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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Does the pandemic affect inequality within families? The case of dual-earner couples in Israel

AUTHOR(S)
Efrat Herzberg-Druker; Tali Kristal; Meir Yaish

Published: October 2022   Journal: Gender & Society
This article exploits the unique consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak to examine whether time constraints drive the unequal division of unpaid labor between dual-earner couples in Israel. Using the first wave of longitudinal household data that was collected in Israel since the outbreak of the pandemic, we focused on 325 dual-earner couples who stayed employed during the first lockdown. By employing OLS regressions, we examined the association between changes in employment hours and changes in unpaid labor for partnered men and women.
Cultivating compassion for self and others: a school-based pilot study for peer-nominated caring adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Blake A. Colaianne; Brooke D. Lavelle; Meg L. Small (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Research on Adolescence
Many have called for school-based student programs that teach skills related to self-care and caring for others. Here, such a program for peer-nominated adolescents was developed and piloted virtually at one high school during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results of a longitudinal, quasi-experimental evaluation of the program showed high-quality program implementation and promising program impacts. Effect sizes indicated moderate to large program impacts on improvements in adolescents' self-compassion, sense of interdependence, and perspective-taking, and female adolescents' interoceptive awareness, compared to controls. No group differences in compassion for others were found. The need for more research on programs that help adolescents balance compassion for the self and for others is discussed.
Providing essential gender-affirming telehealth services to transgender youth during COVID-19: a service review

AUTHOR(S)
Kerry McGregor; Coleen R. Williams; Ariel Botta (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant effects on service delivery for transgender and gender diverse youth. Many in-person services were suspended in response to the need to follow quarantine and social-distancing guidelines, at both the state and national levels. In response, our pediatric gender clinic adopted a rapid implementation of telehealth services to provide access to gender affirming care. However, there exists little guidance on how to provide gender-affirming care via these platforms. This article provides a narrative review of the development of a full-scale model for delivering telehealth services to transgender and gender diverse youth and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also discusses the benefits and drawbacks of telehealth services for transgender and gender-diverse youth and focuses on the continued need for advocacy around systemic barriers to care.
Education and an ethics of care when working with refugee families during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Anne Keary; Andrea Reupert; Mervi Kaukko (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Early Years
Provision of early childhood education and care services for refugee families took on heightened challenges during COVID-19 restrictions. This study undertook a small-scale study to explore how Australian educators worked with and cared for refugee families during the COVID-19 outbreak in an urban Australian setting. This study emerges from a larger project that aimed to support social inclusion and cultural and linguistic diversity for refugee families in Australia. It draws on two group interviews conducted during a COVID-19 lockdown with four educators working with refugee families in early childhood education and care. Data analysis is framed by the ethics of care work of Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings. On the basis of these theories and the interview data, two vignettes on an ethics of care were developed. The importance of being cared for and cared about and genuinely listening were identified as crucial aspects of the care provided to refugee children and their families.
‘It's making his bad days into my bad days’: The impact of coronavirus social distancing measures on young carers and young adult carers in the United Kingdom

AUTHOR(S)
Andy McGowan; Kate Blake-Holmes

Published: January 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
The lockdown measures put in place in March 2020 in England to counter the spread of the coronavirus have had significant implications for the lives and well-being of young carers and young adult carers. In such unprecedented times, little was known about the potential impact on this group and their specific experience of the Covid-19 lockdown restrictions. A rapid review was conducted, 28 young carers responded to a survey and an additional 20 participants were interviewed in January 2021; the survey was repeated with a further 149 responses.
Caregivers’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and their children’s behavior

AUTHOR(S)
Stephanie M. Reich; Melissa Dahlin; Nestor Tulagan (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
The COVID-19 pandemic has financial and emotional impacts on families. This study explored how caregivers’ financial strain and mental health are associated with changes in their young children’s behavior during the pandemic. It additionally considered whether having a sense of purpose moderated these associations. Caregivers (n = 300) in the emergency department of a children’s hospital were surveyed anonymously about changes to their employment (e.g., reduced/increased hours and job loss), ability to pay for expenses and whether their child’s behavior had changed. Aligned with the Family Stress Model, caregivers’ financial strain was associated with poor mental health, inconsistent sleep routines, and changes in children’s problematic and prosocial behaviors. A sense of purpose buffered some of these relationships. Families are differently affected by the pandemic and our findings underscore the need for supporting caregivers’ mental health and connecting them with resources.
In their own words: children's perceptions of caregiver stress during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Yuan He; Robin Ortiz; Rachel Kishton (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Health Services Research
The purpose of this research is to use text and chat transcripts from a national child helpline to examine how children perceive, identify, and describe caregiver stress during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Did COVID-19 affect the division of labor within the household? evidence from two waves of the pandemic in Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Daniela Del Boca; Noemi Oggero; Paola Profeta (et al.)

