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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 416
Youth physical activity and the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Bridgette Do; Chelsey Kirkland; Gina M. Besenyi (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports
The purpose of the systematic review was to identify, evaluate, and synthesize evidence from available published literature examining the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on youth physical activity (PA). A systematic review of the literature was conducted for years 2020–2021. Published articles were searched in eight databases. Inclusion criteria included: availability of full-text, written in English language, and reported quantitative or qualitative results of original or secondary data on PA and COVID-19 related factors among youth (ages 5–17 years). A standard quality assessment tool assessed risk of bias and quality of included articles. The search retrieved 2,899 articles with 51 articles ultimately meeting inclusion criteria.
Support for mask use as a COVID-19 public health measure among a large sample of Canadian secondary school students

AUTHOR(S)
Karen A. Patte; Terrance J. Wade; Adam J. MacNeil (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Youth voice has been largely absent from deliberations regarding public health measures intended to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission, despite being one of the populations most impacted by school-based policies. To inform public health strategies and messages, this study examined the level of student support of mask use in public spaces and school mask requirements, as well as factors associated with students’ perspectives. It used cross-sectional survey data from 42,767 adolescents attending 133 Canadian secondary schools that participated in the COMPASS study during the 2020/2021 school year. Multinomial regression models assessed support for i) wearing a mask in indoor public spaces and ii) schools requiring students to wear masks, in association with COVID-19 knowledge, concerns, and perceived risk.

Cultivating compassion for self and others: a school-based pilot study for peer-nominated caring adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Blake A. Colaianne; Brooke D. Lavelle; Meg L. Small (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
Many have called for school-based student programs that teach skills related to self-care and caring for others. Here, such a program for peer-nominated adolescents was developed and piloted virtually at one high school during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results of a longitudinal, quasi-experimental evaluation of the program showed high-quality program implementation and promising program impacts. Effect sizes indicated moderate to large program impacts on improvements in adolescents' self-compassion, sense of interdependence, and perspective-taking, and female adolescents' interoceptive awareness, compared to controls. No group differences in compassion for others were found. The need for more research on programs that help adolescents balance compassion for the self and for others is discussed.
Sexual and reproductive health and rights in the era of COVID-19: a qualitative study of the experiences of vulnerable urban youth in Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Jones; Kate Pincock; Workneh Yadete (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Sexual Health

Youth who have migrated from rural to urban areas in Ethiopia are often precariously employed, lack access to sexual and reproductive health services, and are at heightened risk of sexual violence. However, little is known about the sexual and reproductive health consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and associated lockdowns and service disruptions for urban-dwelling socially disadvantaged youth. This paper draws on qualitative virtual research with 154 urban youths aged 15–24 years who were past and present beneficiaries of United Nations Population Fund-funded programs, and 19 key informants from the city bureaus and non-governmental organisations in June 2020. Semistructured interviews by phone explored the impact of COVID-19 on young people’s sexual and reproductive health and rights.

HIV and SRH healthcare delivery experiences of South African healthcare workers and adolescents and young people during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jane Kelly; Lesley Gittings; Christina Laurenzi (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
While substantial research has emerged from the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as from studies with adolescent populations, there has been a dearth of research focused in South Africa on the context-specific experiences of healthcare workers (HCWs) and the adolescents and young people (AYP) to whom they provide services. This article documents the experiences of provision and receipt of HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of South African HCWs (n = 13) and AYP (n = 41, ages 17–29).
Changes in cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use during the COVID-19 lockdown period among youth and young adults in Denmark

AUTHOR(S)
Lotus S. Bast; Simone G. Kjeld; Marie B. Klitgaard

Published: August 2022   Journal: Nicotine & Tobacco Research

Cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (snus and nicotine pouches) are prevalent among youth and young adults in Denmark. This study examined the extent of changes in the use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco during the first Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown in March and April 2020 in Denmark as well as reasons for changed behavior. This study used data from a nationwide survey conducted among 15- to 29-year-olds from January to March 2021 including 13 530 respondents (response rate = 36.0%). Logistic regression analyses assessed the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the odds of initiating or increasing as well as trying to stop or decreasing cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use.

