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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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In the shadow of COVID-19: A randomized controlled online ACT trial promoting adolescent psychological flexibility and self-compassion

AUTHOR(S)
Päivi Lappalainen; Raimo Lappalainen; Katariina Keinonen (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science

Although some adolescents managed to cope well with the challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, the well-being of many was adversely affected due to school closures, distance education, restrictions on gathering with friends, and limited access to mental health services. Many adolescents reported increased anxiety and depression as well as decreased psychological wellbeing due to the pandemic. Consequently, there is a need for psychological support that exceeds the strained resources available to schools to support young people during times of crisis and societal pressure. The present study aimed to explore the effects of an online-delivered ACT intervention to promote adolescent psychological flexibility and self-compassion and decrease psychological distress during the second wave of COVID-19 in the fall of 2020.

Prevalence of mental health symptoms in children and adolescents during the COVID‐19 pandemic: a meta‐analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Jiawen Deng; Fangwen Zhou; Wenteng Hou (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
The COVID-19 pandemic and its accompanying infection control measures introduced sudden and significant disruptions to the lives of children and adolescents around the world. Given the potential for negative impacts on the mental health of youths as a result of these changes, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and sleep disturbances in children and adolescents during the pandemic. Major literature databases were searched for relevant cross-sectional or longitudinal studies that included primary and secondary school students or children and adolescents ≤18 years of age.
Association between smartphone overdependency and mental health in Korean adolescents during the COVID pandemic; age-and gender-matched study

AUTHOR(S)
Na-Hye Kim; Jae-Moo Lee; Seo-Hyung Yang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This study aimed to examine the relationship between smartphone dependency (SD) and mental health (MH) in adolescents in order to develop and implement plans pertaining to SD control. Raw data from the 16th Online Adolescent Health Behavior Survey in 2020 were analyzed. A total of 482 respondents were selected as study subjects based on their experience of smartphone overdependence (SO), specifically, 241 participants whose score for SO was 37 or higher (Group 2) and age- and gender-matched 241 participants whose score was lower than 10 (Group 1).

COVID-19 anxiety and quality of life among adolescent pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Mohammad Saeed Jadgal; Hadi Alizadeh-Siuki; Nayyereh Kasiri (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health

This study aims to determine the relationship between the COVID-19 anxiety and the quality of life among adolescent pregnant women in Dashtiari city, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 216 adolescent pregnant women in Dashtiari city, Iran in 2021 who met the inclusion criteria participated in a multi-stage sampling. Data collection tools included: demographic information, COVID-19 Anxiety Scale and a questionnaire of quality of life. Finally, the obtained data were analyzed in SPSS software version 21 using descriptive, Chi-square, Tukey and logistic regression tests.

The effect of school bullying on pupils' perceived stress and wellbeing during the Covid-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth J. Kirkham; C. F. Huggins; C. Fawns-Ritchie

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
Establishing how the Covid-19 pandemic and related lockdowns have affected adolescent mental health is a key societal priority. Though numerous studies have examined this topic, few have focused on the wellbeing of pupils who experience school bullying. This is particularly important as pupils who experience bullying represent a vulnerable group at increased risk of mental illness. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the relationship between experience of bullying and adolescent wellbeing during lockdown and subsequent re-opening of schools. It used the TeenCovidLife dataset to examine the relationship between experience of bullying and pupils’ perceived stress and wellbeing across three timepoints. Pupils aged 12–17 (n = 255) completed surveys during the first Covid-19 lockdown (May-July 2020), when they returned to school after the first lockdown (August-October 2020), and during the summer term of 2021 (May-June 2021).
Prevalence of depression, anxiety during Covid-19 pandemic among adolescents of Bangalore North: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Neha ; Chandrashekar Janakiram; Yuvraj Banot Yenkanaik

