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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Parents of children with disabilities and the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Her Majesty Queen Mathilde

Published: August 2021   Journal: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted authorities and institutions around the world to adopt urgent measures of general application, including limiting social contact and shutting down public spaces to prevent spread of the virus. We now see clearly what had been insufficiently anticipated and planned for. Quarantine and other preventative measures often had painful consequences for those who already lead a more challenging life—the disadvantaged and the vulnerable, and those around them. In the context of the pandemic, parents and caregivers of children with disabilities or complex chronic disorders faced unprecedented, at times insurmountable dilemmas. Schools and residential care facilities closed their doors; non-acute management was severely disrupted. Parents and carers had to decide on their own whether to take their children out of care and return them to the family home, or leave them in the usual living environment, where visits and other social contacts were drastically reduced or prohibited.

Challenges facing family caregivers of children with disabilities during COVID-19 pandemic in Palestine

AUTHOR(S)
Dalia Zahaika; Diana Daraweesh; Sondos Shqerat (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health

COVID-19 has caused great changes in all aspects of life which affected all people especially vulnerable groups such as children with disabilities (CWD) and their families. This study aimed to examine the challenges facing caregivers of CWD during the pandemic, and to explore these challenges from various physical, social, psychological, and financial aspects. A cross-sectional design was conducted in Palestine, a total of 130 caregivers of CWD completed a survey consisting of demographic and clinical characteristics questionnaire and the short version of the burden scale for family caregivers (BSFC-s) between March and May 2021.

We are anxious every day: COVID-19 impacts on youth with spina bifida 

AUTHOR(S)
Colleen Stiles-Shields; Tessa K. Kritikos; Monique M. Ridosh (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

This study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a national sample of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with spina bifida (SB) and parents of youth with SB. AYA with SB (15–25; n = 298) and parents of children with SB (n = 200) were recruited to complete an anonymous, online survey in English or Spanish. Participants provided information about demographic and condition characteristics, as well as their technology access and use for behavioral health care. They also completed the COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Survey (CEFIS), which includes Exposure, Impact, and Distress subscales. Exploratory correlations and t-tests were used to examine potential associations between CEFIS scores and demographic, medical, and access characteristics. Qualitative data from the CEFIS were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and well-being of Latinx caregivers of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
Yolanda Suarez-Balcazar; Mansha Mirza; Vanessa L. Errisuriz (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the entire world in unprecedented ways. However, populations that have had a history of marginalization have experienced a more profound impact. One such group is Latinx families of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in the Unites States. This study used a mixed methods approach to explore the impact of the pandemic on the mental health and well-being of Latinx caregivers of children with IDD. Specifically, it (1) identified which social determinants of health are correlated with maternal caregivers perceived general health, mental health, and well-being; (2) explored the impact of the pandemic on families’ overall eating and physical activity routines; and (3) identified emergent themes from caregivers’ experiences during the pandemic.
Assessment of have problems and care burdens of mothers with handicapped children in COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Melike Yavaş Celik

Published: July 2021   Journal: Social Work in Public Health
In the study, it was aimed to evaluate the problems and care burden of mothers who have a handicapped child in the pandemic process. The population of the descriptive study consisted of the mothers of the children who came to the rehabilitation center (n = 230), and the sampling consisted of the mothers who wanted to participate in the study (n = 216). The research data were collected through social media and the data were analyzed using the mean, standard deviation, percentage and frequency measurements, independent sample t test, Oneway anova, Kruskal wallis tests in the SPSS program. In the study, Burden Interview Scale (BIS) scores of the mothers who stated that the educational status of their child was adversely affected in the pandemic, stated that they were worried that there would be someone to take care of my child if I died, stated that the child’s health checks were interrupted, stated that they did not send their child to school due to the fear of COVID-19, and reported that they had a problem in reaching the health institution was determined were significantly higher than. Mothers with handicapped children stated that their children experienced difficulties in important situations such as health checks and educations during the pandemic period. In addition, it was found that the care burden of these mothers was higher. During the pandemic period, it is necessary to make and support new regulations in accordance with the disability of these special children with state policies as well as healthcare professionals.
Boom boom in the zoom zoom room: online music therapy with children and adolescents with visual impairment

AUTHOR(S)
Bill Ahessy

Published: July 2021   Journal: British Journal of Visual Impairment
The COVID-19 pandemic created a major transformation in the delivery of music therapy services worldwide as they moved online. Telehealth research is in its infancy and online work with children and adolescents with visual impairment has yet to be investigated. This survey-based study explored the experiences and perceptions of parents of children and adolescents with visual impairment (n = 11) who engaged in online music therapy.
The association between disability and risk of exposure to peer cyber victimisation is moderated by gender: cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Eric Emerson; Zoe Aitken; Tania King (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Disability and Health Journal

Little is known about the exposure of youth with disability to cyber victimisation. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of peer cyber and non-cyber victimisation in a nationally representative sample of 14-year-old adolescents with and without disability and to determine whether gender moderates the relationship between disability and exposure to victimisation. Secondary analysis of data collected in Wave 6 of the UK's Millennium Cohort Survey on 11,726 14-year-old adolescents living in the UK.

