search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   73     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 73
Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding: a review of evidence and current recommendations in Europe, North America, and Australasia

Carlo Pietrasanta; Andrea Ronchi; Beatrice Letizia Crippa (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
In the late 2020s, less than 1 year into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines were introduced on a worldwide scale, with a significant positive impact on the consequences of the disease for several high-risk population groups. In the case of most bacterial or viral respiratory infections, pregnant women are at increased risk of complications, however, neither pregnant nor breastfeeding women were included in the first round of randomized clinical trials evaluating the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines, because of safety and ethical concerns. Nevertheless, most anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have not been expressly contraindicated during pregnancy or breastfeeding, and observational data on immune response, adverse effects, and clinical efficacy in pregnant and breastfeeding women have been progressively gathered during 2021. The vast majority of these data is reassuring for what concerns side effects for women and infants and points out the efficacy of vaccines in protecting women against COVID-19-related complications. Despite this, the hesitancy of pregnant and breastfeeding women at being vaccinated is still real.
impact of the covid 19 pandemic on the process of exclusive breastfeeding

Nurul Anjarwati; Veny Erlisa Irawan

Published: April 2022   Journal: Jurnal Kesehatan Mesencephalon
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health occurred in all age groups including pregnant women, mothers giving birth, and newborns. Breastfeeding during a pandemic requires special attention because of the short-term and long-term health implications. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the success of exclusive breastfeeding. The research design is qualitative with in-depth interview data collection methods on 7 participants. The sample was selected according to the inclusion criteria, namely mothers who gave birth during a pandemic and when data were collected on children aged 6-12 months in the working area of the Kepanjen Health Center, Kab. Poor. Researchers as the main instrument in the study and interview guides as a reference for questions.
Experiences of at-risk women in accessing breastfeeding social support during the Covid-19 pandemic

Emila Siwik; Samantha Larose; Dalia Peres (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Human Lactation

With strict public health measures implemented in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many breastfeeding parents, who are within an at-risk population, have experienced limited formal and/or informal breastfeeding social support. In the Canadian context, the experiences of these women is unknown. This study aims to explore the experiences of at-risk postpartum breastfeeding women in accessing formal and informal breastfeeding social support during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Breastfeeding experience among mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Hanan Badr; Salmah Alghamdi

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
When health experts declared COVID-19 to be a global pandemic, they recognized the virus as a major environmental factor that could affect the practice of breastfeeding. A few studies focused on the effect of COVID-19 on mothers who gave birth during the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to explore the experience of Saudi Arabian breastfeeding mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a descriptive phenomenology qualitative design and a convenience sample of 18 mothers who breastfed their children beginning in March 2020. Data were collected through semi-structured, open-ended phone interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The mothers were between 27 and 36 years old, and most of them had previous breastfeeding experience.
Care of neonates and children during Corona crisis and importance of continuation of essential services

Farhana Rahat; Ahmed Murtaza Choudhury

Published: April 2022   Journal: Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital Journal
The corona virus disease (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread across the world and global population including children are facing unprecedented health crisis. The chance of vertical and perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus in children is not proven yet. The effect of the virus on neonate and infant appears to be small. On the other hand, pregnant women suffering from corona virus disease may give birth to premature or IUGR babies who will need extra care. Breast feeding is considered as gold standard in almost all situation. Continuation of breast feeding along with other essential services have reduced the risk of transmission of corona virus.
Changes in breastfeeding exclusivity and satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic

Megan K. Oggero; Diane W. Wardell

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Human Lactation

Because of its many benefits, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is a common public health goal. However, only 44% of infants aged 0–6 months are exclusively breastfed worldwide and, in the United States, only 26% of infants are exclusively breastfed for 6 months. The restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic may have reduced these rates even further. This study aims to examine the differences in breastfeeding exclusivity and satisfaction before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Breastfeeding/Breast milk safety in infants of mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection

Nursan Cinar; Ozge Karakaya Suzan; Sinem Ozturkler (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers in the lactation period can breastfeed their infants; and whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers can breastfeed their infants by taking some precautions. The study also aimed to present the measures that can be taken in line with the evidence. The studies conducted after November 2019 and including infants of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers were reviewed between 2019 and 2020. A literature review was conducted in five electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus) to reach original quantitative studies in English. The present authors retrieved 46 of the 1,229 studies included after screening. Three studies were cross-sectional studies, 30 were case studies, and 13 were cohorts.
SARS-CoV-2 vaccines during pregnancy and breastfeeding: a systematic review of maternal and neonatal outcomes

Domenico Umberto De Rose; Guglielmo Salvatori; Andrea Dotta (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Viruses
This systematic review summarizes current knowledges about maternal and neonatal outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding.  PubMed, Cochrane Library, and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) were searched up to 27 October 2021. The primary outcome was to estimate how many pregnant and lactating women were reported to be vaccinated and had available maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Protecting breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review of perinatal care recommendations in the context of maternal and child well-being

