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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 96
Mother-infant emotional availability through the COVID-19 pandemic: examining continuity, stability, and bidirectional associations

Nila Shakiba; Gal Doron; Avigail Gordon-Hacker (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Infancy
The COVID-19 pandemic may impact the development of infants' social communication patterns with their caregivers. The current study examined continuity, stability, and bidirectional associations in maternal and infant dyadic Emotional Availability (EA) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 110 Israeli mother-infant dyads (51% girls) that were assessed prior to (Mage = 3.5 months) and during (Mage = 12.4 months) the pandemic.
Impact of distance learning in an online environment on physical performance in high school boys

Daniela Simeonova; Andrey Shalev

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Scientific Congress Applied Sports Sciences
One of the tasks of physical education in the different grades of the Bulgarian school is the purposeful development of motor skills and achieving an optimal level of physical activity for every age group. The COVID-19 pandemic forced a change in the way students are taught and the conduct of their physical education classes. In this regard, the aim of this research is to reveal the impact of one year of training in an online environment on the physical fitness of high school students. To achieve this goal, this research was conducted twice (at the beginning and end of the 2021/2022 school year) and tested 39 students (boys) from the “Peter Beron” high school for foreign language teaching - the city of Montana. It conducted the research through the national system for evaluating the physical fitness of students, which includes the tests of running 30 meters, long jump from a place with both feet, throwing a solid ball, running 200 meters shuttle run, and T-test. It applied a variation and comparative analysis to the data from the two tests.
Children's engineering identity development within an at-home engineering program during COVID-19

Amber Simpson; Peter N. Knox

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research
The culture of engineering and the culture of formal learning environments often make it difficult for individuals to develop an engineering identity. Conversely, recent research points to the home environment as an alternative setting to support disciplinespecific identity development of children, while less is known regarding the identity development of children as engineers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the development of children’s engineering identity through the co-creation of engineering concepts and engagement with engineering design thinking and processes with family members in home environments during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Trajectories of child growth, child development, and home child-rearing quality during the Covid pandemic in rural Nepal

Laurie C. Miller; Sumanta Neupane; Neena Joshi (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

Children, especially disadvantaged children in poor countries, were expected to be among the “biggest victims” of the Covid pandemic. Economic burdens, decreased nutritious foods, reduced medical care, school closures, and ill-health or death of family members were predicted to increase child undernutrition and developmental delays, and diminish home child-rearing quality. A planned nutrition intervention could not be implemented due to Covid restrictions. However, three surveys (pre-Covid [December 2019], July 2021, and September 2021) in 280 Nepali households (309 parent-dyads, 368 children, 6–66 months old) collected demographics, child anthropometry and development (Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 [ASQ-3]), and home child-rearing quality (caregiver engagement, learning resources, adult supervision [UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey]). Mixed-effect regression models adjusted for household (wealth, maternal education) and child factors (age, gender) and survey round.

Elective home education of children with neurodevelopmental conditions before and after the COVID-19 pandemic started

Laura Paulauskaite; Amanda Timmerman; Athanasia Kouroupa (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
COVID-19 brought disruptions to children’s education and mental health, and accelerated school de-registration rates. This study investigated Elective Home Education (EHE) in families of children with a neurodevelopmental condition. A total of 158 parents of 5–15 year-old children with neurodevelopmental conditions (80% autistic) provided information on reasons for de-registration, their experience of EHE, and children’s mental health.
It's time to talk fathers: The impact of paternal depression on parenting style and child development during the COVID-19 pandemic

Joshua Paul Roberts; Rose-Marie Satherley; Jane Iles

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
This study aimed to understand the relationship between paternal depression, parenting behavior and child developmental outcomes during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID) pandemic. In addition, the paternal experience of the pandemic, such as the impact of lockdowns, was explored. Fathers of children aged 6–11 years old (n = 87) were recruited for an online cross-sectional survey. Data was collected through questionnaires and open-ended comments. Regression analysis indicated a higher level of self-reported depressive symptomology in fathers more severely impacted by the pandemic across financial, familial and health domains. Further, COVID-19 impact, but not paternal depression, was linked to fewer authoritative parenting behaviors, characterized as lower warmth and responsiveness. Paternal pandemic impact and depression symptoms were independently predictive of child cognitive scores, and both were associated with emotional and behavioral outcomes.
"The internet is keeping me from dying from boredom": understanding the management and social construction of the self through middle-class Indian children's engagement with digital technologies during the COVID-19 lockdown

Damanjit Sandhu; Ravinder Barn

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
This paper unpacks how everyday lives of urban middle-class children were mediated by digital technologies during the COVID-19 national lockdown in India. In contemporary India, children’s engagements with digital technologies are structured by their social class, gender, and geographical locations. The resultant disparities between “media-rich” and “media-poor” childhoods in India are stark. This paper argues that the national lockdown in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic exposed India’s “media-rich” children to particular threats and obstacles. Based on semi-structured interviews and mapping exercises with 16- to 17-year-old urban middle-class young people, it explores how being confined to their homes for an extended period when their schools shifted to online delivery of teaching and learning; young people negotiated risks and sought digital opportunities in the management and social construction of the self.
Olfactory testing as COVID-19 screening in school children; a prospective cross-sectional study

Sarah A. Gitomer; Kaitlyn Tholen; Kaci Pickett (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Plos One

Little is known about olfactory changes in pediatric COVID-19. It is possible that children under-report chemosensory changes on questionnaires, similar to reports in adults. This study aims to describe COVID-19-related olfactory dysfunction in outpatient children. It hypothesized that children with COVID-19 will demonstrate abnormal olfaction on smell[1]identification testing at a higher rate than children with negative COVID-19 testing. A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken from June 2020—June 2021 at a ter[1]tiary care pediatric hospital. A consecutive sample of 205 outpatients aged 5–21 years undergoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) PCR testing were approached for this study. Patients with prior olfactory dysfunction were excluded. Par[1]ticipants were given a standard COVID-19 symptom questionnaire, a Smell Identification Test (SIT) and home-odorant-based testing within 2 weeks of COVID-19 testing. Prior to study enrollment, power calculation estimated 42 patients to determine difference in rates of SIT results between groups. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics.

