan Shuai; Zhouye Wang (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Inquiry : The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing
This study aims to investigate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms that impair executive function (EF), emotional state, learning motivation, and the family and parenting environment of children and adolescents with ADHD, both with and without severe difficulties. This will be explored within an online learning environment during the period of COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 183 ADHD children diagnosed using DSM-V criteria were selected and divided into 2 groups high difficulties during online learning (HDOL) and low difficulties during online learning (LDOL) according to the answer of Home Quarantine Investigation of the Pandemic (HQIP). The participants filled out a set of questionnaires to assess their emotional state and learning motivation, and their parents also filled out the questionnaires about ADHD core symptoms, EF, and family and parenting environment.
Insights into adolescents' substance use in a low–middle-income country during the COVID-19 pandemic

Lee Thung Sen; Kristiana Siste; Enjeline Hanaf (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic and its lockdown have been a significant life event for many individuals, particularly adolescents. The immense psychological pressure could drive risky behavior, e.g., substance use, while lockdown might lead to decreased use. This study aimed to observe the change in substance use among adolescents in Indonesia and the moderating variables to consumption during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This study utilized an online survey from April 28, 2020 to June 30, 2020. The hyperlink was disseminated to school administrators and parenting groups through social media and direct messages. A total of 2,932 adolescents (17.4 ± 2.24 and 78.7% females) submitted valid responses. The survey was comprised of a sociodemographic section, substance use details, and psychometric sections, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Cigarette Dependence Scale 12 (CDS-12), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).

Impact of the COVID-19 lockdown in Malaysia: an examination of the psychological well-being of parent-child dyads and child behavior in families with children on the autism spectrum

Hui Xian Fong; Kim Cornish; Hannah Kirk (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns have adversely impacted children on the autism spectrum and their families, especially in Malaysia where this population is often marginalized. The current quantitative research aimed to investigate the impact of the Malaysian COVID-19 lockdown on the behavior and psychological distress of children formally diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) as well as the psychological distress and well-being of their parents, in comparison with a typically developing (TD) control group.  The children's ages ranged between 5 and 17 years. The sample included 72 ASC parent-child dyads and 62 TD parent-child dyads. The primary caregiver completed an online survey including the following: demographic and diagnostic information; ASC symptoms; children's inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, perceived stress, depression, and anxiety; parents' perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and well-being based on their experience pre- and mid-lockdown (March 18th to June 9th 2020) in Malaysia.

School connectedness still matters: the association of school connectedness and mental health during remote learning due to COVID-19

Kesha N. Perkins; Katie Carey; Emma Lincoln (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Journal of Primary Prevention volume
School connectedness is consistently associated with adolescent mental health and well-being. This study investigated whether student perceptions of school connectedness were associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms, even during remote learning due to COVID-19. In June of 2020, after 13 weeks of remote learning, 320 middle and high school students in one Massachusetts school district completed an online survey that included questions about their perceptions of school connectedness, social connectedness, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Students were approximately evenly distributed across grades, with 37% in middle school (grades 6–8) and 63% in high school (grades 9–12). School connectedness had a significant negative association with symptoms of anxiety and depression. This association persisted in models controlling for demographic factors and social connectedness.
61 - 75 of 2450

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.