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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Sociodemographic and mental health characteristics associated with changes in movement behaviours due to the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Amanda Lien; Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga; Karen A. Patte (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Activity, Sedentary and Sleep Behaviors volume

Control measures enacted to control the spread of COVID-19 appear to have impacted adolescent movement behaviours. It remains unclear how these changes relate to sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of mental health. Understanding these relationships can contribute to informing health promotion efforts. The purpose of this study is to examine sociodemographic and mental health characteristics associated with changes in movement behaviours (physical activity, screen time, sleep duration) due to the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents. This cross-sectional study used May–June 2020 survey data and included 7349 students from Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia (Canada). ANOVA, χ2 tests, and estimation of effect sizes using Cohen’s d and h tests were performed between self-reported perceived changes (increase; decrease; no change) to physical activity, TV watching, social media use, and sleep duration as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, depression and anxiety symptoms, flourishing-languishing, and self-rated mental health.

Adolescents' alcohol use and related expectancies before and during the early COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from the nationwide MyLife study

AUTHOR(S)
Andreas J. Burdzovic; G. S. Brunborg

Published: October 2022   Journal: European Addiction Research
This research examined a range of alcohol use indicators among Norwegian adolescents before and during the early COVID-19 pandemic. It examined two cohorts of Norwegian 16-year-olds from the nationwide MyLife study who entered high school in fall 2020 (i.e., COVID-19 pandemic cohort; n = 915) and fall 2019/18 (i.e., prepandemic cohort; n = 1,621). Through e-surveys, adolescents reported their past year drinking frequencies and quantities (generating the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Concise; AUDIT-C scores) and completed Social Facilitation (SF) and Tension Reduction (TR) subscales of the Alcohol Outcome Expectancies Scale. Cohort differences across these outcomes were examined with linear and modified Poisson regression models.
Internet-based parent training with telephone coaching on managing disruptive behavior in children during The COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Saana Sourander; Andre Sourander; Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting

There is growing concern about the short- and long-term impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on the mental health and psychosocial well-being of children and families. There are no existing studies about feasibility and outcomes using internet-based parent training programs with telephone coaching for disruptive behavioral problems in childhood during the COVID-19 pandemic in clinical settings.  This study explored how the Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) parent training program, with telephone coaching, provided support during the COVID-19 pandemic at specialist family counseling centers in Helsinki, Finland, when restrictions made face-to-face counseling impossible. This study followed the success of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and its implementation study of the SFSW parent training program by primary care child health clinics. The aim was to improve parenting skills, so that parents could tackle disruptive behavior by developing positive parent-child relationships. It started in May 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic was at its height in Finland.

Data from the German family panel pairfam: the supplementary COVID-19 survey

AUTHOR(S)
Julia Reim; Svenja Geissler; Philipp Alt (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Open Psychology Data
The COVID-19 pandemic had major implications for private and family lives. The German Family Panel pairfam conducted an online survey regarding the experiences during the pandemic. The survey was conducted from May to July 2020. It includes instruments introduced in previous pairfam waves as well as new modules on topics that proved particularly relevant during the COVID-19 pandemic. The resulting dataset encompasses a sample of 3,182 respondents from all German federal states ranging in age from 17–47 years. The data has already been used in a variety of scientific publications and is available for research and teaching purposes.
Adolescents' time during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from the American time use survey

AUTHOR(S)
Taryn W. Morrissey; Katherine Engel

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
The aim of this study is to examine where and with whom adolescents spent time during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to 2019. Time diary data from the May 2019 to December 2020 waves of the American Time Use Survey were used to examine trends in where and with whom a sample of individuals aged 15–18 years (N = 437) spent their time.
Effects of varying pandemic restrictions on the health-related behaviours of Australian children

AUTHOR(S)
Lauren Robinson; Mary-Anne Measey; Daryl Efron (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

This study aimed to explore the effects of COVID-19 pandemic restrictions varying in severity and duration on health-related behaviours in children aged 5–17 years. It used data from the Royal Children's Hospital National Child Health Poll, an online cross-sectional survey of Australian caregivers. The survey assessed 1222 caregivers' perceived changes in health-related behaviours (physical activity, sleep, screen-time, diet, outdoor activity, family and peer connectedness) of 2011 children aged 5–17 years in a typical week from June to September 2020 (when jurisdictions experienced varying restriction severity and duration) compared to retrospective reports of behaviour before March 2020 (pre-pandemic). To compare the effects of varying restriction severity in Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and other states and territories on health-related behaviours binary logistic regression was used, adjusting for caregiver demographics and weighted to reflect Australia's parent population.

