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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 322
The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on child and adolescent mental health: systematic review

Urvashi Panchal; Gonzalo Salazar de Pablo; Macarena Franco (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020, resulting in many countries worldwide calling for lockdowns. This study aimed to review the existing literature on the effects of the lockdown measures established as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of children and adolescents. Embase, Ovid, Global Health, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and pre-print databases were searched in this PRISMA-compliant systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42021225604). It included individual studies reporting on a wide range of mental health outcomes, including risk and protective factors, conducted in children and adolescents (aged ≤ 19 years), exposed to COVID-19 lockdown.
Electronic media use and sleep disorders among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Fandi Argiansya; Rismarini Soedjadhi; Raden Muhammad Indra (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Sleep Disorders

One of the negative impacts of electronic media use is the occurrence of sleep disturbances. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of electronic media in families, including in adolescents, has been increasing. This study was aimed at describing the association between electronic media use and sleep disturbances in adolescents in Palembang. A cross-sectional study was conducted in January to February 2021. Participants were 14-17-year-old high school students who completed a questionnaire to assess electronic media use and a Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) questionnaire to assess sleep disturbances.

Changes in adolescents’ psychosocial functioning and well-being as a consequence of long-term COVID-19 restrictions

Nóra Kerekes; Kourosh Bador; Anis Sfendla (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This work studied self-reports from adolescents on how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed their behaviors, relationships, mood, and victimization. Data collection was conducted between September 2020 and February 2021 in five countries (Sweden, the USA, Serbia, Morocco, and Vietnam). In total, 5114 high school students (aged 15 to 19 years, 61.8% females) responded to our electronic survey. A substantial proportion of students reported decreased time being outside (41.7%), meeting friends in real life (59.4%), and school performance (30.7%), while reporting increased time to do things they did not have time for before (49.3%) and using social media to stay connected (44.9%). One third of the adolescents increased exercise and felt that they have more control over their life. Only a small proportion of adolescents reported substance use, norm-breaking behaviors, or victimization. The overall COVID-19 impact on adolescent life was gender-specific: we found a stronger negative impact on female students. The results indicated that the majority of adolescents could adapt to the dramatic changes in their environment. However, healthcare institutions, municipalities, schools, and social services could benefit from the findings of this study in their work to meet the needs of those young people who signaled worsened psychosocial functioning, increased stress, and victimization.
Religiosity, meaning-making and the fear of COVID-19 affecting well-being among late adolescents in Poland: a moderated mediation model

Dariusz Krok; Beata Zarzycka; Ewa Telka

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Religion and Health
Adolescents have come to be greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing containment measures in recent months. The aim of the present study was to examine the relations among religiosity, meaning-making, fear of COVID-19, and subjective well-being within a moderated mediation model. Three hundred and sixteen late adolescents (173 women and 143 men) in Poland volunteered to take part in the study. The results show that meaning-making mediated relationships between religiosity and life satisfaction, religiosity and positive affect, and religiosity and negative affect. In addition, these mediation effects were moderated by the fear of COVID-19. Specifically, the indirect effects were stronger for adolescents with high fear than for those with low fear, which indicates that fear of COVID-19 serves as a ‘warning’ factor.
Cumulative risk exposure and social isolation as correlates of carer and child mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: an online study with families from various Europeans countries

Ana Isabel Pereira; Peter Muris; Magda Sofia Roberto (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
This study adopted a cumulative risk approach to examine the relations between various domains of risk factors (i.e., social isolation and home confinement, other pandemic-related risk factors, and pre-existing psychosocial risk factors) and carers’ and children’s mental health during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe. The sample consisted of 1475 carers of 6- to 16-year-old children and adolescents residing in five European countries (Portugal, United Kingdom, Romania, Spain, and The Netherlands) who completed an online survey.
Pre-pandemic sleep behavior and adolescents’ stress during Covid-19: a prospective longitudinal study

Reut Gruber; Gabrielle Gauthier-Gagne; Denise Voutou (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health volume

This paper aims to prospectively document changes in adolescents’ sleep before versus during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to examine their impact on adolescents’ perceived stress. Sixty-two typically developing adolescents participated in the study before (Time 1: January 15 to March 13, 2020) and during (Time 2: May 15 to June 30, 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. At Time 1, each participant’s sleep pattern was assessed in the home environment using actigraphy and sleep logs for seven consecutive nights. Adolescents completed a battery of questionnaires in which they reported on their sleep schedule, duration, and quality, as well as their activities at bedtime, their daytime sleepiness, and their social/emotional behavior. The participants’ parents provided demographic information. At Time 2, each participant completed a sleep log, the same battery of questionnaires regarding sleep, and the Perceived Stress Scale.

Examination of pre-pandemic measures on youth well-being during early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic

Blaire M. Porter; Ian J. Douglas; Tyler L. Larguinho (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Biological Psychiatry Global Open Science

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our lives in numerous ways. How youth have been impacted by the pandemic, and which pre-existing factors best relate to COVID-19 responses, is of high importance for effective identification and treatment of those most vulnerable. Youth with pre-pandemic mental health difficulties like ADHD could be at risk for worse well-being during and after the pandemic. The current study tested potential risk factors (i.e., pre-pandemic mental health, age, and parent education) and their relation to family experiences during early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were previously enrolled in an on-going, yearly longitudinal study examining the relationship between mental health and executive functions in youths. Families with 1-4 annual pre-pandemic lab visits filled out an online COVID-19 survey in May-July 2020 to assess how the pandemic impacted their well-being (n=135 youth).

