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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The COVID‐19 pandemic, mask‐wearing, and emotion recognition during late‐childhood

Maia Chester; Rista C. Plate; Tralucia Powell (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Social Development
Face masks are an effective and important tool to prevent the spread of COVID-19, including among children. However, occluding parts of the face can impact emotion recognition, which is fundamental to effective social interactions. Social distancing, stress, and changes to routines because of the pandemic have also altered the social landscape of children, with implications for social development. To better understand how social input and context impact emotion recognition, the current study investigated emotion recognition in children (7–12 years old, N = 131) using images of both masked and unmasked emotional faces.
Teachers' perceived impact of COVID-19 on early child development in urban China: evidence from a national survey study

Chuchu Zheng; Yongping Yu; Yi Hou

Published: August 2022   Journal: Early Child Development and Care
This national survey study aimed to explore the teachers' perceived impact of COVID-19 on the development of preschoolers in urban China. 22,466 preschool teachers were randomly sampled from 11 provinces of urban China and surveyed online. First, descriptive statistics found that the teachers perceived the highest improvement in preschoolers' social skills and interpersonal relationships, whereas the least improvements in emotion and psychological health. Second, latent profile analysis generated three profiles: (1) Low Level; (2) Medium Level; and (3) High Level. Among the patterns of demographic factors, those in the profile with development stagnation or regression were most likely to be younger children in Western China public preschools.
Stunting among kindergarten children in China in the context of COVID-19: a cross-sectional study

Xueyan Ma; Xiangzheng Yang; Hongzhi Yin (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

The impact of COVID-19 has most likely increased the prevalence of stunting. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of stunting among kindergarten children in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Longgang District, Shenzhen, China, and its risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify children from 11 sub districts of 481 kindergartens in the Longgang District of Shenzhen City from May to July 2021. In the context of COVID-19, an online survey was conducted to gather demographic information, height, birth information, and lifestyle. The prevalence of stunting was calculated, and the risk factors were analyzed using binary logistic regression with three stepwise models.

Presence at a distance: video chat supports intergenerational sensitivity and positive infant affect during COVID-19

Ellen Roche; Joscelin Rocha-Hidalgo; Douglas Piper (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Infancy
COVID-19 disrupted infant contact with people beyond the immediate family. Because grandparents faced higher COVID-19 risks due to age, many used video chat instead of interacting with their infant grandchildren in person. This is a semi-naturalistic, longitudinal study with 48 families, each of whom submitted a series of video chats and surveys, and most (n = 40) also submitted a video of an in-person interaction. Families were mostly highly-educated, White/Caucasian, and lived between 1 and 2700 miles apart.
Examining children's questions and parents' responses about COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey

Burcu Ünlütabak; İlayda Velioğlu

Published: July 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on both adults’ and children’s everyday lives. Conversations about biological processes such as viruses, illness, and health have started to occur more frequently in daily interactions. Although there are many guidelines for parents about how to talk to their children about the coronavirus, only a few studies have examined what children are curious about the coronavirus and how they make sense of the changes in their everyday lives. This study addresses this need by examining children’s questions and parents’ responses about the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Turkish sociocultural context. Using an online survey, it asked 184 parents of 3- to 12-year-olds to report their children’s questions about coronavirus and their answers to these questions. It analyzed children’s questions and parents’ responses using qualitative and quantitative analyses (Menendez et al., 2021).
Changes in early childhood social behavior during the Covid 19 pandemic

Zikra Zikra; Afdal Afdal; Indah Sukmawati (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research
Social behavior is voluntary behavior that benefits others including actions such as calming someone down, helping, and sharing. From an early age, social behavior skills need to be developed in early childhood as a foundation for the ability to interact with the wider environment. However, some changes in social behavior occurred in early childhood during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted content analysis to assess changes in early childhood social behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic. All articles found in sciencedirect (n = 13,743) and scholar (n = 165000) from 2020 to July 2021 were reviewed to identify conceptual and empirical changes that focus on changes in social behavior in early childhood. A total of 40 articles were identified and examined for themes.
Youth as researchers: exploring the impact of COVID-19 on youth; global policy brief
Institution: UNESCO
Published: June 2022

