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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 222
Religiosity, meaning-making and the fear of COVID-19 affecting well-being among late adolescents in Poland: a moderated mediation model

Dariusz Krok; Beata Zarzycka; Ewa Telka

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Religion and Health
Adolescents have come to be greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing containment measures in recent months. The aim of the present study was to examine the relations among religiosity, meaning-making, fear of COVID-19, and subjective well-being within a moderated mediation model. Three hundred and sixteen late adolescents (173 women and 143 men) in Poland volunteered to take part in the study. The results show that meaning-making mediated relationships between religiosity and life satisfaction, religiosity and positive affect, and religiosity and negative affect. In addition, these mediation effects were moderated by the fear of COVID-19. Specifically, the indirect effects were stronger for adolescents with high fear than for those with low fear, which indicates that fear of COVID-19 serves as a ‘warning’ factor.
Pre-pandemic sleep behavior and adolescents’ stress during Covid-19: a prospective longitudinal study

Reut Gruber; Gabrielle Gauthier-Gagne; Denise Voutou (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health volume

This paper aims to prospectively document changes in adolescents’ sleep before versus during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to examine their impact on adolescents’ perceived stress. Sixty-two typically developing adolescents participated in the study before (Time 1: January 15 to March 13, 2020) and during (Time 2: May 15 to June 30, 2020) the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada. At Time 1, each participant’s sleep pattern was assessed in the home environment using actigraphy and sleep logs for seven consecutive nights. Adolescents completed a battery of questionnaires in which they reported on their sleep schedule, duration, and quality, as well as their activities at bedtime, their daytime sleepiness, and their social/emotional behavior. The participants’ parents provided demographic information. At Time 2, each participant completed a sleep log, the same battery of questionnaires regarding sleep, and the Perceived Stress Scale.

Examination of pre-pandemic measures on youth well-being during early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic

Blaire M. Porter; Ian J. Douglas; Tyler L. Larguinho (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Biological Psychiatry Global Open Science

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our lives in numerous ways. How youth have been impacted by the pandemic, and which pre-existing factors best relate to COVID-19 responses, is of high importance for effective identification and treatment of those most vulnerable. Youth with pre-pandemic mental health difficulties like ADHD could be at risk for worse well-being during and after the pandemic. The current study tested potential risk factors (i.e., pre-pandemic mental health, age, and parent education) and their relation to family experiences during early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were previously enrolled in an on-going, yearly longitudinal study examining the relationship between mental health and executive functions in youths. Families with 1-4 annual pre-pandemic lab visits filled out an online COVID-19 survey in May-July 2020 to assess how the pandemic impacted their well-being (n=135 youth).

Parent-adolescent conversations about COVID-19 influence adolescents’ empathic concern and adherence to health protective behaviors

Joanna Peplak; J. Zoe Klemfuss; Tuppett M. Yates

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

This longitudinal investigation assessed how the frequency of parent-adolescent conversations about COVID-19, moderated by adolescents’ stress, influenced adolescents’ empathic concern and adherence to health protective behaviors (HPBs) throughout the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 181 adolescents (Mage = 15.23 years; 51% female; 47% Latinx) and their parents. Frequency of parent-adolescent conversations about COVID-19 (i.e., pandemic-related symptoms, health behaviors, and social effects), empathic concern toward vulnerable others, and adolescent HPBs were assessed via surveys in the first months of the pandemic, and empathic concern and HPBs were assessed again nine months later.

Gender-specific changes in life satisfaction after the COVID-19–related lockdown in Dutch adolescents: a longitudinal study

Sabine E. I. van der Laan; Catrin Finkenauer; Virissa C. Lenters (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

The purposes of this study were to assess whether mental well-being has changed after introduction of the lockdown measures compared with that before, whether this change differs between boys and girls, and whether this change is associated with COVID-19–related concerns. This is a two-wave prospective study among Dutch adolescents using data collected up to one year before the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 224) and 5–8 weeks after the first introduction of lockdown measures (n = 158). Mental well-being was assessed by three indicators: life satisfaction, internalizing symptoms, and psychosomatic health.