COVID-19 pandemic impact on follow-up of child growth and development in Brazil

Lucas Lima Carneiro; Ed Wilson Rodrigues Vieira; Elysângela Dittz Duarte (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

This study investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the primary health care (PHC) services to follow-up the child growth and development (CGD) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data related visits to assess the growth and development of children up to five years between Apr-2017 to Mar-2021. Differences between monthly rate of visits (per thousand inhabitants up to five) during the pandemic (Apr-2020 to Mar-2021) and before (Apr-2017 to Mar-2020) were analyzed using paired t test and control diagrams (averages ± 1.96 standard deviation).

Co-production before, during, and after the first COVID-19 lockdown: the case of developmental services for youth with disabilities

Monica Carminati; Dario Cavenago; Laura Mariani (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Review of Administrative Sciences
Co-production was vital to support public services provision during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic, and one of the main challenges for service providers is to make co-production sustainable. There are few empirical studies on the sustainability of co-production from a long-term perspective. This study aims to contribute to this topic by exploring the micro-level foundations of co-production persistence through a longitudinal qualitative study in three public service organizations providing developmental services for youth with disabilities. Co-production is analyzed along the service provision process before, during and after the first COVID-19 lockdown, with specific attention on exploring how the conditions for sustainable co-production – mutual commitment, complementarities and institutional arrangements – occur and reinforce one another after an external shock.
Short report: vaccine attitudes in the age of COVID-19 for a population of children with mitochondrial disease

Eliza Gordon-Lipkina; Christopher Steven Marcumb; Shannon Kruk (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Children with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to morbidity associated with COVID-19. This paper aims to understand attitudes toward routine childhood vaccinations versus the COVID-19 vaccine in a population of families affected by mitochondrial disease (MtD), a form of developmental disability. An online survey was administered via several advocacy groups for children with MtD.

A follow-up study on the impact of COVID-19 on the cognitive development of children aged 5-10 years

Prachi Mulay; Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Educational Research and Policies
Under the circumstances created during lockdown period, children were deprived from the social interaction and companionship; because of which, they were susceptible to hampered cognitive development. Therefore, in this study, efforts were made to understand the impact of lockdown on the cognitive development of 5-10 year old children in India. A self-administered online questionnaire was distributed to the parents via social media platforms. This questionnaire included 20 questions divided into categories such as attention, passivity, organizing, perception of space and directions, concept of time, perception of visual forms and figures, memory, comprehension of spoken language, verbal communication, reading-writing-arithmetic, and emotional problems. Responses were automatically recorded in the Google forms.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 4 | Issue: 10 | No. of pages: 143-148 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child development, child health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, social distance | Countries: India
Examining the relationship between discrimination, access to material resources, and black children's behavioral functioning during COVID-19

Nneka Ibekwe-Okafor; Jacqueline Sims; Sihong Liu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Systemic racism and discriminatory practices continue to disproportionally expose Black children and families to less than optimal health and economic resources. COVID-19 sheds existing light on how longstanding systemic inequalities affecting Black children and families create racial disparities in accessing material resources. The purpose of this study (N = 704 Black caregivers) is to better understand the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination, access to material resources (i.e., health-promoting resources and economic resources), and Black children's behavioral functioning during the pandemic. Through the application of ordinary least squares regression analysis, we find that inadequate material resources (both health-related risks and economic hardship) during the pandemic were associated with heightened caregiver report that their child was frequently fussy or defiant (externalizing) and frequently anxious or fearful (internalizing).
Risk and protective factors to early childhood development during the COVID-19 pandemic

Priscila Costa; Evelyn Forni; Isabella Amato (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP

This study aimed to analyze the risk and protective factors to the development of children under three years of age during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out in three early childhood education centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in October 2020. The data were collected with an online questionnaire. Risk and protection factors were measured with the Primeira Infância Para Adultos Saudáveis (Early Childhood For Healthy Adults) instrument and the children's development status was measured using the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments – CREDI.

Prospective associations between pandemic-related adversity, harsh parenting, and the development of prosociality across middle to late childhood

Nila Shakiba; Samantha Perlstein; Tralucia Powell (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Developmental Psychology.
Parenting behaviors and children’s prosociality (i.e., voluntary behaviors intended to benefit others) are linked across development. Contextual risk and environmental stressors may undermine parenting behaviors known to promote children’s prosocial behavior. The COVID-19 pandemic provides a unique context in which to examine how stress and contextual risk disrupt parenting practices and the development of children’s prosociality over time. To explore the associations between pandemic-related adversity, parenting practices, and child prosocial behavior, we used survey data from 303 families (child Mage = 6.43; 51.4% female, 48.6% male; 65.7% White) who participated in a three-wave longitudinal study during the first year of the pandemic. Families were recruited from two northeastern cities in the United States.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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