The Youth As Researchers (YAR) initiative is a youth development programme, designed to ensure, support,  and  advance  youth  voices.  It  provides  training  and  mentoring  that  supports  youth  to  design  and  conduct  social  research,  with  a  view  to  informing  policy-making,  programme  design  and future research.The  initiative  was  first  conceived  by  the  UNESCO  Chair  on  Children,  Youth  and  Civic  Engagement  (Ireland), as a model to engage vulnerable youth in re-designing their own futures. It is premised on the  belief  that  no-one  knows  better  than  young  people  themselves  about  their  problems,  and  the  solutions that will work for them. It gained traction in the current context, as UNESCO’s Member States are looking for innovative ways to address the challenges youth are facing. In engaging with the Social and Human Science Sector, and with UNESCO’s field offices, the youth-led research agenda delivered a strong message on the need to underpin policy decisions with scientific facts, and to ensure civil society is consulted on the issues at hand.

Applicability of the guide for monitoring child development as a telehealth delivered intervention during the pandemic

Ezgi Ozalp Akin; Aysen Akbas; Sidika Canan Atasoy (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

Early intervention delivered through telehealth is critically needed during crises, particularly for children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to determine the applicability of the international Guide for Monitoring Child Development (GMCD) intervention delivered through telehealth during the COVID-19 lockdown in Turkey. Using a mixed-methods longitudinal design, this research recruited children with developmental difficulties aged 0–42 months with an appointment during the first lockdown at Ankara University Developmental Pediatrics Division and seen face-to-face only once before. Developmental pediatricians applied the GMCD intervention during a single telephone call. As a novel intervention component, caregivers were asked to record and send back videos of the child's development when there were doubts about the child's functioning. Caregivers were called 1 year later by blinded independent researchers and a semi-structured interview on applicability was conducted. Applicability of the caregiver recorded video component of the intervention was assessed by a blinded observer using the GMCD Video Observation Tool.

Influence of the educational environment and parenting patterns on children's growth and development in the new normal era after Covid 19 in the playgroup of Babadan District, Ponorogo Regency, Indonesia.

Jauhan Budiwan; Abdah Munfaridatus Sholihah

Published: June 2022   Journal: International Journal of Educational Studies in Social Sciences
The covid-19 outbreak has changed the educational structure and psychology of child development, the role of teachers, parents and the environment is needed for good development. In the new normal era after covid 19, what is the paradigm model in children's education. This article aims to determine the influence of the educational environment and parenting patterns on children's growth and development in the new normal era after covid 19 in the Babadan sub-district playgroup, Ponorogo district. This research is a field study where to measure the influence of the environment and parents on children's growth and development in the new normal era after covid 19 in the Babadan Subdistrict Playgroup, Ponorogo Regency by using the bivariate correlation test in three schools, namely the Al-Islam playgroup, the Permata Hati playgroup and the Aisiyah playgroup.
COVID-19 induced environments, health-related quality of life outcomes and problematic behaviors: evidence from children with syndromic autism spectrum disorders.

Corneliu Bolbocean; Kayla B. Rhidenour; Maria McCormack (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Between July 2020 and January 2021, 230 principal caregivers completed a questionnaire to measure proxy-assessed health-related quality of life outcomes (HRQoL), behavioral outcomes in children with syndromic autism spectrum disorders and COVID-19 induced changes to lifestyle and environments. HRQoL and behavioral outcomes reported earlier during the pandemic were generally worse compared to those reported later. COVID-19 induced reduction to a caregiver’s mental health appointments, and hours spent watching TV were associated with decreases in HRQoL and increased the likelihood of problematic behaviors. Increasing time outdoors and time away from digital devices were positively associated with HRQoL and behaviors and might protect children from COVID-19 induced restrictions.
Child's play: examining the association between time spent playing and child mental health

