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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Understanding perceived risks and sexual behavior among adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic

Maria Trent; Jamie Perin; Hasiya Yusuf (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
This paper sought to describe the relationship between COVID-19 risk perception and sexual behaviors among urban adolescents and young adults (AYA). Data were collected from 159 urban AYAs on COVID-19 risk perception, COVID-19 infections and deaths, romantic relationships, and sexual behavior during the stay-at-home order using a telephone survey. Seventy-nine percent of the study participants engaged in sexual intercourse during the stay-at-home order. Only 38% of these used condoms during their last sexual encounter. Experiencing COVID-19 positivity within their social circle was not related to COVID-19 testing. Concern for COVID-19 infection or experiencing a COVID-19 diagnosis or death in one's social circles was not associated with sexual intercourse or condom use.
Searching for online information on the fit of children's footwear during the COVID-19 pandemic: an analysis of Google Trends data

Carina Price; Stewart Morrison; Michael Haley (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Selecting footwear with appropriate fit in children is challenging due the changes with foot size and dimensions which occur throughout childhood. Access to appropriate footwear is important but recent challenges with the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in closure of retail stores for prolonged periods where parents/carers could not physically purchase footwear for their children and the footwear industry suffered disruption to their supply chain, and falls in retail sales. Simultaneously increased use of social media platforms for health information seeking throughout the pandemic have been documented. This likely would have included parents/carers seeking information online to support footwear purchases for their children. The primary aim of this work was to explore how searches for online fitting information for children changed throughout the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown periods. A secondary aim was to identify how searches were influenced by footwear style.
Factors associated with changes in e-cigarette use and tobacco smoking by adolescents and young people in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic

Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan; Omolola T. Alade; Heba Sabbagh (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Psychoactives
This study aimed to assess the proportion of adolescents and young people (AYP) in Nigeria who changed their frequency of e-cigarette use and tobacco smoking during the COVID-19 pandemic; and factors associated with the increase, decrease or no change in e-cigarette use and tobacco smoking (including night smoking). This study was a cross-sectional study of AYP recruited from all geopolitical zones in the country. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine if respondents’ health HIV and COVID-19 status and anxiety levels were associated with changes in e-cigarette use and tobacco smoking frequency.
When not helping is nice: children's changing evaluations of helping during COVID-19

Julia Marshall; Young-eun Lee; Paul Deutchman (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Developmental Psychology
A key aspect of children’s moral and social understanding involves recognizing the value of helpful behaviors. COVID-19 has complicated this process; behaviors generally considered praiseworthy were considered problematic during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study examined whether 6- to 12-year-olds (N = 228; residing in the United States) adapt their evaluations of helpful behavior in response to shifting norms. Specifically, we presented children with scenarios featuring helpful and unhelpful actions that involved physical interaction (e.g., hugging) or nonphysical interaction (e.g., recruiting a teacher); although all children were tested during the COVID-19 pandemic, stories portrayed individuals either before or during COVID-19.
Longitudinal changes in juvenile and adolescent body mass indices before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand

Bruce Floyd; Heather T. Battles; Sophie White (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: American Journal of Human Biology

This study uses longitudinal data from school children in Dunedin, New Zealand, to evaluate impacts of COVID-19 lockdown measures on changes in body mass (BMI, kg/m2). Impacts are assessed using two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses. The “structured days” hypothesis holds that children tend to alter sleep patterns, reduce activity and increase snacking when not in structured environments. The bidirectional hypothesis proposes that over-weight or obese children are predisposed to further gains in unstructured settings. Juveniles and adolescents (n = 95, 60% female) were recruited from Dunedin schools. Repeated measures analyses assessed variation in intra-individual change in BMI during four periods: P1 (before summer break), P2 (during summer break), P3 (during the COVID-19 lockdown), and P4 (after the lockdown ended). The model also examined if these changes were influenced by participants' sex or body size early in the first period assessed using log-transformed BMI, log-transformed weight, height, or lower leg length.

Perspectives on dental health and oral hygiene practice from US adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic

Long Zhang; Marika Waselewski; Jack Nawrocki (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Plos One

Adolescence is a critical time for adopting health behaviors which continue through adulthood. There is a lack of data regarding perspectives of US adolescents and young adults on their dental health and oral hygiene practice. Adolescents and young adults, age 14–24, from MyVoice, a nationwide text message poll of youth. were asked five open-ended questions on the importance of dental health and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Responses were qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis. Chi-square test was used to examine differences in experiences by demographics.

The effect of educational intervention based on the self-efficacy theory of high school students in adopting preventive behaviors of COVID-19

Zahra Rezaie; Vahid Kohpeima Jahromi; Vahid Rahmanian (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a major problem for education systems. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of educational intervention based on the self-efficacy theory of high-school students in adopting preventive behaviors of COVID-19. This quasi-experimental study was performed on Hazrat Zahra and Shahed high-school students in Jahrom (southern Iran) in 2021. In total, 160 students (80 each in the intervention group and the control group) were selected by multistage random sampling. Data collection tools included a demographic information questionnaire and self-efficacy in adopting preventive behaviors from COVID-19 researcher-made questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed by all participants before and 3 months after the educational intervention. The educational intervention was performed for 6 weeks by using an educational program based on Bandura self-efficacy theory. The intervention was performed during 12 sessions of face-to-face training in the classroom (two 1-h sessions per week), distributing educational packages and sending educational videos through cyberspace. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t test, paired t test, and linear regression.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on educational, psychosocial and behavioral aspects of children: a cross sectional survey

Ramya Pandi; Aradhya Korapati; Kanta Kumari (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics

The outbreak of COVID-19 appeared first in China and then, rapidly, spread to the rest of the world, and WHO declared it as a pandemic.A nation-wide closure of educational institutions was implemented as an emergency measure in India in March 2020. Meanwhile the traditional classroom instructions were replaced by online classes and home-based learning. Pandemic stressors such as boredom, being in isolation, one of the family members hospitalized/ succumbed to covid, etc, may have even more negative impact on children’s behaviour and emotions. Objectives were to study the impact of covid 19 pandemic on psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional survey conducted among the parents attending paediatric OPD in NRI general and superspeciality hospital, Mangalagiri, between September 2021 to December 2021 over a period of 70 day along with their children of age group between 3 years to 18 years with an aim to explore various psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children and their correlation.