Evaluation of the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on BMI in children and adolescents with or without obesity

AUTHOR(S)
Albane B. R. Maggio; Claudine Gal-Dudding; Xavier Martin (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics volume

In Switzerland, from March 15th to May 11th 2020, schools and most shops were closed nationwide due to the COVID-19-related lockdown. This cessation of activities may have impacted weight gain in children and adolescents. The aims of our study were to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on the BMI of children and adolescents in treatment for obesity, and to compare its evolution to that of the previous year at the same time, as well as to that of normal-weight children. This retrospective study gathered demographic and anthropometric data from subjects aged 6–18 years both with normal weight and with obesity, who attended our hospital clinics at four time points: before and after the lockdown period in 2020, and at the same times of the year in 2019. We used paired t-tests to assess weight, BMI and BMI z-score changes, linear and standard multiple regressions, independent Student’s t-tests or Chi-square tests to compare groups, and Pearson correlation coefficient when appropriate.

Feasibility of a peer-led, after-school physical activity intervention for disadvantaged adolescent females during the COVID-19 pandemic: results from the Girls Active Project (GAP)

AUTHOR(S)
Sara McQuinn; Sarahjane Belton; Anthony Staines (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pilot and Feasibility Studies volume

There is a critical need for interventions that can be feasibly implemented and are effective in successfully engaging adolescent females in physical activity (PA). A theory-based, peer-led, after-school PA intervention, the Girls Active Project (GAP), was codesigned with adolescent females. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of implementing and evaluating the GAP programme. One single-sex, female-only, designated disadvantaged postprimary school (students aged 12–18) in Dublin, Ireland. Mixed methods were applied with multiple stakeholders over a 12-week trial (March to May 2021). A single-arm study design was used to examine intervention: reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability, compatibility and context. Feasibility of using proposed self-reported outcome measures (moderate-to-vigorous PA levels, self-rated health, life satisfaction, PA self-efficacy and PA enjoyment) was also explored.

Children and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: a Caribbean perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Tracy Evans-Gilbert; Paula Michele Lashley; Emmeline Lerebours (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pan American Journal of Public Health
This study aims to assess coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance methods, health resources, vaccination coverage and income stratification and quantify burdens of disease and death in children and adolescents in the Caribbean. The investigation was a descriptive, cross-sectional study that included 15 Caribbean countries/territories and utilized surveys and secondary data sources. Quarantine and isolation measures were robust and surveillance strategies were similar. Pediatric specialists were available across the region, but few had designated pediatric hospitals or high-dependency units. There were more cases in children on islands with larger populations. Compared to high-income countries/territories, upper and lower middle-income countries/territories had higher disease burdens, fewer doctors and nurses per 1 000 population, lower bed capacities, and lower vaccination coverage.
The impact of stay-at-home regulations on adolescents' feelings of loneliness and internalizing symptoms

AUTHOR(S)
Marielena Barbieri; Evelyn Mercado

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescence

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the daily social lives of adolescents by severely limiting social interactions which likely heightened levels of loneliness and a variety of internalizing symptoms. However, little is known about how social distancing adherence and subsequent stress caused by the novel social regulations impact adolescents' feelings of loneliness, and later mental health difficulties, including anxiety and depression. To close this gap, this study examined the impact of social distancing regulations on adolescents' (N = 79; Mage = 16.16, SD = 1.15; 47 females; 23 males) depression and anxiety symptoms through loneliness by using data from a 5-week longitudinal study conducted on adolescents in the United States during the initial phases of COVID-19.