Aleksandra Wesołowska; Magdalena Orczyk-Pawiłowicz; Agnieszka Bzikowska-Jura (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The objective of this scoping review is to determine to what extent the recommendations on perinatal care protect breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. The review follows the PRISMA ScR Extension guidelines. The research was conducted in Scopus, Medline via Pubmed, and Web of Science databases from 1 March 2020 to 31 May 2021, using 392 combinations of keywords. The study searched for reviews and original papers published in English providing recommendations on delivery mode, companion during labor, the possibility of skin-to-skin contact (SSC), breastfeeding, and visitors policy. After screening, 86 out of 8416 publications qualified for data extraction. The majority of them indicated that COVID-19 infection is not a sufficient reason for a cesarean section; however, on a national level, cesarean births in severely ill patients were overrepresented.
COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in pregnant and lactating women and mothers of young children in Poland

N. Kuciel; J. Mazurek; K. Hap (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Women's Health

The World Health Organization indicated vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 threats to global health. The success of a vaccine depends not only on its efficacy but also on its acceptance. This study aims to define COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in a sample of pregnant and lactating women in Poland. Since mothers are often key decision-makers for whether their children will receive vaccination, it is vital to measure vaccine confidence among this group. An anonymous online survey was distributed to assess the level of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant and lactating women for themselves and their children in Poland.

Breastfeeding experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain:a qualitative study

Isabel Rodríguez-Gallego; Helen Strivens-Vilchez; Irene Agea-Cano (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Breastfeeding Journal

The pandemic caused by COVID-19 has affected reproductive and perinatal health both through the infection itself and, indirectly, as a consequence of changes in medical care, social policy or social and economic circumstances. The objective of this study is to explore the impact of the pandemic and of the measures adopted on breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted by means in-depth semi-structured interviews, until reaching data saturation. The study was conducted between the months of January to May 2021. Participants were recruited by midwives from the Primary Care Centres of the Andalusian provinces provinces of Seville, Cádiz, Huelva, Granada, and Jaén. The interviews were conducted via phone call and were subsequently transcribed and analysed by means of reflexive inductive thematic analysis, using Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis.

The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on maternal delivery experiences and breastfeeding practices in China: data from a cross-sectional study

Jinyue Yu; Mingyue Gao; Zhuang Wei (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

The COVID-2019 pandemic has placed extensive pressure on health systems and posed a severe public health challenge worldwide. Lockdown measures implemented in many countries have delayed virus spread. However, a considerable number of people have faced unprecedented pressure, especially pregnant and breast-feeding women, because face-to-face professional support has been reduced during the lockdown in many countries. This study aims to compare the delivery and infant feeding experiences of women who delivered before (BL) versus during (DL) the Covid-19 pandemic in Beijing, China and to investigate predictors of breastfeeding at 6-months. Women aged ≥18 years with an infant ≤18 months of age completed an anonymous survey. Information/links were shared online and via local clinics in Beijing. Logistic regression was performed to assess predictors of breastfeeding during the first 6-months.

Association between early initiation of breastfeeding and reduced risk of respiratory infection: implications for nonseparation of infant and mother in the COVID-19 context

Bindi Borg; Karleen Gribble; Karan Courtney-Haag (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Maternal & child nutrition
Early initiation of breastfeeding, within 1 h of birth, is vital for the health of newborns and reduces morbidity and mortality. Secondary analysis of the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) showed that early initiation of breastfeeding significantly reduced the risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under 2 years. Early initiation of breastfeeding requires maternal proximity. Separation of infant and mother inhibits early initiation of breastfeeding and increases the risk that infants will suffer from ARIs. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, guidance varied, with some recommending that infants and mothers with SARS-CoV-2 be isolated from one another. Nepal's Ministry of Health and Population recommended nonseparation, but the adherence to this guidance was inconsistent. Maternal proximity, nonseparation and early initiation of breastfeeding should be promoted in all birthing facilities.
Association between breastfeeding and complementary feeding in pre-pandemic and pandemic COVID-19 times: maternar cohort study

Bruna Luiza Holanda; Clarissa de Oliveira Agostini; Marcela Caridad Medina Pacheco (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

This study aims to evaluate the association between breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding at six months and the introduction of complementary feeding and the pre-pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic periods. Cohort study conducted with puerperal women and their newborns in the immediate postpartum period at a reference maternity hospital in Southern Brazil between 2018-2020. The COVID-19 pandemic period and the need to work outside the home during restricted circulation were the factors of exposure. The outcome evaluated was the weaning in the first six months (breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding) and the introduction of complementary feeding before the sixth month of life.

Lockdown-associated hunger may be affecting breastfeeding: findings from a large SMS survey in South Africa

Nazeeia Sayed; Ronelle Burger; Abigail Harper (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had, and will continue to have, on food security and child health is especially concerning. A rapid, Short Message Service (SMS) Maternal and Child Health survey was conducted in South Africa in June 2020 (n = 3140), with a follow-up in July 2020 (n = 2287). This was a national cross-sectional survey conducted among pregnant women and mothers registered with the MomConnect mhealth platform. Logistic regression was conducted to explore the associations between breastfeeding, maternal depressive symptoms, and hunger in the household. High breastfeeding initiation rates and the early introduction of other foods or mixed milk feeding were found.
1 - 15 of 73

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and disabilities.

The second digest discussed children and violence during the pandemic.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.