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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 228
Implementation of a coordinated approach to child health program at a rural elementary school during the COVID-19 pandemic

Melissa Perian; Marcia Cooke; Henna Muzaffar (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

A Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) is an evidence-based school health program focusing on increasing healthy eating and physical activity and reducing screen time. This project aimed to determine if CATCH program will have significant effects on self-rated knowledge, habits of physical activity, healthy eating (fruit and vegetable consumption), and screen time among 3rd and 5th-grade students at a rural elementary school during the 2020–2021 school year. To evaluate this 4-month project, a pre- and post-intervention School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey was distributed to 51 3rd and 5th-grade students. The program included six 30-minute education sessions specific to grade level and healthy snacks including fruits and vegetables. A family fun event (virtual 2K walk/run due to COVID-19) was organized. Prizes (i.e., water bottles, jump ropes) were given to students for participating in the family fun event and at Track and Field day to encourage healthy behavior.

Association of regular mealtimes with a balanced diet among Japanese preschool children: a study of lifestyle changes after the spread of COVID-19 infection

Yuki Tada; Yukari Ueda; Kemal Sasaki (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

This study examines whether preschool children who maintained regular mealtimes after the spread of COVID-19 infection have better lifestyle habits, like waking up and sleeping early and a more balanced diet, than those who did not. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,000 individuals who provided meals to preschool children aged 2 to 6 years. The Healthy Diet Score (HDS), on a 40-point scale, was developed to comprehensively assess the dietary balance of preschool children based on their frequency of food intake from 13 food groups. The analysis included data on 1,850 children, excluding those who failed to answer the main questions. The participants were classified into four groups based on their responses regarding the regularity of mealtimes after the spread of COVID-19: ‘regular mealtimes (n = 125),’ ‘originally regular and remains unchanged (n = 1514),’ ‘irregular mealtimes (n = 63),’ and ’originally irregular and remains unchanged (n = 148).’ Multiple regression analysis was conducted with HDS as the dependent variable, and regularity of mealtimes and confounding factors as independent variables.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: Supplement 1 | No. of pages: 1 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: behavioural change, child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, preschool children, social distance | Countries: Japan
Self-perceived substance and behavioral addictions among Jewish Israeli adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yaniv Efrati; Marcantonio M. Spada

Published: June 2022   Journal: Addictive Behaviors Reports
This study examined self-perceived substance and behavioral addictions among Israeli adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic across different sociodemographic categories. The sample comprised 2,074 adolescents (40% males, 60% females) aged 12–19 years who completed the survey anonymously and with parental consent. The study examined what is the prevalence of self-perceived substance and behavioral addictions in this population in the COVID-19 pandemic context. Participants reported self-perceived addictions to social networks (70%), shopping (46%), binge eating (34%), gaming (30%), sex-related behavior (15%), psychoactive substance (31%, including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and/or cocaine), and gambling (3%). Moreover, differences were found to be directly related to age, biological sex, religiosity, socioeconomic status, and immigration status. From a lay epidemiological perspective, the current research expands our knowledge about self-perceived addiction among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, offering better understanding of the likelihood probability factors for self-perceived addiction among adolescents and its related negative outcomes, including increased risk factors for later adult life.
In the eyes of adolescents, is the pandemic an obstacle or a gain? A qualitative study based on the ecological theory

Sureyya Sarvan; Leyla Muslu

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of pediatric nursing
This study was conducted to find out how the COVID-19 pandemic affects the lives of adolescents and their expectations about the future. Data for the study was collected using a descriptive qualitative research design. The sample included 24 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 17, who were recruited according to the purposive sampling method. The research questions and results were structured according to the Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory. Data were collected until saturation was achieved. NVivo 12 program was used to organize the data. The transcribed data were analyzed using the inductive thematic analysis method.
Changes and correlates of screen time in adults and children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mike Trott; Robin Driscoll; Enrico Irlado (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: eClinicalMedicine.

Screen time has increased as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and several correlates have been associated with these increases. These changes, however, have not been aggregated. It was the aim of this review to (a) aggregate changes in screen time in adults and children, and (b) report on variables in relation to screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic review of major databases was undertaken for studies published from inception to 06/12/2021, using a pre-published protocol (PROSPERO ID: CRD42021261422). Studies reporting (a) screen time pre-versus-during the pandemic, (b) screen time percentage change, or (c) correlates of screen time during the pandemic were included. A random effects meta-analysis was undertaken with subgroup analysis by age group and type of screen time.