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Journal Of Medical Science And Clinical Research Studies
Adolescence is a critical and formative period in which individuals begin their transition from childhood to adulthood and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Half of all mental health conditions start at 14 years of age but most cases are undetected and untreated. To assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adolescents and to assess the factors associated with depression and anxiety among adolescents. Data were collected from a sample of 620 adolescents of ages 14 to 16 years studying through the multistage cluster sampling method.
Visualizing mental health through the lens of Pittsburgh youth: a collaborative filmmaking study during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sara E. Baumann; Brayden N. Kameg; Jessica G. Burke (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Health Promotion Practice
Youth mental health has been significantly impacted by COVID-19, with concerns of rising anxiety-related and depressive symptoms and reduced quality of life. This study provides a nuanced understanding of mental health stressors and supports in the lives of youth during the pandemic. Using Collaborative Filmmaking, an embodied, visual, and participatory research method, participants in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, were trained to create, analyze, and screen films about mental health. The films elucidated numerous stressors impacting youth mental health, including educational stressors (e.g., academic pressure and relationships with teachers), personal and social stressors (e.g., social and cultural expectations), and current events (e.g., the election and the political system). Supports included individual level supports (e.g., hobbies, self-care, spending time outdoors), and interpersonal level supports (e.g., family and socializing). Several themes were discussed as both stressors and supports, such as family, COVID-19, and social media.
Relationship between internet addiction, personality factors, and emotional distress among adolescents in Malaysia

AUTHOR(S)
Soh Chou Fu; Nicholas Tze Ping Pang; Walton Wider

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
COVID-19 has significantly affected the mental health of adolescents, thus increasing the emotional distress among them. Studies have reported that heavy Internet use during COVID-19 was linked with poor mental health among adolescents. Additionally, it was found that personality factors are linked with mental health in general. Although past literature has reported the effect of personality factors on mental health, there are limited studies examining the underlying mechanisms among Malaysian adolescents. Therefore, the current study offers an understanding of the intervening role of personality factors in the relationship between Internet addiction and emotional distress among adolescents in Malaysia. This study also aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction and emotional distress (depression, stress, and anxiety) among adolescents in Malaysia. There are a total of 500 participants from 7 secondary schools who range from 13 to 19 years of age. This was a cross-sectional study, and 3 valid questionnaires were used: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). Partial least square structure equation modelling (SmartPLS) was used to analyse the mediation models.
Screen time and associated risks in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders during a discrete COVID-19 lockdown period

AUTHOR(S)
Mathilde Berard; Marianne Peries; Julie Loubersac (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

The COVID-19 pandemic may affect the screen time of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study aimed to examine the screen time of children and adolescents with ASD during a discrete lockdown period in France and identify risk factors for excessive screen time. The study sample consisted of 249 ASD subjects, 3–17 years of age, enrolled in the ELENA cohort. Information about the screen time was collected using the COVID-19 questionnaire specially created for this study. The clinical, socio-demographic and familial characteristics were collected from the last ELENA follow-up visit.

Mitigating rural adolescent trauma: remote delivery of a trauma-informed yoga intervention during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Lauren Davis; Alexandra Aylward

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
Given the prevalence of childhood trauma in rural Montana, this project is intended to help mitigate stressors that may contribute to poor behavioral and mental health in high school-aged children, which may be exacerbated by the collective trauma of the COVID-19 pandemic. The immediate goal was to measure physical and mental health outcomes in adolescents resulting from a remotely delivered trauma-informed yoga intervention designed to foster positive youth development. Our study builds on the successes from an initial feasibility pilot study one year prior in order to evaluate a more robust intervention comparing experimental and control group outcomes. Students at a small, rural high school in Montana volunteered to participate in a 6-week, twice-weekly trauma-informed yoga intervention in their physical education class.
Parental intervention strategies and operating mechanism on adolescent social media use: the concept of literacy improvement based on interaction

AUTHOR(S)
Bowei Wang; Jiali Chen

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
This study focuses on a realistic picture of parental intervention in the use of social media among teenagers in the post-pandemic era. First, based on a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews, and under the guidance of the concept of interactive literacy improvement, we propose a conceptual model and a verifiable measurement dimension of parental-mediated intervention. Second, based on the comparison of parent–child samples, it was found that parental-mediated intervention strategies are often used in families, and parents and children have roughly the same cognition and preference for the four intervention strategies. However, parents reported that they use intervention strategies much more frequently than perceived by their children. Third, we constructed and verified the prediction model of “individual technical characteristics-online family environment-parental-mediated intervention,” namely, the hierarchical progressive logic of parental-mediated intervention, and realized the systematization of influencing factors.
The mental health of adolescent girls from a tribal region of Central Rural India during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study to determine the role of gender disadvantage