Published: June 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on families’ lives, with parents all over the world struggling to meet the increased demands of housework, childcare and home-schooling. Much of the additional burden has been shouldered by women, particularly in countries with a traditionally uneven division of household labor. Yet the dramatic increase in remote work from home since the pandemic also has the potential to increase paternal involvement in family life and thus to redress persistent domestic gender role inequalities. This effect depends on the working arrangements of each partner, whether working remotely, working at their usual workplace or ceasing work altogether. This study examines the role of working arrangements during the pandemic on the traditional division of household labor in Italy using survey data from interviews with a representative sample of working women conducted during the two waves of COVID-19 (April and November 2020).
A study on the impact of COV1D-19 on women and girls in Ethiopia
Institution: CARE
Published: June 2021
By August 9, 2021, Ethiopia had reported more than 284,000 COVID-19 cases and 4,426 deaths. Since COVID-19 was first reported in Ethiopia in March of 2021, the impacts of the pandemic, the measures taken to curb COVID-19, and additional political, economic, and environmental crises have severely impacted the population.
Women and girls bear different burdens in this crisis, and emergency responses often overlook the differences in impacts and needs for women, girls, men, and boys in humanitarian responses. To that end, this research— with funding from the EUTF (European Union Emergency Trust Fund) provides insight into the impact of COV1D-19 on women and girls in Ethiopia. The quantitative surveys covered adult women and girls over the age of 15. It also provides insights into the differences between refugees, Internally Displaced People (IDPs), refugees, and migrants. Qualitative from focus group discussions and key informant interviews also reflects opinions from men and boys.
Neither backlash nor convergence: dynamics of intracouple childcare division after the first COVID-19 lockdown and subsequent reopening in Germany

AUTHOR(S)
Christina Boll; Dana Müller; Simone Schüller

Published: May 2021
Using unique monthly panel data from the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) covering the immediate postlockdown period from June to August 2020, we investigate the opposing claims of widening/closing the gender gap in parental childcare during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. We contribute to the current literature by analyzing the medium-term dynamics of couples’ childcare division and by considering the prepandemic division rather than providing merely snapshots during lockdown.
Facilitators for coping with the COVID-19 pandemic: online qualitative interviews comparing youth with and without disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
Sally Lindsay; Hiba Ahmed; Demitra Apostolopoulos

Published: May 2021   Journal: Disability and Health Journal

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly impacted people’s mental health. Youth with disabilities are at particular risk for the psychological implications of the pandemic. Although much attention has been given to pandemic-related mental health challenges that youth have encountered, little is known about the facilitators for coping with the stresses of the pandemic and how this varies for youth with and without disabilities. The purpose of this study was to understand facilitators for helping youth and young adults with and without disabilities to cope and maintain mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Comparing the initial impact of COVID-19 on burden and psychological distress among family caregivers of children with and without developmental disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
S. M. Chafouleas; E. A. Iovino

Published: April 2021   Journal: School Psychology
The current COVID-19 pandemic is presenting challenges for families, which may be exacerbated for caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (DDs; Center on the Developing Child, Stress, hope, and the role of science: Responding to the coronavirus pandemic, 2020). The purpose of this study was to explore caregiver burden and psychological distress among caregivers of children with DD as compared to caregivers of typically developing children across the United States as a result of COVID-19.
Caring for caregivers: the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on those responsible for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

AUTHOR(S)
Janine Alessi; Giovana Berger de Oliveira; Gabriela Feiden (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports volume
This study aimed to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on guardians of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An online survey was performed to assess the prevalence of pandemic-related emotional burden, mental health disorders and diabetes-specifc emotional burden related to diabetes care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Caregivers of children and adolescents with diabetes under the age of 18 and caregivers of youth without diabetes for the non-diabetes group were invited to participate.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: care work, COVID-19 response, diabetes, disease control
Impacts of COVID‐19 on caregivers of childhood cancer survivors

AUTHOR(S)
Courtney E.Wimberly Wimberly; Lisa Towry; Caroline Caudill (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Pediatric Blood & Cancer

This paper aims to assess the impact of disruptions due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) on caregivers of childhood cancer survivors. A 13‐question survey containing multiple‐choice, Likert‐type, and free‐text questions on experiences, behaviors, and attitudes during the COVID‐19 outbreak was sent to childhood cancer caregivers and completed between April 13 and May 17, 2020. Ordered logistic regression was used to investigate relationships between demographics, COVID‐related experiences, and caregiver well‐being.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 68 | Issue: 4 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Mental Health | Tags: care work, child care services, COVID-19 response, lockdown
Caring under COVID-19: how the pandemic is – and is not – changing unpaid care and domestic work responsibilities in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Brian Heilman; María Rosario Castro Bernardini; Kimberly Pfeifer

Published: December 2020

This report provides six new insights on the unfolding crisis of care, along with PL+US highlighting the need for paid leave, policy changes that are intersectional and that account for and remedy existing inequalities, and better inclusion in decision-making of those individuals with a clear view of inequalities. This report is the first in a series of similar polls in the #HowICare Project which will be published by Oxfam International in four other countries: UK, Canada, Philippines, and Kenya.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.