Family promotion of children's healthy lifestyles during the COVID-19 pandemic in light of Saudi Vision 2030

Ahmed Hassan Rakha; Adil Abalkhail; Dekheel Mohamed Albahadel

Published: May 2022

This study aims to determine the role of the family in promoting an active and healthy lifestyle for children aged 3–12 years during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Qassim region in light of Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030 program. This study is important in defining the role of the family in promoting an active lifestyle for children during the COVID-19 pandemic because the family is primarily responsible for promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Responses of 320 parents completing an online survey about their children's physical health during the pandemic were evaluated.

Sibling influences on adolescent alcohol use during the spring 2020 COVID-19 pandemic shutdown

Shawn D. Whiteman; Sahitya Maiya; Jenna R. Cassinat (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
This study aimed to examine the bidirectional associations between adolscent siblings’ alcohol use before and during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spring 2020 and whether youths’ stress about missed social connections (i.e., social disruption stress) moderated these associations. The sample consisted of 682 families (2,046 participants) with two adolescent siblings (older siblings: Mage = 15.67 years, 51% female; younger siblings: Mage = 13.14 years, 48% female) and one parent (Mage = 45.15 years; 85% female) from five Midwestern U.S. states. Siblings reported on their own drinking and social disruption stress before and during the onset of the pandemic via online surveys.
Changes in e-cigarette use among youth and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights into risk perceptions and reasons for changing use behavior

Morgane Bennett; Jessica Speer; Nathaniel Taylor (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Nicotine & Tobacco Research

This study assessed changes in e-cigarette use since the COVID-19 pandemic began and reasons for these changes among US youth and young adults. It combined data from two cross-sectional samples of youth and young adult (15–24 years) participants of a monthly surveillance study (data collected in April and June 2021). Analyses were restricted to past-year e-cigarette users who reported using e-cigarettes before the pandemic (n = 1762). Participants reported changes in e-cigarette use since the pandemic began, reasons for changing their behavior, and their perceptions around COVID-19 risk related to e-cigarette use. Multinomial logistic regression models assessed associations between demographics and COVID vaping risk perceptions and changes in e-cigarette use.

Impact of mass media on changes in food habits and food preferences among adolescence during Covid–19 pandemic

V. Meenakshi; S. Bharathi; B. Siva Sankari (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: YMER
The emergence of COVID 19 pandemic has severely impacted individuals from all walks of life. The present aims to evaluate the mass media impact on food habits, food preference and quality of life during the COVID 19 among adolescence. An questionnaire was framed and converted as Google form. The developed Google form was sent to 200 adolescents belonging to AC & RI and CSC & RI, Madurai and the received 200 responses from the students. The data obtained was consolidated.
Daily prosocial actions during the COVID-19 pandemic contribute to giving behavior in adolescence.

Sophie W. Sweijen; Suzanne van de Groep; Kayla H. Green (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports volume
Prosocial actions are a building block for developing mature and caring social relations. However, the global pandemic may hamper adolescents’ prosocial actions. In this preregistered study, we examined the extent to which adolescents provided daily emotional support during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 10–25-year-old high school and university students participated at three timepoints (N = 888 at the first timepoint (May 2020); 494 at the second timepoint (Nov 2020) and 373 at the third timepoint (May 2021)). At the first and second timepoint, participants completed 2 weeks of daily diaries on providing emotional support. At all timepoints, participants performed Dictator Games to measure giving to peers, friends and COVID-19 targets (medical doctors, COVID-19 patients, individuals with a poor immune system). Across the three timepoints, adolescents gave more to COVID-19 targets than peers and friends, but giving to COVID-19 target was highest in the beginning of the pandemic (first timepoint relative to second and third timepoint).
The relationship between internet addiction and aggressive behavior among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: anxiety as a mediator

