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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Education and an ethics of care when working with refugee families during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Anne Keary; Andrea Reupert; Mervi Kaukko (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Early Years
Provision of early childhood education and care services for refugee families took on heightened challenges during COVID-19 restrictions. This study undertook a small-scale study to explore how Australian educators worked with and cared for refugee families during the COVID-19 outbreak in an urban Australian setting. This study emerges from a larger project that aimed to support social inclusion and cultural and linguistic diversity for refugee families in Australia. It draws on two group interviews conducted during a COVID-19 lockdown with four educators working with refugee families in early childhood education and care. Data analysis is framed by the ethics of care work of Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings. On the basis of these theories and the interview data, two vignettes on an ethics of care were developed. The importance of being cared for and cared about and genuinely listening were identified as crucial aspects of the care provided to refugee children and their families.
‘It's making his bad days into my bad days’: The impact of coronavirus social distancing measures on young carers and young adult carers in the United Kingdom

AUTHOR(S)
Andy McGowan; Kate Blake-Holmes

Published: January 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
The lockdown measures put in place in March 2020 in England to counter the spread of the coronavirus have had significant implications for the lives and well-being of young carers and young adult carers. In such unprecedented times, little was known about the potential impact on this group and their specific experience of the Covid-19 lockdown restrictions. A rapid review was conducted, 28 young carers responded to a survey and an additional 20 participants were interviewed in January 2021; the survey was repeated with a further 149 responses.
Caregivers’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and their children’s behavior

AUTHOR(S)
Stephanie M. Reich; Melissa Dahlin; Nestor Tulagan (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
The COVID-19 pandemic has financial and emotional impacts on families. This study explored how caregivers’ financial strain and mental health are associated with changes in their young children’s behavior during the pandemic. It additionally considered whether having a sense of purpose moderated these associations. Caregivers (n = 300) in the emergency department of a children’s hospital were surveyed anonymously about changes to their employment (e.g., reduced/increased hours and job loss), ability to pay for expenses and whether their child’s behavior had changed. Aligned with the Family Stress Model, caregivers’ financial strain was associated with poor mental health, inconsistent sleep routines, and changes in children’s problematic and prosocial behaviors. A sense of purpose buffered some of these relationships. Families are differently affected by the pandemic and our findings underscore the need for supporting caregivers’ mental health and connecting them with resources.
In their own words: children's perceptions of caregiver stress during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Yuan He; Robin Ortiz; Rachel Kishton (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Health Services Research
The purpose of this research is to use text and chat transcripts from a national child helpline to examine how children perceive, identify, and describe caregiver stress during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
A study on the impact of COV1D-19 on women and girls in Ethiopia
Institution: CARE
Published: June 2021
By August 9, 2021, Ethiopia had reported more than 284,000 COVID-19 cases and 4,426 deaths. Since COVID-19 was first reported in Ethiopia in March of 2021, the impacts of the pandemic, the measures taken to curb COVID-19, and additional political, economic, and environmental crises have severely impacted the population.
Women and girls bear different burdens in this crisis, and emergency responses often overlook the differences in impacts and needs for women, girls, men, and boys in humanitarian responses. To that end, this research— with funding from the EUTF (European Union Emergency Trust Fund) provides insight into the impact of COV1D-19 on women and girls in Ethiopia. The quantitative surveys covered adult women and girls over the age of 15. It also provides insights into the differences between refugees, Internally Displaced People (IDPs), refugees, and migrants. Qualitative from focus group discussions and key informant interviews also reflects opinions from men and boys.
Facilitators for coping with the COVID-19 pandemic: online qualitative interviews comparing youth with and without disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
Sally Lindsay; Hiba Ahmed; Demitra Apostolopoulos

Published: May 2021   Journal: Disability and Health Journal

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly impacted people’s mental health. Youth with disabilities are at particular risk for the psychological implications of the pandemic. Although much attention has been given to pandemic-related mental health challenges that youth have encountered, little is known about the facilitators for coping with the stresses of the pandemic and how this varies for youth with and without disabilities. The purpose of this study was to understand facilitators for helping youth and young adults with and without disabilities to cope and maintain mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Comparing the initial impact of COVID-19 on burden and psychological distress among family caregivers of children with and without developmental disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
S. M. Chafouleas; E. A. Iovino

Published: April 2021   Journal: School Psychology
The current COVID-19 pandemic is presenting challenges for families, which may be exacerbated for caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (DDs; Center on the Developing Child, Stress, hope, and the role of science: Responding to the coronavirus pandemic, 2020). The purpose of this study was to explore caregiver burden and psychological distress among caregivers of children with DD as compared to caregivers of typically developing children across the United States as a result of COVID-19.
Caring for caregivers: the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on those responsible for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