Youth relationships in the era of COVID-19: a mixed-methods study among adolescent girls and young women in Kenya

Celia Karp; Caroline Moreau; Grace Sheehy (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Measures to mitigate COVID-19's impact may inhibit development of healthy youth relationships, affecting partnership quality and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. This is a mixed-methods study aiming to understand how COVID-19 affected girls' and young women's relationships in Kenya. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression examined factors associated with relationship quality dynamics and SRH outcomes among 756 partnered adolescents aged 15–24 years. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis to explore youth perceptions of how intimate relationships changed during COVID-19.

Living with the Covid-19 pandemic: adolescent experiences in Jordan

Bassam Abu Hamad; Sarah Baird; Nicola Jones (et al.)

The population of Jordan has increased rapidly over the past 10 years, with the country taking in more than a million Syrian refugees, of whom nearly half are below the age of 18 years. The Government of Jordan, supported by the international community, has made substantial efforts to provide basic services for its refugees, but the COVID-19 pandemic has put additional pressure on the country’s limited resources. Given that young people account for a relatively large proportion of the population, especially the refugee population, it is critical that we understand what impacts the pandemic is having on adolescent girls and boys in order to ensure that the national response by government, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and development partners including the United Nations (UN) are adolescent-friendly and equitable. This research brief draws on the findings of a questionnaire-based telephone survey involving nearly 3000 adolescent boys and girls, conducted as part of the Region-wide Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) longitudinal research programme which is co-funded by the United Kingdom’s Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.

Living with the Covid-19 pandemic: adolescent experiences in the State of Palestine

Bassam Abu Hamad; Sarah Baird; Nicola Jones (et al.)

As elsewhere, in the State of Palestine, the burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality has overwhelmingly fallen on older people. There is, however, growing recognition that younger people, including adolescents aged 10–19 years who account for more than a fifth of the population (1), are also suffering negative impacts on their health because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that nearly 40% of the population in the State of Palestine are refugees it is important to distinguish between the experiences of the non-refugee and the refugee adolescent populations, and within the latter, those living in camp and non-camp settings. Such disaggregated evidence will help to inform national response plans by government and development partners to ensure that they are both adolescent-responsive and equitable. This policy brief draws on findings of a questionnaire-based telephone survey involving just over 1000 adolescent boys and girls which was conducted as part of the Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) longitudinal research programme.

‘I am not at peace’: Covid-19 impacts on mental health of adolescents in Tanzania

Carmen Leon-Himmelstine; Esther Kyungu; Edward Amani (et al.)

Published: August 2021

This brief country study draws out key findings on the impact of Covid-19 on the mental health of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19, in project locations in Tanzania. The overall research aims are to discern broader drivers of mental ill-health and the preventative factors that can protect mental well-being of adolescents. The project also seeks to capture wider attitudes towards accessing mental health support, rather than charting the impacts on well-being of a particular crisis. While Covid-19 was not the focus of this project, given that data collection started during the onset of the pandemic, in-country researchers were able to incorporate some questions into the qualitative component of the mixed method baseline study, exploring the effects Covid-19 was having on the mental health of adolescents. This project continues to adapt to the new context and will seek to understand the impact of the pandemic where feasible

‘We feel sad and bored’: Covid-19 impacts on mental health of adolescents in Viet Nam

Fiona Samuels; Ha Ho; Van Vu (et al.)