Yifan Zhang; Zhe Hou; Song Wu (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Acta Psychologica
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges for adolescents, who tended to experience more emotional instability, impulsivity, and aggressive behavior driven by the fear of infection and the uncertainty of network information. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Internet addiction and aggressive behavior, and the mediating effects of depression and anxiety. There were differences in Internete addiction and aggressive behavior in gender, thus the moderating role of gender between them were explored. A total of 1148 middle school students were invited to complete the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Internet Addition Scale, the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) separately.
24-hour movement behaviours and COVID-19 among children in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: a repeat cross-sectional study

Yazeed A. Alanazi; Anne-Maree Parrish; Anthony D. Okely (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Sports Medicine and Health Science

This study investigated how children's 24-hour (24-h) movement behaviours were affected by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Previous research examined 24-h movement behaviours in Saudi Arabia seven months after the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. This repeat cross-sectional study examined changes in 24-h movement behaviours 12 months after the WHO declaration. The Time 2 survey repeated five months (1 March – 15 May 2021) after Time 1 survey (1 October – 11 November 2020). The survey was distributed to parents of children aged 6–12 years across Saudi Arabia via an online survey. Children were classified as meeting 24-h movement guidelines if they reported uninterrupted sleep for 9–11 h per night,  2 h of recreational sedentary screen time (RST) per day and  60 min of moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) per day. A total of 1 045 parents from all regions of Saudi Arabia responded (42.4%). Only 1.8% of children met all components of the guidelines, compared to 3.4% in Time 1. In the present study, girls spent more days per week in MVPA  60 min duration than boys (3.0 vs 2.6; p ¼ 0.025), while boys had spent more days per week engaged in activities that strengthened muscle and bone than  girls (3.0 vs 2.8; p ¼ 0.019). Healthy levels of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep further declined in Saudi children five months after the Time 1 survey. These challenges require urgent intervention to ensure children's movement behaviours improve as Saudi Arabia moves out of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Interventions to promote physical activity and healthy digital media use in children and adolescents: a systematic review

Christina Oh; Bianca Carducci; Tyler Vaivada (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Pediatrics

This study aims to identify effective interventions that promote healthy screen time use and reduce sedentary behavior in school-aged children and adolescents (SACA) in all settings, over the last 20 years. Searches were conducted from 2000 until March 2021 using PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Ovid SP, The Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, and the WHO regional databases, including Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Randomized-controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies assessing interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors and screen time in healthy SACA (aged 5-19.9 years) globally. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and where possible, pooled with a random-effects model.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 149 | Issue: SUPPLEMENT 6 | No. of pages: 20 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, behavioural change, child health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, physical activity, social distance
Early adolescents' experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in their well-being

Anne Gadermann; Kimberly Thomson; Randip Gill (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Early adolescence is a time of psychological and social change that can coincide with declines in mental health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological and social impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of students who responded to a survey in Grades 7 and 8 (ages 12–14) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objectives of this study were (i) to provide an overview on early adolescents' experiences and social-emotional well-being during the pandemic; and (ii) to examine whether changes in social experiences as well as feeling safe from getting COVID-19 at school were associated with changes in well-being outcomes over the course of a year. A sample of n = 1,755 students from a large public school district self-reported on their life satisfaction, optimism, and symptoms of sadness across two time points: First, in their Grade 7 year (pre-pandemic; January to March, 2020) and then 1 year later in their Grade 8 year (during the pandemic; January to March, 2021). In Grade 8, students also reported on pandemic-specific experiences, including changes in mental health, social relationships, and activities, as well as coping strategies and positive changes since the pandemic. Data were collected online using the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI), a population-based self-report tool that assesses children's social-emotional development and well-being in the context of their home, school, and neighborhood. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between pandemic-related changes in relationships and perceived safety from getting COVID-19 at school with changes in well-being outcomes.

Substance use among youth during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review

Hannah M. Layman; Ingibjorg Eva Thorisdottir; Thorhildur Halldorsdottir (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Current Psychiatry Reports

This paper aims to review the literature on the trends in substance use among youth during the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. The pandemic has given rise to concerns about the mental health and social well-being of youth, including its potential to increase or exacerbate substance use behaviors. This systematic review identified and included 49 studies of use across alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, e-cigarettes/vaping, and other drugs, and unspecified substances. The majority of studies across all categories of youth substance use reported reductions in prevalence, except in the case of other drugs and unspecified drug and substance use, which included three studies that reported an increase in use and three studies that reported decrease in use.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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