AUTHOR(S)
Janine Alessi; Giovana Berger de Oliveira; Gabriela Feiden (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports volume
This study aimed to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on guardians of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An online survey was performed to assess the prevalence of pandemic-related emotional burden, mental health disorders and diabetes-specifc emotional burden related to diabetes care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Caregivers of children and adolescents with diabetes under the age of 18 and caregivers of youth without diabetes for the non-diabetes group were invited to participate.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: care work, COVID-19 response, diabetes, disease control
Impacts of COVID‐19 on caregivers of childhood cancer survivors

AUTHOR(S)
Courtney E.Wimberly Wimberly; Lisa Towry; Caroline Caudill (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Pediatric Blood & Cancer

This paper aims to assess the impact of disruptions due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) on caregivers of childhood cancer survivors. A 13‐question survey containing multiple‐choice, Likert‐type, and free‐text questions on experiences, behaviors, and attitudes during the COVID‐19 outbreak was sent to childhood cancer caregivers and completed between April 13 and May 17, 2020. Ordered logistic regression was used to investigate relationships between demographics, COVID‐related experiences, and caregiver well‐being.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 68 | Issue: 4 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Mental Health | Tags: care work, child care services, COVID-19 response, lockdown
Caring under COVID-19: how the pandemic is – and is not – changing unpaid care and domestic work responsibilities in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Brian Heilman; María Rosario Castro Bernardini; Kimberly Pfeifer

Published: December 2020

This report provides six new insights on the unfolding crisis of care, along with PL+US highlighting the need for paid leave, policy changes that are intersectional and that account for and remedy existing inequalities, and better inclusion in decision-making of those individuals with a clear view of inequalities. This report is the first in a series of similar polls in the #HowICare Project which will be published by Oxfam International in four other countries: UK, Canada, Philippines, and Kenya.

Care matters: reimagining early childhood education and care in a time of global pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Joanne Ailwood; I-Fang Lee

Published: December 2020   Journal: Global Studies of Childhood

The pandemic has served to further highlight the politics of care, making space for public debate about who is worthy of care, who cares, for whom, and under what conditions.This short commentary is about the definition of care and related public policies.

Using mixed methods to identify the primary mental health problems and needs of children, adolescents, and their caregivers during the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Olivia Fitzpatrick; Amani Carson; John R. Weisz

Published: October 2020   Journal: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Our understanding of child, adolescent, and caregiver mental health (MH) problems during the coronavirus pandemic, and which interventions are needed, may be advanced by consumer input. 133 general population caregivers reported top MH problems and needs for themselves and their children, using standardized and idiographic measures. Linear regression models have been applied to quantitative data and thematic analysis to qualitative data. Caregivers’ COVID-era depression and anxiety symptom means fell within the clinical range, as did their children’s MH symptoms. Caregiver reported child and adolescent symptoms were positively associated with number of children in the home. Caregiver and caregiver-reported child and adolescent symptoms were more pronounced in regions with more lenient COVID-19 restrictions. Among the kinds of help most urgently needed, MH services were ranked #1 for caregivers and adolescents, #2 for 6–12 year-olds, and #3 for 1–5 year-olds. Top problems identifed for each age group highlight pressing pandemic-related intervention targets.
Child care and COVID: precarious communities in distanced times

AUTHOR(S)
Beth Blue Swadener; Lacey Peters; Dana Frantz Bentley (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Global Studies of Childhood
Drawing from an analysis of responses to COVID affecting the ECCE sector in the US, including the narratives of early childhood educators, this study engages with several questions. These include: How is care work with children constructed and affected by COVID-19? How might current responses and policies be understood through the lens of social citizenship and the collective/the individual? How do these issues reflect the precarity of the ECCE sector? How are embodied and emotional aspects of care work manifesting in early educator/caregiver lives in the time of the pandemic? Who is caring for the caregivers and what care may be needed? How can we re-imagine the care of ourselves, and in relation to an ethics of care for the other?
Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health and perceived strain among caregivers tending children with special needs

AUTHOR(S)
Sapna Dhiman; Pradeep Kumar Sahu; William R. Reed (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

While COVID-19 outbreak has had adverse psychological effects in children with special needs, the mental state and burden on their caregivers during this pandemic has yet to be reported. The COVID-19 outbreak has had a significant impact on caregiver strain compared to perceived strain before the pandemic. Prevalence of depressive symptoms is high among caregivers of children with special needs. Negative perception of homecare therapy is associated with higher perceived strain and poor mental health. Not using tele-rehabilitation and perception of it being a poor medium for rehabilitation pose greater mental health risks.

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the care burden of women and families

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Power

Published: June 2020   Journal: Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy
While women were already doing most of the world’s unpaid care work prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, emerging research suggests that the crisis and its subsequent shutdown response have resulted in a dramatic increase in this burden. This policy brief builds on recent work on the care economy to explore implications of the COVID-19 pandemic and opportunities for addressing the burden of unpaid care work.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 16 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 67-73 | Language: English | Topics: Child Poverty, Child Protection | Tags: care work, gender roles, social inequality
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.