Parent-adolescent conversations about COVID-19 influence adolescents’ empathic concern and adherence to health protective behaviors

Joanna Peplak; J. Zoe Klemfuss; Tuppett M. Yates

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

This longitudinal investigation assessed how the frequency of parent-adolescent conversations about COVID-19, moderated by adolescents’ stress, influenced adolescents’ empathic concern and adherence to health protective behaviors (HPBs) throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 181 adolescents (Mage = 15.23 years; 51% female; 47% Latinx) and their parents. Frequency of parent-adolescent conversations about COVID-19 (i.e., pandemic-related symptoms, health behaviors, and social effects), empathic concern toward vulnerable others, and adolescent HPBs were assessed via surveys in the first months of the pandemic, and empathic concern and HPBs were assessed again nine months later.

Gender-specific changes in life satisfaction after the COVID-19–related lockdown in Dutch adolescents: a longitudinal study

Sabine E. I. van der Laan; Catrin Finkenauer; Virissa C. Lenters (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

The purposes of this study were to assess whether mental well-being has changed after introduction of the lockdown measures compared with that before, whether this change differs between boys and girls, and whether this change is associated with COVID-19–related concerns. This is a two-wave prospective study among Dutch adolescents using data collected up to one year before the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 224) and 5–8 weeks after the first introduction of lockdown measures (n = 158). Mental well-being was assessed by three indicators: life satisfaction, internalizing symptoms, and psychosomatic health.

Youth relationships in the era of COVID-19: a mixed-methods study among adolescent girls and young women in Kenya

Celia Karp; Caroline Moreau; Grace Sheehy (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Measures to mitigate COVID-19's impact may inhibit development of healthy youth relationships, affecting partnership quality and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. This is a mixed-methods study aiming to understand how COVID-19 affected girls' and young women's relationships in Kenya. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression examined factors associated with relationship quality dynamics and SRH outcomes among 756 partnered adolescents aged 15–24 years. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to explore youth perceptions of how intimate relationships changed during COVID-19.

Living with the Covid-19 pandemic: adolescent experiences in Jordan

Bassam Abu Hamad; Sarah Baird; Nicola Jones (et al.)

The population of Jordan has increased rapidly over the past 10 years, with the country taking in more than a million Syrian refugees, of whom nearly half are below the age of 18 years. The Government of Jordan, supported by the international community, has made substantial efforts to provide basic services for its refugees, but the COVID-19 pandemic has put additional pressure on the country’s limited resources. Given that young people account for a relatively large proportion of the population, especially the refugee population, it is critical that we understand what impacts the pandemic is having on adolescent girls and boys in order to ensure that the national response by government, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and development partners including the United Nations (UN) are adolescent-friendly and equitable. This research brief draws on the findings of a questionnaire-based telephone survey involving nearly 3000 adolescent boys and girls, conducted as part of the Region-wide Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) longitudinal research programme which is co-funded by the United Kingdom’s Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.

Living with the Covid-19 pandemic: adolescent experiences in the State of Palestine

Bassam Abu Hamad; Sarah Baird; Nicola Jones (et al.)

As elsewhere, in the State of Palestine, the burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality has overwhelmingly fallen on older people. There is, however, growing recognition that younger people, including adolescents aged 10–19 years who account for more than a fifth of the population (1), are also suffering negative impacts on their health because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that nearly 40% of the population in the State of Palestine are refugees it is important to distinguish between the experiences of the non-refugee and the refugee adolescent populations, and within the latter, those living in camp and non-camp settings. Such disaggregated evidence will help to inform national response plans by government and development partners to ensure that they are both adolescent-responsive and equitable. This policy brief draws on findings of a questionnaire-based telephone survey involving just over 1000 adolescent boys and girls which was conducted as part of the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) longitudinal research programme.

‘I am not at peace’: Covid-19 impacts on mental health of adolescents in Tanzania

Carmen Leon-Himmelstine; Esther Kyungu; Edward Amani (et al.)

Published: August 2021

This brief country study draws out key findings on the impact of Covid-19 on the mental health of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19, in project locations in Tanzania. The overall research aims are to discern broader drivers of mental ill-health and the preventative factors that can protect mental well-being of adolescents. The project also seeks to capture wider attitudes towards accessing mental health support, rather than charting the impacts on well-being of a particular crisis. While Covid-19 was not the focus of this project, given that data collection started during the onset of the pandemic, in-country researchers were able to incorporate some questions into the qualitative component of the mixed method baseline study, exploring the effects Covid-19 was having on the mental health of adolescents. This project continues to adapt to the new context and will seek to understand the impact of the pandemic where feasible

‘We feel sad and bored’: Covid-19 impacts on mental health of adolescents in Viet Nam

Fiona Samuels; Ha Ho; Van Vu (et al.)

Institution: Overseas Development Institute
Published: August 2021
This country case study examines the impact of Covid-19 on the mental health of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19, in project locations in Viet Nam. The overall research aims are to discern broader drivers of mental ill-health and the preventative factors that protect mental well-being of adolescents. The project also seeks to capture wider attitudes towards accessing mental health support, rather than charting the impacts on well-being of a particular crisis.
Global prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents during COVID-19: a meta-analysis

Nicole Racine; Brae Anne McArthu; Jessica E. Cooke (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Emerging research suggests that the global prevalence of child and adolescent mental illness has increased considerably during COVID-19. However, substantial variability in prevalence rates have been reported across the literature. This study aims to ascertain more precise estimates of the global prevalence of child and adolescent clinically elevated depression and anxiety symptoms during COVID-19; to compare these rates with prepandemic estimates; and to examine whether demographic (eg, age, sex), geographical (ie, global region), or methodological (eg, pandemic data collection time point, informant of mental illness, study quality) factors explained variation in prevalence rates across studies.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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