AUTHOR(S)
Monica Shrivastav; Saisha Vasudeva; Tanvi Gulati (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice

The mental health of adolescent girls in countries of South Asia is related to several social and cultural factors including gender disadvantage, especially in low resource settings such as tribal areas. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased this vulnerability even further. This study assesses the association of gender disadvantage with psychological distress among adolescent girls residing in a tribal area of India and examines the role of resilience. The study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic first wave in 2020 using telephonic interviews with 102 girls aged 15–20 from one block (65.46% tribal population) of a predominantly tribal area in Central India. Trained interviewers administered translated versions of the Kessler Psychological Distress 10-item scale (K-10), the Checklist for Assessment of Gender Disadvantage (CAGED), and the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS). Pair-wise correlation was conducted between gender disadvantage, resilience and psychological distress using CAGED, BRS and K-10 scores. A one-way ANOVA was used to compare mean difference in CAGED domain scores and K-10 severity score groups.

The category is "Pandemic queer": reading, connecting, and reimagining literacy with LGBTQ+ youth in the age of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Shea Wesley Martin; Henry “Cody” Miller

Published: December 2022   Journal: Radical Teacher
The COVID-19 pandemic, coupled with the ensuing lockdown and political turmoil, ruptured many young people’s experiences and well-being, particularly students who face additional marginalization due to systemic oppression. A national survey conducted by the Trevor Project (2021) found that nearly 70% of LGBTQ youth noted that their health was “poor” most or all of the time during the COVID-19 pandemic. Factors contributing to this deterioration include LGBTQ youth being isolated from the supportive communities formed at school, lacking access to social services provided by schools, and being quarantined with family members who were unsupportive (Cohen, 2021; Valencia, 2020). These fissures in support and resource structures curtailed potentially affirming and integral education, social, and emotional experiences, particularly for LGBTQ youth who thrived in traditional schooling settings. However, it is also important to note that even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, many schools were not idealized institutions for LGBTQ youth. K-12 schools, situated in the broader socio-political landscape of the United States, are bastions of homo-, trans-, and queerphobia (Mayo, 2014). Still, many LGBTQ young people employed resilience and ingenuity to create affirming and loving social circles, which were thus interrupted by restrictions, trauma, and isolation during the pandemic. This article details how  a community of readers who worked to analyze young adult literature was structured through intersectional and anti-oppressive lenses.
An exploratory mixed-method descriptive analysis of youth coping during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Quebec

AUTHOR(S)
Martine Hébert; Arianne Jean-Thorn; Katherine Malchelosse

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
This study presents an exploratory mixed-method descriptive analysis of psychological distress, challenges encountered and coping strategies of youth during the first wave of COVID-19. A total of 4 914 Quebec youth, aged 14 to 25 recruited through social media completed an online survey on the impact of the pandemic on their daily life, psychological distress and post-traumatic growth. They were also invited to answer two open-ended questions regarding the difficulties they experienced and their coping strategies. Overall, 26.6% of youth showed serious psychological distress and 20.3% displayed probable PTSD symptoms related to the COVID-19.
Psychiatric symptoms and emotional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Italian adolescents during the third lockdown: a cross-sectional cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Martina Maria Mensi; Marta Iacopelli; Marika Orlandi (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
A previous study showed that about 80% of Italian adolescents reported isolated symptoms of acute or post-traumatic stress during the frst lockdown in Italy. This study proposed a new questionnaire to investigate the presence of symptoms related to anxiety, panic, depression, eating disorders, sleep disorders, social withdrawal, stress disorders, psychotic symptoms, anti-conservative thoughts, and self-harming acts aggravated by COVID-19 restrictions and possible diferences between males and females. 500 adolescents (12–18 years) completed an online survey created using validated scales. 41% of the respondents felt more stress than during the frst lockdown. 1.85% showed suprathreshold symptoms for post-traumatic stress disorder and 21% showed isolated symptoms of acute or posttraumatic stress due to the pandemic. In addition, it found psychotic symptoms (16%), panic (25% suprathreshold), anxiety (46.8% suprathreshold), depression (18.7% suprathreshold), eating-related symptoms (51%), sleep difculties (57%), a tendency to social withdrawal after the pandemic (15%), suicidal ideation (30%), and self-harming behavior (9%). Furthermore, girls showed a more severe level of distress.
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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.