I don't know whose mouth has been on this: youth nicotine and cannabis vaping practices in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sabrina Islam; Kirsten Thompson; Melissa Abadi (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health
Early COVID-19 safety protocols urged physical and social distancing, resulting in minimal contact with others. As social contexts are central to vaping among youth, this study used semi-structured interviews to describe how youth who vape are making sense of their use practices and adaptations. The qualitative analyses revealed changes in vaping frequency and access, social isolation shaping substance- and product-specific use, and motivations and outcomes of dual use of nicotine and cannabis which were closely linked to the pandemic.
Changes in daily life, physical activity, GAD, depression, and personal hygiene of adolescents in South Korea due to the COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Eun-Yeob Kim; Chilhwan Oh; Hwa-Jung Sung (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Healthcare
This study used raw data obtained from the Adolescents’ Health Behavior Survey by government-affiliated agency open data. A total of 109,796 students were sampled. A comparative analysis was performed based on the year 2020 and when the COVID-19 pandemic occurred, in which we analyzed changes in adolescents’ depression and panic anxiety perception and dietary habits, physical factors, physical activity, and handwashing habits. There was no weight control in the second year compared to the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, and obesity also increased. The continuation of the non-contact situation caused by COVID-19 led to a worsening of subjective health awareness, and the experience of generalized anxiety disorder, depression, sadness and hopelessness, and suicidal thoughts and attempts increased. The frequency of washing hands with soap before meals and after using the toilet at school or at home was reduced.
The impact of COVID-19 on the behaviors and attitudes of children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Swetha Annam; Maria F. Fleming; Azouba Gulraiz (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

Over the past few decades, new infectious diseases have emerged, and these have played a key role in changing behavior and lifestyle in all age groups. More recently, with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, governments around the world have made unprecedented efforts to contain the epidemic by implementing quarantine measures, social distancing, and isolating infected individuals. Social behavioral adaptations (e.g., social distancing, isolation, etc.) impact children's and adolescents' lifestyle activities and lead to increased incidence of psychosocial problems, worsening of preexisting mental illness, and fears of infection, uncertainty, isolation, and stress. In light of this, this study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the behaviors and lifestyles of the children and adolescent population of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 323 children and adolescents by targeting parents of children and adolescents in the age group of 4-18 years living in Pakistan. The study was conducted from April 2021 to September 2021. A well-designed structured questionnaire was used to collect data about the sociodemographic profile, attitudes, and behavioral factors impacted by COVID-19 in children and adolescents. SPSS Statistics version 23 (IBM, Armonk, NY) was used to enter and analyze data.

Analysis of the incidence and risk factors of precocious puberty in girls during the COVID-19 pandemic
Published: September 2022   Journal: International Journal of Endocrinology
Home quarantine due to the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on children. Lifestyle changes have led to an increase in precocious puberty (PP) among girls, and the underlying risk factors for this remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to assess the influence of environmental, genetic, nutritional, and other lifestyle factors on the risk of PP in girls. It evaluated the incidence of new-onset PP in girls during home quarantine for COVID-19 and analyzed the potential risk factors. This was a retrospective questionnaire and medical record-based study involving 22 representative medical units from 13 cities in Henan Province, China. Girls with new-onset PP (central precocious puberty, 58; premature thelarche, 58; age, 5–9 years) between February 2020 and May 2020 were included, along with 124 healthy, age-matched controls.
Racial/ethnic disparities in infant sleep in the COVID-19 mother-baby outcomes (COMBO) study

AUTHOR(S)
Maristella Lucchini; Monica R. Ordway; Margaret H. Kyle (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Sleep Health

This study aims to investigate racial and ethnic differences in infant sleep and to examine associations with insurance status and parent-infant bedtime behavioral factors (PIBBF). Participants are part of the COVID-19 Mother Baby Outcomes (COMBO) Initiative, Columbia University. Data on infant sleep (night, day and overall sleep duration, night awakenings, latency, infant's sleep as a problem) were collected at 4 months postpartum. Regressions estimated associations between race/ethnicity, insurance status, PIBBF and infants’ sleep.

Changes in late adolescents' trust before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Shanshan Bi; Asuman Buyukcan-Tetik; Marlies Maes (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth
Trust is crucial to the public’s compliance with policies and rules released by governments, particularly in times of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, it remains unclear whether and to what extent late adolescents’ interpersonal and institutional trust fluctuated from the pre-COVID-19 pandemic to the lasting phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study uses three-wave longitudinal data from the Youth Got Talent (YGT) project to address this gap (n = 1,423; 43% boys; Mage = 17.85, SD = 1.95).
The COVID-19 pandemic and sexual debut among South Korean adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Hyun Sik Kim

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Sexual Health
This study assesses the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic on the first time Korean adolescents have sex. The study examines 2017–2021 data from an annual, cross-sectional survey.
Changes in cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use during the COVID-19 lockdown period among youth and young adults in Denmark

AUTHOR(S)
Lotus S. Bast; Simone G. Kjeld; Marie B. Klitgaard

Published: August 2022   Journal: Nicotine & Tobacco Research

Cigarettes and smokeless tobacco (snus and nicotine pouches) are prevalent among youth and young adults in Denmark. This study examined the extent of changes in the use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco during the first Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown in March and April 2020 in Denmark as well as reasons for changed behavior. This study used data from a nationwide survey conducted among 15- to 29-year-olds from January to March 2021 including 13 530 respondents (response rate = 36.0%). Logistic regression analyses assessed the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the odds of initiating or increasing as well as trying to stop or decreasing cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use.

The COVID‐19 pandemic, mask‐wearing, and emotion recognition during late‐childhood

AUTHOR(S)
Maia Chester; Rista C. Plate; Tralucia Powell (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Social Development
Face masks are an effective and important tool to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including among children. However, occluding parts of the face can impact emotion recognition, which is fundamental to effective social interactions. Social distancing, stress, and changes to routines because of the pandemic have also altered the social landscape of children, with implications for social development. To better understand how social input and context impact emotion recognition, the current study investigated emotion recognition in children (7–12 years old, N = 131) using images of both masked and unmasked emotional faces.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.