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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 56
Intersections between COVID-19 and socio-economic mental health stressors in the lives of South African adolescent girls and young women

AUTHOR(S)
Zoe Duby; Brittany Bunce; Chantal Fowler (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
In contexts where poverty and mental health stressors already interact to negatively impact the most vulnerable populations, COVID-19 is likely to have worsened these impacts. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in South Africa already faced intersecting mental health stressors and vulnerabilities. It is critical to understand how additional challenges brought on by COVID-19 have intersected with existing vulnerabilities and mental health risks AGYW faced, particularly given the intersections between psychological distress and increased risk behaviours that impact sexual and reproductive health. This study aimed to examine socio-economic and mental health impacts of COVID-19 on South African AGYW in order to understand how additional challenges brought on by COVID-19 have intersected with existing challenges, compounding AGYW vulnerabilities.
I was not safe in his house: The COVID-19 pandemic and violence against refugee and migrant girls and women in Italy
Institution: *UNICEF, Washington University in St. Louis
Published: March 2022

This research explored the specific impacts of the pandemic on exposure to gender based violence risks among refugee and migrant girls and women in Italy. The research focused on refugee and migrant girls and women because of the intersectionality of vulnerabilities related to their gender and their migration status. It examined the availability and accessibility of gender based violence service provision over the course of the pandemic, and explored how services adapted in the face of this health emergency.

Gender-based violence during COVID-19 among adolescent girls and young women in Nairobi, Kenya: a mixed-methods prospective study over 18 months

AUTHOR(S)
Michele R. Decker; Kristin Bevilacqua; Shannon N. Wood (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: BMJ Global Health

Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) disproportionately experience gender-based violence (GBV), which can increase during emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic. A cohort of youth ages 15–24 in Nairobi, Kenya was surveyed at three time points over an 18-month period prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic: June–August 2019 (prepandemic), August–October 2020 (12-month follow-up) and May 2021 (18-month follow-up). This study characterised (1) prevalence, relative timing and help-seeking for leading forms of GBV, (2) GBV trajectories over 18 months and (3) associations of individual, dyad and COVID-related factors on GBV trajectories among AGYW (n=612) in Nairobi, Kenya. Virtual focus group discussions (n=12) and interviews (n=40) contextualise quantitative results.

Picture perfect during a pandemic? Body image concerns and depressive symptoms in U.S. adolescent girls during the COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Sophia Choukas-Bradley; Anne J. Maheux; Savannah R. Roberts (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Children and Media
The stay-at-home orders of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted U.S. adolescents’ lives in numerous ways during the spring of 2020, including substantial changes to in-person routines and increased reliance on digital media. For adolescent girls, stay-at-home practices may have implications for body image concerns. This research brief examines adolescent girls’ pandemic-related body image concerns and longitudinal associations with depressive symptoms. The sample included 93 U.S. adolescent girls (Mage = 15.01; 68.8% White), with approximately 2/3 at temperamental risk for depression. Participants self-reported their depressive symptoms and pandemic-related body image concerns via online surveys at three assessments: Time 1 occurred in April/May 2020, approximately one month into stay-at-home orders, followed by two-week and seven-month follow-up assessments. Two pandemic-related body image concerns were assessed: (1) concerns about disrupted appearance-management routines and (2) evaluating one’s appearance on video-chat.
Advancing girls’ education in light of COVID-19 in East Africa: a synthesis report
Institution: Population Council
Published: November 2021
Over a billion students around the world have been affected by school closures in the past year and a half (March 2020 to August 2021) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The persistence of the pandemic and the severity of the risks posed by the disruption of education necessitate a strong understanding of the present state of girls’ education in East Africa. This study aimed to understand the current problems posed by COVID-19 for girls’ education in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda; identify the gaps in understanding with regard to these problems; and illuminate solutions. The study is based on a rapid desk review of peer-review and grey literature, coupled with nearly 30 key informant interviews with a range of East African organizations working on education and/or gender issues. These methods were complemented by an interactive, participatory workshop during which interviewees and other education stakeholders validated and supplemented the initial study results. Key findings from the study are summarized below
Adolescent girls and COVID-19: Mapping the evidence on interventions

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Blake; Miriam Temin; Tara Abularrage (et al.)

Institution: Population Council
Published: November 2021
With the COVID-19 crisis continuing to evolve, evidence on the effectiveness of short-term emergency-oriented responses and long-term mitigation strategies is expanding but still limited. There are, and will continue to be, substantial evidence gaps on programming to address risk across outcomes of importance to adolescent girls. More evidence is needed to slow the risks posed by the pandemic for this sub-population, which can help guide gender- and age-responsive prevention and impact mitigation investments. Evidence from approaches delivered in other unstable contexts may offer important lessons for decision-making in the current context. Recognizing this, the Population Council conducted a structured review of existing evidence collected prior to the pandemic, across low- and middle-income country contexts (under the auspices of the Adolescent Girls Investment Plan, AGIP1 ).
COVID-19 pandemic: mental health in girls with and without fragile X syndrome

AUTHOR(S)
Tracy L. Jordan; Kristi L. Bartholomay; Cindy Hsin-Yu Lee (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Children and adolescents, who have less developed coping skills, are affected by natural disasters and other traumatic events differently than adults. Emotional and behavioral effects are particularly pronounced during a pandemic-related disaster, when support networks that typically promote healthy coping, such as friends, teachers, and family members, may be less available. Children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome (FXS), who are at increased risk for developing anxiety and depression, may be particularly vulnerable to behavioral or emotional difficulties during a pandemic. This study examined the mental health outcomes of school-aged girls with FXS during the COVID-19 pandemic and associated stay-at-home orders.
Impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on inner-city female youth in New York City

AUTHOR(S)
Angela Diaz; Anne Nucci-Sack; Rachel Colon (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

New York City (NYC) was the global epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. A “shelter in place” mandate was issued in March 2020. The effect on vulnerable populations of adolescent and young adult (AYA) females has not been well documented. This study administered a monthly online survey between May and November 2020 to AYA females participating in a longitudinal study at Mount Sinai Adolescent Health Center. Surveys asked about death of loved ones, financial impacts, social interactions, exposure to dangerous situations, and mental health impacts. Differences in responses by age, race/ethnicity and living situation were assessed, and compared to data obtained on the same cohort prior to the pandemic.

Anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak and associated factors

AUTHOR(S)
Engin Burak Selçuk; Arzu Çalışkan Demir; Lale Gönenir Erbay (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Outbreaks of infectious diseases have negative effects on mental health. Currently, there is very little information about the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents and associated factors affecting their mental health. The aim of the present study is to determine the severity of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak, and to investigate the associated factors with these symptoms.
Unforeseen effects of COVID-19 on adolescent health

AUTHOR(S)
Mishu Mangla

Published: September 2021   Journal: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India
India is presently in the midst of a major health crisis with the second wave of corona virus spreading at an alarming rate and claiming more lives than ever before. Although the pandemic is affecting the lives of all sections of society, adolescent girls being a vulnerable group are affected in dual manner, not just by the direct effects of the virus but also by many still underrated indirect effects. The present article aims to highlight the indirect yet sinister effects of COVID-19 on physical, mental, social, sexual and reproductive and psychological health and well-being of adolescent girls and other issues like their personal safety, peer support and long-term health issues.
High school students' online learning ineffectiveness in experimental courses during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jon-Chao Hong; Yue Liu; Yinsheng Liu (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, online learning has been adopted in all stages of education. This sudden change from traditional learning to 100% online learning may affect students' learning effectiveness, especially in experimental courses. However, there has been little discussion of experimental courses conducted entirely through online learning. To address this gap, the present study investigated factors affecting high school students' online learning ineffectiveness (OLI) in online experimental courses, particularly online science experimental courses. The role of gender was also explored to understand whether it affects participants' OLI. An ANOVA was conducted to analyze the data from a survey of 347 online learners in high schools.
Tracking the impact of COVID-19 on adolescent girls in Kenya : special edition COVID-19 barometer
Institution: *UNICEF, Shujaaz Inc.
Published: August 2021

One of the objectives of this collaboration is to produce a range of youth-led, data-driven research products, providing insight into the most effective ways to support young people in East Africa. This special edition Barometer is designed to provide a snapshot into the lives of Kenyan girls aged 15-19 (also referred to as adolescent girls) in 2021. This edition of COVID-19 Barometer includes new insights from Shujaaz Inc’s annual national youth survey, which draws on face-to-face interviews with 2,015 young people conducted between December 2020 and January 2021. Drawing on additional qualitative research, the Barometer aims to provide an update on the challenges, lifestyles, priorities and aspirations of adolescent girls, during a turbulent pandemic. This edition focuses on key topics including education, sexual and reproductive health, financial security, mental wellbeing and resilience. We hope it provides a valuable update for organisations working with adolescent girls across Kenya, and inspiration for similar research in East and Southern African countries.

Chinese adolescents’ coping with COVID-19: relationships with emotional maladjustment and parental reactions to negative emotions

AUTHOR(S)
Zeyi Shi; Qian Wang

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
Two hundred and thirteen Chinese adolescents (103 females; mean age = 12.18 years) completed a survey one year before (Wave 1) and five months after the COVID-19 outbreak (Wave 2). Path analysis revealed that after controlling for adolescents’ emotional maladjustment at Wave 1, perceived parental supportive reactions to adolescents’ negative emotions at Wave 1 predicted adolescents’ greater use of approach coping and less use of avoidance coping at Wave 2, which in turn, was associated with less emotional maladjustment at Wave 2; conversely, perceived parental nonsupportive reactions at Wave 1 predicted adolescents’ greater use of avoidance coping at Wave 2, which in turn, was associated with greater emotional maladjustment at Wave 2. The findings were similar for mothers and fathers.
Peer connectedness and pre-existing social reward processing predicts U.S. adolescent girls’ suicidal ideation during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Emily A. Hutchinson; Jennifer S. Silk; Stefanie L. Sequeira (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
There is major concern about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent suicidal ideation (SI) and peer relationships. This study investigated (1) rates of SI and (2) the extent to which peer connectedness and pre-existing neural activation to social reward predicted SI during the initial stay-at-home orders of the pandemic (April–May 2020) in a longitudinal sample of adolescent girls (N = 93; Mage = 15.06; 69% White non-Hispanic). Daily diary and fMRI methods were used to assess peer connectedness and neural activation to social reward, respectively. Nearly 40% of girls endorsed SI during the initial stay-at-home orders. Greater peer connectedness and neural responsivity to anticipated social reward were associated with a reduced odds of SI during the pandemic among girls.
Youth relationships in the era of COVID-19: a mixed-methods study among adolescent girls and young women in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Celia Karp; Caroline Moreau; Grace Sheehy (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Measures to mitigate COVID-19's impact may inhibit development of healthy youth relationships, affecting partnership quality and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. This is a mixed-methods study aiming to understand how COVID-19 affected girls' and young women's relationships in Kenya. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression examined factors associated with relationship quality dynamics and SRH outcomes among 756 partnered adolescents aged 15–24 years. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to explore youth perceptions of how intimate relationships changed during COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.