Vaccine effectiveness of two-dose BNT162b2 against symptomatic and severe COVID-19 among adolescents in Brazil and Scotland over time: a test-negative case-control study

AUTHOR(S)
Pilar T. V. Florentino; Tristan Millington; Thiago Cerqueira-Silva (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Little is known about vaccine effectiveness over time among adolescents, especially against the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. This study assessed the associations between time since two-dose vaccination with BNT162b2 and the occurrence of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 among adolescents in Brazil and Scotland. It did test-negative, case-control studies in adolescents aged 12–17 years with COVID-19-related symptoms in Brazil and Scotland. It linked records of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and antigen tests to national vaccination and clinical records. It excluded tests from individuals who did not have symptoms, were vaccinated before the start of the national vaccination programme, received vaccines other than BNT162b2 or a SARS-CoV-2 booster dose of any kind, or had an interval between their first and second dose of fewer than 21 days. Additionally, it excluded negative SARS-CoV-2 tests recorded within 14 days of a previous negative test, negative tests recorded within 7 days after a positive test, any test done within 90 days after a positive test, and tests with missing sex and location information. Cases (SARS-CoV-2 test-positive adolescents) and controls (test-negative adolescents) were drawn from a sample of individuals in whom tests were collected within 10 days of symptom onset. It estimated the adjusted odds ratio and vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic COVID-19 for both countries and against severe COVID-19 (hospitalisation or death) for Brazil across fortnightly periods.
COVID-19 vaccine compliance in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

AUTHOR(S)
Vered Shkalim Zemer; Moshe Hoshen; Maya Gerstein (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
To compare the rate of the administration of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccinations between adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD subjects. A retrospective chart review was performed on all adolescents aged 12–17 years registered at a central district in Israel from January 1st 2021 to October 31st 2021.
Effectiveness of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents over 6 months

AUTHOR(S)
Emanuele Amodio; Dario Genovese; Luca Mazzeo (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pediatrics

On June 4, 2021, Italy launched the COVID-19 vaccination of adolescents to pace down the COVID-19 spread. Although clinical trials have evaluated mRNA vaccine effectiveness in adolescents, there is limited literature on its real-world effectiveness. Accordingly, this study aimed to estimate the effectiveness of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild or severe COVID-19 in a cohort of Sicilian adolescents within a six-month observation period. A retrospective cohort study was conducted with adolescents aged 12–18, residents of Sicily, that were followed from July 15 to December 31, 2021. SARS-CoV-2 infections, mild and severe COVID-19, and COVID-19-related intubation or deaths during the study period were compared between subjects vaccinated with two doses of mRNA vaccines and unvaccinated individuals. The Cox regression analysis, adjusted for age and sex, was performed to compare the two groups.

Meeting 24 h movement guidelines and health-related quality of life in youths during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
José Francisco López-Gil; Mark S. Tremblay; Miguel Ángel Tapia-Serrano (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Applied Sciences
Limitations in the use of public spaces have impacted the frequency and duration of movement behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep) and outdoor activities of children and adolescents. Whether pandemic-induced changes in movement behaviours are related to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents is unknown. The aim of the current study was to examine the association between meeting 24 h movement guidelines and HRQoL during the COVID-19 lockdown among children and adolescents. Data from 1099 3–17-year-old children and adolescents from Spain and Brazil were analysed. An online questionnaire was used to collect parent-reported information concerning physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration. For the assessment of HRQoL, the EQ-5D-Y proxy version was used.
The positive role of parental attachment and communication in Chinese adolescents' health behavior and mental health during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Beiming Yang; Bin-Bin Chen; Yang Qu (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescence

Given that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely influenced adolescents' physical and mental health around the globe, it is important to identify protective factors that may promote adolescents' positive adjustment during the pandemic. This study aimed to examine the role of parental attachment and COVID-19 communication in adolescents' health behavior and mental health during COVID-19. A total of 442 Chinese parent−adolescent dyads (mean age of adolescents = 13.35 years; 50% girls) completed two-wave longitudinal surveys over the span of 2 months during the pandemic (Wave 1: July 2020; Wave 2: September 2020). At each wave, adolescents reported on their COVID-19-related health behavior, general health behavior, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. At Wave 1, parent−adolescent attachment security and COVID-19 communication were also assessed.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.