Institution: Overseas Development Institute
Published: August 2021
This country case study examines the impact of Covid-19 on the mental health of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 19, in project locations in Viet Nam. The overall research aims are to discern broader drivers of mental ill-health and the preventative factors that protect mental well-being of adolescents. The project also seeks to capture wider attitudes towards accessing mental health support, rather than charting the impacts on well-being of a particular crisis.
Global prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents during COVID-19: a meta-analysis

Nicole Racine; Brae Anne McArthu; Jessica E. Cooke (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Emerging research suggests that the global prevalence of child and adolescent mental illness has increased considerably during COVID-19. However, substantial variability in prevalence rates have been reported across the literature. This study aims to ascertain more precise estimates of the global prevalence of child and adolescent clinically elevated depression and anxiety symptoms during COVID-19; to compare these rates with prepandemic estimates; and to examine whether demographic (eg, age, sex), geographical (ie, global region), or methodological (eg, pandemic data collection time point, informant of mental illness, study quality) factors explained variation in prevalence rates across studies.

The COVID-19 pandemic and sustainable life of Korean adolescents: exploring gender differences

Seunghee Yu; Chung Choe

Published: August 2021   Journal: Sustainability
To ensure that adolescents continue to lead healthy, well-adjusted lives—“sustainable lives”—after the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to examine the latter’s impact on various aspects of their lives compared to the socio-cultural context before the outbreak. This study used national representative data on Korean adolescents to analyze the impact of the pandemic on adolescent life from various perspectives, with a focus on gender differences. Our findings confirm that during the pandemic physical activity and sitting time for study purposes decreased, while sleeping and sitting for purposes other than studying increased, with more pronounced changes among girls. Drinking and smoking decreased and boys experienced greater decreases. The findings also indicated that the pandemic generated positive outcomes for mental health: stress, sadness/despair, and suicidal ideation decreased, which was counterintuitive to our general expectations, with a greater impact seen among girls.
Connectedness, self-esteem, and prosocial behaviors protect adolescent mental health following social isolation: a systematic review

Angela J. Preston

Published: August 2021   Journal: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
Societal trends and COVID-19 quarantines have increased the number of adolescents experiencing social isolation, placing them at heightened risk for mental health issues. The aim of this review is to explore protective factors that might mitigate psychological harm in the presence of social isolation. A systematic literature review was conducted using Fink’s step-by-step process. Four library databases were searched, and results were reported using PRISMA. Of the 246 studies reviewed, 12 studies were retained following the quality assessment. The sample includes 14,064 participants from USA, Australia, and Europe, ranging from 10-19 years old. Social connectedness (ie., family connectedness, school connectedness, social support), self-esteem, and prosocial behaviors were the most common protective factors to social isolation. Additional factors such as self-efficacy, optimism, and ethnic identity are discussed. Implications for future research are recommended, including the need to explore spiritual, biological, and sociocultural factors influencing social connectedness and mental health in adolescents.
How well do children in the North East of England function after a mental health crisis during the COVID-19 pandemic: a service evaluation

Emily Staite; Lynne Howey; Clare Anderson

Published: August 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected millions of people, and some researchers postulate that a mental health crisis will follow. The immediate effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s mental health are now starting to be published, and results appear to be mixed. There is no research, to the authors’ knowledge, that empirically examines the functioning of young people following intervention from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) Crisis Teams in the UK during the COVID-19 pandemic. This service evaluation aims to do this using data from an NHS trust that supports 1.4 million people in the North East of England.
Pandemic impacts for indigenous children and youth within Canada: an ethical analysis

Carly Heck; Meghan Eaker; Satya Cobos

Published: August 2021   Journal: Young
In response to new and exacerbated challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, Indigenous children and youth in Canada have developed innovative and holistic solutions to amplify their voices, continue cultural engagement and combat social isolation for themselves and their communities as a whole. In this analysis, we have selected three Indigenous philosophical tenets as an ethical orientation for discussion of how the COVID-19 pandemic is impacting the well-being of Indigenous young people. The guiding values of interconnected relationships, holism and Indigenous-informed restorative justice help us interpret existing pandemic-specific literature and identify, define and prioritize considerations of child and youth well-being from an Indigenous-centred worldview. This analysis can (a) help inform future pandemic measures affecting Indigenous young people and (b) foster similar considerations for Indigenous communities in other regions of the world.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.