Helen F. Dodd; Rachel J. Nesbit; Lily FitzGibbon

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
It is theorised that adventurous play offers learning opportunities that help to prevent mental health problems in children. In this study, data from two samples is used to examine associations between the time that children aged 5–11 years spent playing adventurously and their mental health. For comparison, time spent playing unadventurously and time spent playing outdoors are also examined. Study 1 includes a sample of 417 parents, Study 2 includes data from a nationally representative sample of 1919 parents. Small, significant associations between adventurous play and internalising problems, as well as positive affect during the first UK-wide Covid-19 lockdown, were found; children who spend more time playing adventurously had fewer internalising problems and more positive affect during the Covid-19 lockdown. Study 2 showed that these associations were stronger for children from lower income families than for children from higher income families.
Effectiveness of remotely delivered parenting programs on caregiver-child interaction and child development: a systematic review

Katherine Solís-Cordero; Luciane Simões Duarte; Elizabeth Fujimori

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
Remotely delivered parenting interventions are suitable to promote child well-being and development, in a context of social isolation, as our society faced due to COVID-19. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of remotely delivered parenting interventions for typically developing children on caregiver-child interaction and child development.  A systematic search to find studies from the inception of the database to September 2021 was carried out on six electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection and Regional Portal Information and Knowledge for Health (BVS), and gray literature.
Implementation of the toddler growth stimulation program during the Covid 19 pandemic period, Manggahang Village, Bandung Regency in 2020

ria angelina marbun

Published: May 2022   Journal: Healthy-Mu Journal
Growth and development at the age of toddlers can be a determinant of the success of a child's growth and development at a later stage. Research conducted by Soccoro, et al in the Philippines proved that there was an increase in psychosocial development by 6-11% in children aged 0-4 years who were stimulated for 2 years. Efforts to increase the prevention of growth and development deviations in children under five need to be checked regularly, namely in children less than 24 months it is done every 3 months according to schedule and children aged 24-72 months it is done every 6 months. This activity can be carried out several times in 1 month. The research objectives are study was to identify the schedule and implementation of the early detection program for child development during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bandung Regency. This type of research is descriptive non-analytic research with cross sectional quantitative method.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 5 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Mental Health | Tags: child development, child health, child mental health, COVID-19 response, lockdown, social distance | Countries: Indonesia
COVID-19 pandemic-related restrictions: factors that may affect perinatal maternal mental health and implications for infant development

Theano Kokkinaki; Eleftheria Hatzidaki

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
This review aims to discuss the factors that may affect maternal mental health and infant development in COVID-19 pandemic condition. Toward this direction, the two objectives of this review are the following: (a) to discuss possible factors that may have affected negatively perinatal mental health through the pandemic-related restrictions; and (b) to present the implications of adversely affected maternal emotional wellbeing on infant development.
Impediments to child education, health and development during the COVID-19 pandemic in India

Akshay Raut; Nguyen Tien Huy (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health – Southeast Asia
As India nears normalcy after facing three waves of the COVID-19 pandemic, clearer evidence has emerged about the profound negative impact of the pandemic upon the well-being of children in the country. Although the interventions by the Union and the state governments have helped in minimising the disruptions to the overall child health and development, certain challenges still continue to prevail and need to be addressed. The Anganwadi Services Scheme, one of the largest and unique programmes globally for early childhood care and development, was greatly impacted due to the lockdown imposed by the government, which resulted in closure of Anganwadi centres across the country. This has affected the early childhood care and non-formal pre-school education services provided at such centres; which catered to around 24 million children between the ages of 3 to 6 years in 2020 before the lockdown. Furthermore, these centres also provided training to parents and caretakers about early stimulation activities for psychosocial development of children from birth up to 3 years of age which has also been affected due to the lockdown. Such disruptions in early childhood stimulation and pre-school education can have long-term negative consequences on the physical and mental health of children. The authorities need to urgently undertake steps to assess the situation and introduce comprehensive remedial services to catch-up with the losses in early childhood education at all levels; ensure prompt coordination with the local workforce to increase parent and community engagement and ensure restoration of these services at the earliest.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.