Comparing the initial impact of COVID-19 on burden and psychological distress among family caregivers of children with and without developmental disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
S. M. Chafouleas; E. A. Iovino

Published: April 2021   Journal: School Psychology
The current COVID-19 pandemic is presenting challenges for families, which may be exacerbated for caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (DDs; Center on the Developing Child, Stress, hope, and the role of science: Responding to the coronavirus pandemic, 2020). The purpose of this study was to explore caregiver burden and psychological distress among caregivers of children with DD as compared to caregivers of typically developing children across the United States as a result of COVID-19.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with ASD and their families: an online survey in China

AUTHOR(S)
Saijun Huang; Tao Sun; Yanna Zhu (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown will have short-term and long-term psychosocial and mental health implications for children. Children with autism may have some specific needs for support because of their difficulties in social communication, stereotyped behavior patterns, and other specificities brought about by autism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on ASD children and their families.
Impact of containment and mitigation measures on children and youth with SD during the COVID-19 pandemic: report from the ELENA Cohort

AUTHOR(S)
Mathilde Berard; Cécile Rattaz Rattaz; Marianne Peries (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Containment, involving separation and restriction of movement of people due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and mitigation, also referred to as lockdown, involving closure of schools, universities and public venues, has had a profound impact on people's lives globally. The study focuses on the effects of containment and mitigation measures, on the behavior of children and youth (CaY) with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The study primary aim was to examine the impact of these urgent measures on the behaviors, communication, sleep, and nutritional status of the CaY. A secondary aim was to explore risk and protective factors on behavior change including sociodemographic variables, living conditions, ASD symptom severity and continuity of interventions.
A systematic review of technological approaches for autism spectrum disorder assessment in children: Implications for the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Angela V. Dahiya; Elizabeth De Lucia; Christina G. McDonnell (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Screening and diagnostic assessments tools for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are important to administer during childhood to facilitate timely entry into intervention services that can promote developmental outcomes across the lifespan. However, assessment services are not always readily available to families, as they require significant time and resources. Currently, in-person screening and diagnostic assessments for ASD are limited due to the COVID-19 pandemic and will continue to be a concern for situations that limit in-person contact. Thus, it is important to expand the modalities in which child assessments are provided, including the use of technology. This systematic review aims to identify technologies that screen or assess for ASD in 0–12 year-old children, summarizing the current state of the field and suggesting future directions.

While quarantined: an online parent education and training model for families of children with autism in China

AUTHOR(S)
Seung Eun McDevitt

Published: January 2021   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

In the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak, already limited services and resources for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in China became even more scarce. This qualitative case study highlights one online parent education and training (PET) program developed during the pandemic to offer home-intervention strategies to parents of children with ASD in mainland China. This exploratory study sought to examine the emic perspectives of the trainers and parents who participated in the 12-week intensive training program while considering the cultural context in China and the transnational, remote nature of the program.

Home-based music therapy for children with developmental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Bompard; Tommaso Liuzzi; Susanna Staccioli

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
During the COVID-19 pandemic, children with neurodevelopmental disabilities could not attend their usual rehabilitation therapies, with a consequent reduced support of developmental process and risk of worsening of their clinical conditions.
The impact of COVID-19 measures on children with disabilities and their families in Uganda

AUTHOR(S)
Femke Bannink Mbazzi; Ruth Nalugya; Elizabeth Kawesa (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Disability & Society

This paper reports a study with families of children with disabilities in Uganda during the Coronavirus pandemic in 2020, known as COVID-19. Families of children with disabilities in Uganda are well informed about COVID-19 and try to follow prevention measures. Families of children with disabilities have difficulties meeting daily basic needs as they were unable to work and had no income during the COVID-19 related lock down. The COVID-19 response affects access to health and rehabilitation services for children with disabilities in Uganda. Parents of children with disabilities struggle with home education and learning due to lack of access to accessible learning materials and learning support in Uganda. The COVID-19 response affects the peer support networks and social support for parents of children with disabilities in Uganda. Children with disabilities and their families should be involved and considered in the development and implementation of the COVID-19 response.

Tackling torture: victims with disabilities in the COVID-19 outbreak
Institution: Validity Foundation
Published: December 2020

Applying the antitorture framework to the situation of people with disabilities during a pandemic is no simple task. Yet, it is an important one, perhaps most importantly in prompting states to prevent ongoing and future violations from occurring. This is an immensely complex legal undertaking, requiring cumulative assessments of legislation, emergency powers, public health policy and vast quantities of data, while also assessing the levels of harm that have been caused, or that could have been reasonably foreseeable. This process, which must remain grounded in international human rights law, necessarily gives rise to complicated questions of law, policy and ethics, and indeed the very scope of protection provided under international law. This anthology cannot answer all of these questions and does not purport to do so. Instead, its single purpose is to promote critical reflection, discussion and debate amongst legal communities and disability rights defenders. Some articles clearly open more questions than they answer, but it is our hope that this collection can stimulate greater levels of action to prevent and redress suffering in the weeks and months to come. It also serves as a launching pad for developing more sustainable, non[1]discriminatory public policies which protect fundamental human rights, even during periods of crisis.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.