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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 580
Health disparities and their effects on children and their caregivers during the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lynn C. Smitherman; William Christopher Golden; Jennifer R. Walton

Published: October 2021   Journal: Pediatric Clinics of North America

Health disparities are defined as differences among specific populations in the ability to achieve full health potential (as measured by differences in incidence, prevalence, mortality, burden of disease, and other adverse health conditions). Among children, multiple factors contribute to these disparities, including economic stability, and access to health care. According to the Annie E. Casey Foundation, before the current pandemic, 12 million children in the United States were living in poverty in 2019, including one-third of African American and Native American children and 25% of Latinx children.8 During the same period, of the 4.4 million children without health insurance, 14% were Native American, 9% were of Hispanic descent, and 18% were immigrants. At present, owing to the impact of the pandemic on job security, more than 50% of African American, Latinx, and multiethnic adults are now without medical insurance, directly affecting the health security of their children.8 With the onset of the pandemic and the social and political upheaval felt by many disenfranchised communities, these well-documented disparities (and the importance of addressing them) have again been brought to the attention of the medical community. This overview will examine the effects of these health disparities in various populations of children in this country. We will first examine the historical context of health disparities, how they developed, and why they still exist. We will then examine how specifically the COVID-19 pandemic impacted these disparities among children and adolescents, both directly and indirectly. Finally, we hope to provide some recommendations to reduce these disparities.

Pandemic-related parental distress: examining associations with family meals and child feeding practices during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Caroline E. West; Clarissa V. Shields; Kara V. Hultstrand (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Children's Health Care
The present study examined associations between COVID-19-related negative impact and parental distress and aspects of the home food environment. Parents (N= 189) of children ages 7–17 completed an online survey assessing COVID-19-related impact and distress, household meals, feeding practices, and weight concern. Results suggested an inverse association between impact and distress and structured meals and positive associations with both restrictive feeding practices and weight concern. Food insecurity significantly moderated the association between impact and structured meals and remains a necessary target for intervention. Future research should explore factors that may mitigate the impact of COVID-19-related distress on the home food environment.
Recommendations for the urgent need to vaccinate school-aged and adolescent children against COVID-19 in the Asia–Pacific region

AUTHOR(S)
Jun Kobayashi; Rie Takeuchi; Fumiko Shibuya (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Tropical Medicine and Health
This study recommends urgent expansion of a vaccination program for adolescents and school-age children against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Western Pacific region. Since July 2021, SARS-CoV-2 infections in children have increased rapidly in this region. As infection rates rise due to the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, current preventive strategies such as mask wearing and social distancing have controlled its spread effectively. Prolonged school closure is currently being promoted to suppress virus spread among children. However, the negative impact of prolonged school closure is significant. Although vaccination of children under 12 is still controversial, preparations must be made now for their vaccination.
Prevalence and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with and without symptoms seeking care in Managua, Nicaragua: results of a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Jorge A. Huete-Pérez; Kacey C. Ernst; Cristiana Cabezas-Robelo (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aimed to capture key epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nicaraguan children (≤18 years) seeking medical care, between 6 October and 16 November 2020. In this cross-sectional study, 418 children were recruited: 319 with symptoms characteristic of COVID-19 and 99 with no symptoms of illness. Children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. A questionnaire was employed to identify symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities and COVID-19 prevention measures. Research was carried out in four hospitals and two clinics in Managua, Nicaragua, where schools and businesses remained open throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease | Countries: Nicaragua
Age- and weight group-specific weight gain patterns in children and adolescents during the 15 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Mandy Vogel; Mandy Geserick; Ruth Gausche (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Obesity

There is a concern that measures aiming to limit a further spread of COVID-19, e.g., school closures and social distancing, cause an aggravation of the childhood obesity epidemic. Therefore, this study compared BMI trends during the 15 years before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. To assess the change in weight dynamics during the first months of COVID-19, it compared the trends of 3-month change in BMI-SDS (ΔBMI-SDS) and the proportions of children showing a high positive (HPC) or high negative (HNC) weight change between 2005 and 2019 and the respective changes from 2019 (pre-pandemic) to 2020 (after the onset of anti-pandemic measures) in more than 150,000 children (9689 during the pandemic period). The period of 3 months corresponds approximately to the first lockdown period in Germany.

Associations of childhood unintentional injuries with maternal emotional status during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Xiangrong Guo; Hui Hua; Jian Xu (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

This study aims to explore the characteristics of unintentional childhood-injury during the COVID-19 pandemic and assess the association of unintentional-injury with maternal emotional status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 1300 children under 12-years-old from 21 schools (including nurseries/ kindergartens/ primary schools) in Wuhan and Shanghai during March to April 2020, and the mothers completed questionnaires online. Self-rating Depression/Anxiety Scales were used to evaluate maternal emotional status, questions on child unintentional-injury were based on the International-Statistical-Classification-of-Diseases-and-Related-Health-Problems-version-10 (ICD-10), and a total of 11 kinds of unintentional injuries were inquired. Information on socio-demographic and family-background factors was also collected.

