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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 1224
Towards an inclusive recovery from COVID-19 impacts : a policy brief

AUTHOR(S)
Nadia Belhaj Hassine; Sharon Faye Piza; Francine Claire Fernandez

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
Coronavirus (COVID-19) partly reversed gains made in three decades of sustained decline in poverty and a decade of accelerated reduction in inequality in Philippines. Although the economy is recovering gradually, there are signs that the recovery may be uneven. Income recovery also seems to be slower for the poor. The COVID-19 pandemic may have long-term negative impacts on development of human capital. To manage the pandemic shock, a considerable number of poor households have relied on such adverse coping mechanisms as reducing food consumption, which may aggravate already prevalent child malnutrition and stunting. Policy needs to be directed to support an inclusive recovery and to address enduring medium to long term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Short report: vaccine attitudes in the age of COVID-19 for a population of children with mitochondrial disease

AUTHOR(S)
Eliza Gordon-Lipkina; Christopher Steven Marcumb; Shannon Kruk (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Children with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to morbidity associated with COVID-19. This paper aims to understand attitudes toward routine childhood vaccinations versus the COVID-19 vaccine in a population of families affected by mitochondrial disease (MtD), a form of developmental disability. An online survey was administered via several advocacy groups for children with MtD.

The Pandemic fund: a blueprint for success
Institution: Save the Children
Published: October 2022

Over the past three years, children have suffered immensely from the health and socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic which threatened their rights to survive, thrive, learn and be protected. Many health systems were unable to respond adequately to the increased demand for health care due to the pandemic, nor could they maintain routine health services. With limited health financing, it is critical that we maximise the impact of the investments in the Pandemic Fund. The new fund must focus on the areas which both; strengthen primary health care to boost resilience for health shocks and build core preparedness capacities. By doing so we will make gains in child survival and improve health outcomes for all women, children and adolescents. It is therefore essential that interventions must be equitable, inclusive, integrated and that all stakeholders play an equal part in their design.

The Pandemic accord: a pivotal opportunity to build resilient health systems and realise children’s right to health
Institution: Save the Children, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed fragilities in the global health architecture that contributed to countries being ill-equipped to effectively respond to a global health emergency, which in turn led to devastating consequences for children’s access to essential health services. Increased political awareness and commitment to pandemic Prevention, Preparedness and Response (PPR) efforts offer a pivotal opportunity to make gains in child survival through resilient health systems that are anchored in a primary health care and rights-based approach. Save the Children and UNICEF UK new policy briefing presents a series of measures for the WHO Pandemic Accord as well as recommendations for the broader health emergency PPR architecture.

Rebuilding human capital amidst the pandemic - A global analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on school-aged children and youth
Institution: World Food Programme
Published: October 2022
This joint study by the Research, Assessment and Monitoring (RAM) Division and the School–Based Programme (SBP) Service aimed to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted school–aged children and youth through a global web survey conducted across seven countries Cambodia, Colombia, Ghana, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya and Zimbabwe from May to July 2021.
Enhancing the health and well-being of Asia-Pacific learners and teachers at school post-COVID-19: technical paper

AUTHOR(S)
Inon Schenker

Institution: UNESCO, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

A  new  social  contract  for  education  in  the  Asia-Pacific  region  paves  the  way  for  building fairer and strengthened education systems in the post-COVID-19 era. It will repair inequalities, while transformingthe future, rebuild relationships with each other, with the planet and with technology and support full realization of   all the inter-connected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (UNESCO, 2022).  In this new social contract, schools must continue to play a vital role in enhancing health, nutrition andthe well-being of   learners, teachers and the community. School Health and Nutrition (SHN) programmesthat  address  the  health,  nutrition  and  well-being  of    learners  and  teachers  are  not  only  essential  for maximizing every child’s life expectancy and potential as a learner; they are cost effective, with benefitsacross multiple sectors and they are a sound economic investment (Oliveira de FPSL et al., 2020).

COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among marginalized populations in Kosovo: insight from a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Ha Thi Hong Nguyen; Mrike Aliu; Kimberly Ann Ashburn (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: October 2022
Kosovo has fully vaccinated 45.5 percent of the population, below what is needed to slow the spread of COVID-19. The Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian communities, as marginalized ethnic groups, have been identified as high risk for acquiring COVID-19 and for lower acceptance of vaccines. Factors associated with vaccine acceptance are examined in this qualitative study among Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian community members and representatives from civil society, community leaders, health care providers, and government working directly within these communities. Using a social-ecological model, intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, and structural factors influencing vaccine acceptance were identified. Intrapersonal-level factors centered on fear of side effects and doubt about vaccine safety and effectiveness, and lack of trust of health care providers; at the interpersonal level, male head of households decided for the entire family whether to receive the vaccine; in the social context at the community level, exposure to prolific misinformation on social media, television news, and paper pamphlets distributed in study communities created fear, doubt, and anxiety about vaccines, and stereotypes about the strong immune systems of ethnic minority groups reinforced beliefs about the communities low susceptibility to COVID-19; and structural-level barriers included the requirement for identification documents, and a buildup of doubt about motivations of the vaccinators created by massive vaccine-promotion efforts and police harassment in implementing curfew, and other protective measures targeting ethnic minority communities. Implications of these findings highlight a need for a segmented approach in designing subgroup-specific and multicomponent interventions to promote vaccine acceptance. Strategies include training local opinion leaders in door-to-door awareness raising, directly addressing misinformation, and distributing vouchers to be exchanged for incentives after vaccination; using social media where respected health care providers and community members post videos promoting vaccination; and removing or providing an alternative to identification requirements.
Caregiver and clinician experience with virtual services for children and youth with complex needs during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Theall; Kim Arbeau; Ajit Ninan (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
During the COVID-19 pandemic, support services for children and youth quickly shifted to virtual means. To continue delivering essential, trauma-informed, specialized services, the center transitioned to providing most services by phone/video conference. A quality improvement project using survey methods was conducted to determine if virtual delivery was timely and satisfactory for inpatient and outpatient care.
Eating disorders: the role of the family in development and maintenance of children's problems in the pandemic period

