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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 467
Child health vulnerabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and Portugal

AUTHOR(S)
Ivone Evangelista Cabral; Márcia Pestana-Santos; Lia Leão Ciuffo (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem

This study aims to analyze the vulnerabilities of children in the access to primary health care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil and Portugal. It is a documentary study based on Brazilian and Portuguese governmental guidelines issued between March and August 2020 regarding access of children to primary health care. Thematic analysis was based on the precepts of health vulnerability.

Reflections of methodological and ethical challenges in conducting research during COVID-19 involving resettled refugee youth in Canada

AUTHOR(S)
Zoha Salam; Elysee Nouvet; Lisa Schwartz

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Medical Ethics
Research involving migrant youth involves navigating and negotiating complex challenges in order to uphold their rights and dignity, but also all while maintaining scientific rigour. COVID-19 has changed the global landscape within many domains and has increasingly highlighted inequities that exist. With restrictions focusing on maintaining physical distancing set in place to curb the spread of the virus, conducting in-person research becomes complicated. This article reflects on the ethical and methodological challenges encountered when conducting qualitative research during the pandemic with Syrian migrant youth who are resettled in Canada. The three areas discussed from the study are recruitment, informed consent and managing the interviews. Special attention to culture as being part of the study’s methodology as an active reflexive process is also highlighted. The goal of this article is to contribute to the growing understanding of complexities of conducting research during COVID-19 with populations which have layered vulnerabilities, such as migrant youth. This article hopes that the reflections may help future researchers in conducting their research during this pandemic by being cognizant of both the ethical and methodological challenges discussed.
Children’s role in the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review of early surveillance data on susceptibility, severity, and transmissibility

AUTHOR(S)
KatyA. M. Gaythorpe; Sangeeta Bhatia; Tara Mangal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in all age groups including infants, children, and adolescents. However, the role of children in the COVID-19 pandemic is still uncertain. This systematic review of early studies synthesises evidence on the susceptibility of children to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the severity and clinical outcomes in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 by children in the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Reviewers extracted data from relevant, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 4th 2020 during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak using a standardised form and assessed quality using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.
Public health preventive measures and child health behaviours during COVID-19: a cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Xuedi Li; Leigh M. Vanderloo; Jonathon L. Maguire (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Canadian Journal of Public Health

The primary objective was to determine the association between public health preventive measures and children’s outdoor time, sleep duration, and screen time during COVID-19. A cohort study using repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in healthy children (0 to 10 years) through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) COVID-19 Study of Children and Families in Toronto, Canada, between April 14 and July 15, 2020. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires about adherence to public health measures and children’s health behaviours.

Glycemic control among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt: a pilot study

AUTHOR(S)
Yasmine Ibrahim Elhenawy; Khadiga Yehia Eltonbary

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries

The COVID-19 pandemic and the consequences of lockdown significantly impacted glycemic control. This study aims to evaluate the impact of the pandemic and lockdown on glycemic control among Egyptian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Cross-sectional study conducted through an online questionnaire. The participants were patients with type 1 diabetes and/or their caregivers

Ethical responsibilities of European children’s teams facing the resurgent COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Zanin; Enrico Furlan; Marek Migdal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
The COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is posing an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems around the globe. Europe has been struggling for 1 year now, and despite some encouraging progress (above all, the beginning of vaccination), the second wave is ongoing. Even though children are less affected than adults, the COVID-19 pandemic—and in particular the measures to counter it—is having a considerable impact on the paediatric healthcare setting. It is, therefore, the duty of paediatric teams in Europe to prepare for the challenges ahead. We wish to contribute to this necessary preparedness in two ways: firstly, by assessing the direct and indirect impact of the pandemic on children and on the paediatric setting; secondly, and more importantly, by identifying the various responsibilities of paediatric healthcare professionals, in light of established ethical principles.
Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on glycaemic control and lifestyle changes in children and adolescents with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

AUTHOR(S)
Hooi Peng Cheng; Jeanne Sze Lyn Wong; Nalini M. Selveindran (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Endocrine

Malaysia implemented nationwide lockdown from 18th March till 3rd May 2020 to mitigate the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This study aimed to examine the impact of the lockdown on glycaemic control and lifestyle changes in children and adolescents with type 1 (T1DM) and 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aged less than 18 years old. In this cross-sectional study, interviews and a standardised questionnaire comparing lifestyle changes before and during the lockdown were performed in follow-up clinic visits after the lockdown. Anthropometry measurements and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values were compared 3 months prior and after the lockdown.

The influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on development and health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA: a review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Claypool; Arelis Moore de Peralta

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
The purpose of this review is to synthesize existing literature to analyze the influence of the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), including the COVID-19 pandemic, and toxic stress on child development and lifelong health outcomes of Latinx children in the USA, utilizing the ACE framework. Without adequate protective factors, children’s early experiences with adversity and toxic stress have implications for their physiological, psychological, and social health. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown to exacerbate childhood adversity and toxic stress and has disproportionately harmed Latinx communities. In applying the ACE framework to US-Latinx populations, relevant findings concerning a potential failure of ACEs to accurately capture Latinx experiences of adversity were highlighted, as well as the need to classify the COVID-19 pandemic as an ACE. Research suggest that first-generation Latinx immigrants report lower-than-average rates of ACEs despite the various disparities ethnic minorities face in the USA.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and racial disparities in children: protective mechanisms and severe complications related to MIS-C

AUTHOR(S)
Sanjana Kurup; Regan Burgess; Fatou Tine (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
A novel coronavirus has resulted in a pandemic with over 176 million confirmed cases and over 3.8 million recorded deaths. In the USA, SARS-CoV-2 infection has a significant burden on minority communities, especially Hispanic and Black communities, which are overrepresented in cases compared to their percentage in the population. SARS-CoV-2 infection can manifest differently in children and adults, with children tending to have less severe disease. A review of current literature was performed to identify the hypothesized protective immune mechanisms in children, and to describe the rare complication of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) that has been documented in children post-SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 testing in children during a low prevalence period (VIGIL study 1)

AUTHOR(S)
Eleonore Eskander; Camille Jung; Corinne Levy (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Infectious Diseases Now

SARS-CoV-2 induces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, which overlap with other viral infections very common in children. This study aimed to describe the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests in symptomatic and asymptomatic ambulatory children and to determine the predictive factors for positivity. From June 1 to July 31, 2020,  a cross-sectional prospective, multicenter study (13 hospital emergency units and 59 ambulatory pediatricians) was conducted throughout France. Children under 15 years of age with a prescription of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test were enrolled.

School openings and the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy: a provincial-level analysis using the synthetic control method

AUTHOR(S)
Vincenzo Alfano; Salvatore Ercolano; Lorenzo Cicatiello

Published: July 2021   Journal: Health Policy
Schools have been central in the debate about COVID-19. On the one hand, many have argued that they should be kept open, given their importance to youngsters and the future of the country, and the effort many countries have made in establishing protocols to keep them safe. On the other hand, it has been argued that open schools further the spread of the virus, given that these are places with large-scale interaction between teenagers and adults accompanying their children, as well as a major source of congestion on public transportation. This study aims to identify the effect of school openings on the spread of COVID-19 contagion. Italy offers an interesting quasi-experimental setting in this regard due to the scattered openings that schools have experienced. By means of a quantitative analysis, employing a synthetic control method approach, we find that Bolzano, the first province in Italy to open schools after the summer break, had far more cases than its synthetic counterfactual, built from a donor pool formed from the other Italian provinces. Results confirm the hypothesis that despite the precautions, opening schools causes an increase in the infection rate, and this must be taken into account by policymakers.
Epidemiological analysis of burn injuries in children during the first COVID-19 lockdown, and a comparison with the previous five years

AUTHOR(S)
O. Charvillat; M.-C. Plancq; E. Haraux (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique

Child burns rank among the most frequent domestic accidents in France. COVID-19 lockdown between March 16th and May 11th of 2020 increased time spent at home by children. This retrospective, observational study described the epidemiological impact of COVID-19 lockdown on child burns in a pediatric surgery department compared with previous five years. Child burns in the previous five years constituted the “before COVID-19 group” as the reference group. Child burns during the first lockdown formed the “COVID-19 group”. Demographics characteristics, the delay before first attendance at the surgery department, burns characteristics, the place of the incident, need of skin graft, and child reactions to trauma or isolation were recorded for these two groups.

Predictive value of cardiac markers in the prognosis of COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Ufuk Utku Güllü; Şükrü Güngör; Sevcan İpek

Published: July 2021   Journal: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Occasionally, children with COVID-19 may develop arrhythmia, myocarditis, and cardiogenic shock involving multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study aimed to identify the laboratory parameters that may predict early cardiovascular involvement in these patients.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 43 | No. of pages: 307-311 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, Heart diseases, infectious disease
Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on the movement behaviors of children and youth: a scoping review of evidence after the first year

AUTHOR(S)
Derek C. Paterson; Katelynn Ramage; Sarah A. Moore (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Sport and Health Science
The objective of this scoping review was to summarize systematically the available literature investigating the relationships between the Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep) of school-aged children (aged 5−11 years) and youth (aged 12−17 years) in the first year of the COVID-19 outbreak.
COVID-19 in children: where do we stand?

AUTHOR(S)
Georgia B. Nikolopoulou; Helena C. Maltezou

Published: July 2021   Journal: Archives of Medical Research
From the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic it became evident that children infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain mostly asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. This study reviewed the epidemiologic and clinical features of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The true prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is most likely underestimated, as asymptomatic children are less frequently tested. Serologic surveys indicate that half of children tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 report no symptoms. Anosmia/ageusia is not frequent in children but it is the strongest predictor of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In general, children with COVID-19 are at lower risk of hospitalization and life-threatening complications. Nevertheless, cases of severe disease or a post-infectious multisystem hyperinflammatory syndrome named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have been described. Rarely children with severe COVID-19 develop neurologic complications.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.