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Lynn C. Smitherman; William Christopher Golden; Jennifer R. Walton
Health disparities are defined as differences among specific populations in the ability to achieve full health potential (as measured by differences in incidence, prevalence, mortality, burden of disease, and other adverse health conditions). Among children, multiple factors contribute to these disparities, including economic stability, and access to health care. According to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, before the current pandemic, 12 million children in the United States were living in poverty in 2019, including one-third of African American and Native American children and 25% of Latinx children.8 During the same period, of the 4.4 million children without health insurance, 14% were Native American, 9% were of Hispanic descent, and 18% were immigrants. At present, owing to the impact of the pandemic on job security, more than 50% of African American, Latinx, and multiethnic adults are now without medical insurance, directly affecting the health security of their children.8 With the onset of the pandemic and the social and political upheaval felt by many disenfranchised communities, these well-documented disparities (and the importance of addressing them) have again been brought to the attention of the medical community. This overview will examine the effects of these health disparities in various populations of children in this country. We will first examine the historical context of health disparities, how they developed, and why they still exist. We will then examine how specifically the COVID-19 pandemic impacted these disparities among children and adolescents, both directly and indirectly. Finally, we hope to provide some recommendations to reduce these disparities.
Caroline E. West; Clarissa V. Shields; Kara V. Hultstrand (et al.)
Jun Kobayashi; Rie Takeuchi; Fumiko Shibuya (et al.)
Jorge A. Huete-Pérez; Kacey C. Ernst; Cristiana Cabezas-Robelo (et al.)
This study aimed to capture key epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nicaraguan children (≤18 years) seeking medical care, between 6 October and 16 November 2020. In this cross-sectional study, 418 children were recruited: 319 with symptoms characteristic of COVID-19 and 99 with no symptoms of illness. Children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. A questionnaire was employed to identify symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities and COVID-19 prevention measures. Research was carried out in four hospitals and two clinics in Managua, Nicaragua, where schools and businesses remained open throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.
Mandy Vogel; Mandy Geserick; Ruth Gausche (et al.)
There is a concern that measures aiming to limit a further spread of COVID-19, e.g., school closures and social distancing, cause an aggravation of the childhood obesity epidemic. Therefore, this study compared BMI trends during the 15 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess the change in weight dynamics during the first months of COVID-19, it compared the trends of 3-month change in BMI-SDS (ΔBMI-SDS) and the proportions of children showing a high positive (HPC) or high negative (HNC) weight change between 2005 and 2019 and the respective changes from 2019 (pre-pandemic) to 2020 (after the onset of anti-pandemic measures) in more than 150,000 children (9689 during the pandemic period). The period of 3 months corresponds approximately to the first lockdown period in Germany.
Xiangrong Guo; Hui Hua; Jian Xu (et al.)
This study aims to explore the characteristics of unintentional childhood-injury during the COVID-19 pandemic and assess the association of unintentional-injury with maternal emotional status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 1300 children under 12-years-old from 21 schools (including nurseries/ kindergartens/ primary schools) in Wuhan and Shanghai during March to April 2020, and the mothers completed questionnaires online. Self-rating Depression/Anxiety Scales were used to evaluate maternal emotional status, questions on child unintentional-injury were based on the International-Statistical-Classification-of-Diseases-and-Related-Health-Problems-version-10 (ICD-10), and a total of 11 kinds of unintentional injuries were inquired. Information on socio-demographic and family-background factors was also collected.
Siong Chin Ngien; John Jeswenny Fresshila
Pavel V. Chernyshov; Svitlana V. Vozianova; Olga V. Chubar
Different aspects of quality of life (QoL) of infants and children with atopic dermatitis (AD) are well studied but there is a lack of studies on seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The aim of this study was to compare the impact of SD, ACD and AD on young children. Parts of questionnaires were filled in during the COVID-19 pandemic and therefore we decided to check if the pandemic affected dermatology-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in our patients. In this cross-sectional study approved by the local ethics committee of the Kiev City Clinical Dermatovenereologic Hospital parents of children with SD, ACD and AD from birth to 4 years old from the same department of dermatology were asked to fill in the dermatology-specific questionnaire the Infants and Toddlers Dermatology Quality of Life (InToDermQoL). Diagnoses were based on clinical manifestations and anamnesis. The study was carried out from 2018 till 2021.
Mauro Calvani; Giulia Cantiello; Maria Cavani (et al.)
The locations where children get exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and their contribution in spreading the infection are still not fully understood. Aim of the article is to verify the most frequent reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and their role in the secondary transmission of the infection. A case-control study was performed in all SARS-CoV-2 positive children (n = 81) and an equal number of age- and sex- matched controls who were referred to the S. Camillo-Forlanini Pediatric Walk-in Center of Rome. The results of all SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs performed in children aged < 18 years from October 16 to December 19, 2020 were analyzed.
Asmita Priyadarshini Khatiwada; Smriti Maskey; Nistha Shrestha (et al.)
The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected all essential healthcare services delivery in low-resource settings. This study aimed to explore the challenges and experiences of providers and users of childhood immunisation services in Nepal during the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with childhood immunisation service providers and users (i.e., parents of children) from Kathmandu valley, Nepal. All interviews were conducted through phone or internet-based tools, such as Zoom, WhatsApp, and messenger. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using theme-based content analysis in an Excel spreadsheet.
Mina Fazel; Stephen Puntis; Simon R. White (et al.)
Vaccine hesitancy has affected COVID-19 adult vaccination programs in many countries. Data on hesitancy amongst child and adolescent populations is largely confined to parent opinion. This study investigated the characteristics of vaccine hesitant children and adolescents using results from a large, school-based self-report survey of the willingness to have a COVID-19 vaccination in students aged 9 –18 years in England. Data from the OxWell Student Survey on mental health, life experiences and behaviours were used, collected from four counties across England.
Anita A. Panjwani; Regan L Bailey; Bridgette L Kelleher
Limited research suggests increased adverse behavioral outcomes, such as distractibility and hyperactivity, among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a result of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19); however, little is known about how the pandemic has impacted food-related behaviors among children with ASD. This study characterizes the impact of the pandemic on access to preferred foods and eating behaviors among children with ASD.
Meredyth Grace Llewellyn Wilkinson; Wing Wu; Kathryn O’Brien (et al.)
The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how parents and carers feel about the effects and impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown and how this impacted upon their child/young person with JDM. It approached 139 participants from the JDM Cohort Biomarker Study (JDCBS), with specific consent to approach electronically for research studies. A secure electronic questionnaire with study introduction was sent to participants for their parents and carers around the UK to complete. It consisted of 20 questions about the impact of the pandemic on their child or young person’s clinical care. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively.
Ethan M. Berke; Lori M. Newman; Suzanna Jemsby (et al.)
Jaymie Huckridge; Asher Arnold; James McParland
UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.
Read the latest quarterly digest on violence against children and women during COVID-19.
The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response