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Rosaria Juli; Rebecca Juli; Giada Juli (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Psychiatria Danubina

According to data released by the Ministry of Health in 2021 in Italy about three million young people suffer from eating disorders with onset before the age of 13 and the number tends to be increasing. This work aims to understand if and to what extent the areas of family functioning are related to the way of eating of adolescents in the period of restriction due to COVID-19. In particular, which dimensions of family functioning can be correlated with dysfunctional eating habits. The group that took part in the study was composed of 154 non clinical subjects, of which 124 females, 27 males and 3 non-binary gender subjects. The tests used were the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Binge Eating Scale, in addition a personal data sheet was used containing the details of the subjects who participated anonymously, recruited at the university of Italy. The data have some limitations, first of all the low number of the sample and the online modality in compiling the tests.

Examining the relationship between discrimination, access to material resources, and black children's behavioral functioning during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Nneka Ibekwe-Okafor; Jacqueline Sims; Sihong Liu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Systemic racism and discriminatory practices continue to disproportionally expose Black children and families to less than optimal health and economic resources. COVID-19 sheds existing light on how longstanding systemic inequalities affecting Black children and families create racial disparities in accessing material resources. The purpose of this study (N = 704 Black caregivers) is to better understand the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination, access to material resources (i.e., health-promoting resources and economic resources), and Black children's behavioral functioning during the pandemic. Through the application of ordinary least squares regression analysis, we find that inadequate material resources (both health-related risks and economic hardship) during the pandemic were associated with heightened caregiver report that their child was frequently fussy or defiant (externalizing) and frequently anxious or fearful (internalizing).
Parental health beliefs, intention, and strategies about covid-19 vaccine for their children: a cross-sectional analysis from five Arab countries in the Middle East

AUTHOR(S)
Ali Haider Mohammed; Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan; Abdulrasool M. Wayyes (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The issue around vaccination of children has brought divergent opinions among the populations across the globe and among the Arab population. There has been a low response rate to the calls for vaccination of children and this is reflective of the sentiments which parents may have towards their children being vaccinated. This study aims to explore the parents’ health beliefs, intentions, and strategies towards the COVID-19 vaccine for their children among Arab population. A cross-sectional study using an online survey from October to December 2021, was carried out in five Arab countries in the Middle East. A reliable health belief model (HBM) including five domains: severity, susceptibility, benefits, barriers and cues to action, was adopted. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney test, and multivariable logistic regression were performed for data analysis.

Willingness and attitudes of parents of children under the age of 12 about the COVID- 19 vaccine in Taif city

AUTHOR(S)
Ayman A. Atalla; Jamal Faydh; Saad Althuwaybi (et al.)

Published: October 2022

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2), is currently a global pandemic with the highest number of people affected in the modern era; only a small proportion of children have been infected with COVID-19. Most of them were asymptomatic or only had mild symptoms. Both direct and indirect advantages will result from an effective and a safe COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy is a potential threat to global public health. Parental attitudes to-wards the vaccines play a key role in the success of the herd immunity for COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the parents’ willingness and attitudes about the COVID- 19 vaccine in Taif city in K.S.A. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a representative sample of 384 parents. The data collection tool was an online questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic data of parents and children, and questions for assessment of parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine. All data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS program version 22. The committee is accredited by the National Committee for Bioethics with No. (HAO-02-T-105) and the proposal fulfills the requirements of Taif Uni-versity and accordingly ethical approval was granted.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 30 | Issue: 10 | No. of pages: 59-66 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Saudi Arabia
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a primary school setting with and without public health measures using real-world contact data: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Lixiang Yan; Stella Talic; Holly Wild (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Global Health

Stringent public health measures have been shown to influence the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within school environments. We investigated the potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a primary school setting with and without public health measures, using fine-grained physical positioning traces captured before the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately 172.63 million position data from 98 students and six teachers from an open-plan primary school were used to predict a potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in primary school settings.

Parents' intention for their children to receive COVID-19 vaccine: implications for vaccination program in Macao

AUTHOR(S)
Un I Choi; Yimin Pang; Yu Zheng (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

The decision about vaccinating children is subject to their parents' decision. To inform strategies that support full vaccination coverage, it is important to understand the parents' vaccination attitude and tendency to act. This study aims to investigate the intention and the factors affecting parents' decision-making about vaccinating their children. A cross-sectional, self-administered online questionnaire was completed by parents of children aged 3–12 yeas in Macao between 7 March and 17 April 2022. The survey tool was informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) which composes of the variable “intention” and three TPB constructs (Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control). Respondents rated their level of agreement on the construct statements using a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine if the TPB constructs were predictors of parents' intention.

Risk and protective factors to early childhood development during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Priscila Costa; Evelyn Forni; Isabella Amato (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP

This study aimed to analyze the risk and protective factors to the development of children under three years of age during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out in three early childhood education centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in October 2020. The data were collected with an online questionnaire. Risk and protection factors were measured with the Primeira Infância Para Adultos Saudáveis (Early Childhood For Healthy Adults) instrument and the children's development status was measured using the Caregiver Reported Early Development Instruments – CREDI.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.