Goal content and attitudes toward physical activity among primary school students during COVID-19 conditional movement control order

AUTHOR(S)
Siong Chin Ngien; John Jeswenny Fresshila

Published: September 2021   Journal: Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
This study examined primary school students’ goal content and attitudes toward physical activity during COVID-19 Conditional Movement Control Order . The participants were 312 students comprising 149 males and 163 females aged 11 and 12 years old from 3 primary schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. Participants were administered the Malay version of the Goal Content for Exercise Questionnaire Malay version (GCEQ; Chai et al., 2019) and Malay version of the Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (M-APAS; Jeswenny, 2019).
Quality of life of infants, toddlers and preschoolers with seborrhoeic, allergic contact and atopic dermatitis before and during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Pavel V. Chernyshov; Svitlana V. Vozianova; Olga V. Chubar

Published: September 2021   Journal: Dermatology and Therapy

Different aspects of quality of life (QoL) of infants and children with atopic dermatitis (AD) are well studied but there is a lack of studies on seborrhoeic dermatitis (SD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The aim of this study was to compare the impact of SD, ACD and AD on young children. Parts of questionnaires were filled in during the COVID-19 pandemic and therefore we decided to check if the pandemic affected dermatology-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in our patients. In this cross-sectional study approved by the local ethics committee of the Kiev City Clinical Dermatovenereologic Hospital parents of children with SD, ACD and AD from birth to 4 years old from the same department of dermatology were asked to fill in the dermatology-specific questionnaire the Infants and Toddlers Dermatology Quality of Life (InToDermQoL). Diagnoses were based on clinical manifestations and anamnesis. The study was carried out from 2018 till 2021.

Reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and their role in the transmission of infection according to age: a case-control study

AUTHOR(S)
Mauro Calvani; Giulia Cantiello; Maria Cavani (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

The locations where children get exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and their contribution in spreading the infection are still not fully understood. Aim of the article is to verify the most frequent reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and their role in the secondary transmission of the infection. A case-control study was performed in all SARS-CoV-2 positive children (n = 81) and an equal number of age- and sex- matched controls who were referred to the S. Camillo-Forlanini Pediatric Walk-in Center of Rome. The results of all SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs performed in children aged < 18 years from October 16 to December 19, 2020 were analyzed.

Impact of the first phase of COVID-19 pandemic on childhood routine immunisation services in Nepal: a qualitative study on the perspectives of service providers and users

AUTHOR(S)
Asmita Priyadarshini Khatiwada; Smriti Maskey; Nistha Shrestha (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected all essential healthcare services delivery in low-resource settings. This study aimed to explore the challenges and experiences of providers and users of childhood immunisation services in Nepal during the COVID-19 pandemic. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with childhood immunisation service providers and users (i.e., parents of children) from Kathmandu valley, Nepal. All interviews were conducted through phone or internet-based tools, such as Zoom, WhatsApp, and messenger. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using theme-based content analysis in an Excel spreadsheet.

Willingness of children and adolescents to have a COVID-19 vaccination: Results of a large whole schools survey in England

AUTHOR(S)
Mina Fazel; Stephen Puntis; Simon R. White (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine

Vaccine hesitancy has affected COVID-19 adult vaccination programs in many countries. Data on hesitancy amongst child and adolescent populations is largely confined to parent opinion. This study investigated the characteristics of vaccine hesitant children and adolescents using results from a large, school-based self-report survey of the willingness to have a COVID-19 vaccination in students aged 9 –18 years in England. Data from the OxWell Student Survey on mental health, life experiences and behaviours were used, collected from four counties across England.

COVID-19 and Food-related Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Disparities by Income and Food Security Status

AUTHOR(S)
Anita A. Panjwani; Regan L Bailey; Bridgette L Kelleher

Published: September 2021   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

Limited research suggests increased adverse behavioral outcomes, such as distractibility and hyperactivity, among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a result of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19); however, little is known about how the pandemic has impacted food-related behaviors among children with ASD. This study characterizes the impact of the pandemic on access to preferred foods and eating behaviors among children with ASD.

A survey to understand the feelings towards and impact of COVID-19 on the households of juvenile dermato myositis patients from a parent or carer perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Meredyth Grace Llewellyn Wilkinson; Wing Wu; Kathryn O’Brien (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Rheumatology Advances in Practice

The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of how parents and carers feel about the effects and impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdown and how this impacted upon their child/young person with JDM. It approached 139 participants from the JDM Cohort Biomarker Study (JDCBS), with specific consent to approach electronically for research studies. A secure electronic questionnaire with study introduction was sent to participants for their parents and carers around the UK to complete. It consisted of 20 questions about the impact of the pandemic on their child or young person’s clinical care. Data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively.

Pooling in a pod: a strategy for COVID-19 testing to facilitate a safe return to school

AUTHOR(S)
Ethan M. Berke; Lori M. Newman; Suzanna Jemsby (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Public Health Reports
The COVID-19 pandemic prompted widespread closures of primary and secondary schools. Routine testing of asymptomatic students and staff members, as part of a comprehensive mitigation program, can help schools open safely. “Pooling in a pod” is a public health surveillance strategy whereby testing cohorts (pods) are based on social relationships and physical proximity. Pooled testing provides a single laboratory test result for the entire pod, rather than a separate result for each person in the pod. During the 2020-2021 school year, an independent preschool–grade 12 school in Washington, DC, used pooling in a pod for weekly on-site point-of-care testing of all staff members and students.
Seeing rainbows through the storms of a health condition: making space for LGBTQ+ young people to have their identity acknowledged

AUTHOR(S)
Jaymie Huckridge; Asher Arnold; James McParland

Published: September 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
LGBTQ+ youth accessing healthcare settings manage the ‘storms’ of health conditions (e.g. pain, fatigue, social isolation, etc.) while navigating emerging identity exploration and understandings in settings which may have historically overlooked or disaffirmed these identities. The launch of National Health Service Rainbow Badges across the paediatric division of an inner-city hospital provided a context for staff to begin thinking about their practice, development needs and dilemmas in working with LGBTQ+ youth. Through a programme of activity that included staff training, surveys, focus groups and youth engagement, caregivers gained insight into current practice in supporting LGBTQ+ youth and families. This paper presents their findings, ideas for responding to challenges, and areas for future development, including implications in light of the coronavirus pandemic.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.