Alcohol use among Australian parents during the COVID-19 pandemic – April-2020 to May 2021

C. J. Greenwood; M. Fuller-Tyszkiewicz; D. M. Hutchinson (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Addictive Behaviors

This study examined the trajectory of alcohol use frequency among parents from April-2020 to May-2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic in the state of Victoria, Australia (who experienced one of the longest lockdowns in the world), compared to parents from the other states of Australia (who experienced relatively fewer restrictions). We further examined the extent to which baseline demographic factors were associated with changes in alcohol use trajectories among parents. Data were from the COVID-19 Pandemic Adjustment Survey (2,261 parents of children 0–18 years). Alcohol use frequency was assessed over 13 waves. Baseline demographic predictors included parent gender, age, speaking a language other than English, number of children, partnership status, education, employment, and income.

Social relations of urban children in the liminal time of the pandemic period

Marzenna Nowicka

Published: December 2022   Journal: The New Educational Review
This paper analysed the social relations of Polish children during the SARSCoV- 2 pandemic. The period of isolation and remote learning was approached as a transitional time using Victor Turner’s concept of liminality. The concept offered a new perspective on children’s experiences during the regime of health protection constraints and the resulting limitations. The research material was collected using focus group interviews with 41 urban children aged 7 and 9 to describe liminal features of their everyday life and characterise their social interactions.
Alcohol consumption among Ukrainian adolescents: family and pandemic factors

Svitlana Shchudlo; Iryna Mirchuk; Oksana Zelena (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Alcoholism and Drug Addiction
The first purpose of this research was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and drunkenness among adolescents in the urban, suburban and rural populations in the Lviv region of Ukraine. The second purpose was to analyse the relationship between family, pandemic, socio-demographic factors and alcohol-related behaviours among adolescents.  Data were collected in 2020 in three populations of Ukrainian adolescents aged 13-15 living in Lviv (N = 1085) in the small town of Drohobych (N = 499) and surrounding countryside (N = 454). Due to pandemic restrictions, an online questionnaire was used in Lviv, while a traditional paper questionnaire was circulated in Drohobych and the countryside. The questionnaire and methodology were taken from the Polish Mokotów Study.
Socio-behavioural factors associated with child oral health during COVID-19

Ravi Kumar Gudipaneni; Mohammed Farhan O. Alruwaili; Kiran Kumar Ganji (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Dental Journal

The aim of this study was to identify the sociobehavioural factors that influenced children's oral health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The online cross-sectional study was conducted in Al Jouf Province in the northern region of Saudi Arabia. A total of 960 parents of children aged 5 to 14 years were invited by multistage stratified random sampling. Descriptive, multinomial, and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios and determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

Mobile game addiction and social interaction anxiety of Malaysian youth

Mohamad Noorman Masrek; Waqas Ahmed; Abdurrahman Jalil (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal

With individuals of all ages confined to their homes for extended periods of time, the pandemic laid the groundwork for an upsurge in online mobile gaming addiction and risky internet usage. According to research, those who are hooked to online gaming are more likely to experience social interaction anxiety. This research is an additional attempt to confirm prior findings in the context of Malaysian youth. The data was acquired via an online questionnaire as part of the survey research procedure. The respondents were reached through convenient sampling, and the 377 replies provided more evidence on the association between gaming addiction and social interaction anxiety.

Prolonged body weight gain, lifestyle changes and health-related quality of life in children during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: a follow-up study

María Ángeles Azrak; María Victoria Fasano; Ana Julia Avico (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Further investigation is needed to define the impact of long-term pandemic lockdown in children. This study aims to examine changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI), lifestyle, Health-Related Quality of Life and proportion of overweight or obesity (OW/OB) in 6- to 9-year-old children in Argentina. Observational study with baseline measurements prior to lockdown and follow-up after eight months of strict restrictive measures (November 2020, first visit, n = 144) and after ten months of partial reopening (September 2021, second visit, n = 108). Anthropometric changes from baseline to first visit in lockdown group (LG) were compared with a historical control group (HCG, n = 134). Follow-up visits included anthropometric measures, lifestyle questionnaire and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory.

Looking for your cross‐group friends after the breakout? Children's intergroup contact behaviours before and after the onset of COVID-19

Sabahat Cigdem Bagci; Faruk Tayyip Yalcin; Abbas Turnuklu (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: British Journal of Social Psychology
While COVID-19 implications for prejudice have been investigated among adults in previous research, children's intergroup reactions to the pandemic and specifically how native children's contact behaviours with refugees might have changed after the pandemic has not been examined yet. Drawing on a unique longitudinal school dataset (N = 861, 5th graders, M age reported at T1 = 10.38, SD = 0.68) collected before the onset of the pandemic (T1, pre-lockdown), after the onset of the pandemic (T2, post-lockdown), and 6 months after the post-lockdown (T3, follow-up) in Turkey, this study examined how children's contact behaviour (positive and negative contact), contact motivation (self-efficacy and volition), as well as behavioural tendencies (approach and avoidance) have shifted during this period (2.5 years).
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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