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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 725
Scaling the children immunization app (CIMA) to support child refugees and parents in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic: a social capital approach to scale a smartphone application in Zaatari Camp, Jordan

AUTHOR(S)
Yousef S. Khader; Wadih Maalouf; Mohammad Abu Khdair (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

Children vaccination is a key intervention for their survival, especially among refugees. Yet, children vaccination registration is done manually in refugees camps and there is no possibility to send reminders to parents to come back on time. This study aimed to boost the parental registration of children’s vaccination records on a Children Immunization app (CIMA) while also availing the parents with useful parenting skills under COVID-19-related stress. It incorporated United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Parenting Skills under COVID-19 information material, through CIMA in Arabic and English languages. 1100 children were recruited in February–March 2021, through a community health promotion dissemination approach. A team of two nurses from the local population and two volunteers (one trained nurse and one trained social worker), from the camp, was formed. They promoted the CIMA app at two clinics and through households visits in Zaatari refugee camp. Qualitative data on impressions and observations of the interactions with the Zaatari camp community were also collected.

Early impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on promotion of infant activity, strength and communication: a qualitative exploration

AUTHOR(S)
Kailey Snyder; Priyanka Chaudhary; Angela Pereira (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Acta Psychologica

Fostering physical activity, muscle strengthening and communication skills in diverse environments are vital to ensuring healthy infant development; however, promotion of these skills may be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore healthcare workers, parents and childcare providers' perceptions of the pandemic's influence on how they engage with infants to promote physical activity, muscle strength and communication. 37 subjects (12 = parents; 12 = childcare providers, 13 = healthcare workers) participated in a semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed via an inductive content analysis.

Pandemic-associated mental health changes in youth with neuroinflammatory disorders

AUTHOR(S)
Lindsey M. Logan; Samantha Stephens; Beyza Ciftci-Kavaklioglu (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders

Children with neuroinflammatory disorders have high rates of anxiety and depression, alongside low rates of physical activity. Given general concerns for mental and physical health in children during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, this study sought to understand how sleep, anxiety, depression, and physical activity changed with the lockdown in children with neuroinflammatory disorders. It hypothesized that outcomes would worsen during the lockdown, and that they would differ by underlying disorder category and age. Patients attending a specialized neuroinflammatory clinic (n = 314) completed questionnaires (n = 821 responses; Jan 2017-Aug 2020) assessing sleep, anxiety, depression, and physical activity. Respondents had either: childhood-onset chronic or recurrent neuroinflammatory disorders (CRNI), a history of Autoimmune Encephalitis (AE) or Monophasic Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes (monoADS). We performed linear mixed models to examine the association between our outcome measures (sleep, anxiety, depression, and physical activity) and categories of disorder type, sex, age, physical activity, relapses, and time (pre- vs. post- COVID-19 lockdown). Participant ID acted as a random effect, to account for repeated measures.

Parental perceptions of the impact of COVID-19 and returning to play based on level of sport

AUTHOR(S)
Michael B. Edwards; Jason N. Bocarro; Kyle S. Bunds (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Sport in Society
This study examined the impact of COVID-19 on youth sport parents based on competition level to understand how the pandemic affected youth sport and factors associated with youth returning to sport. Survey data were collected from samples of US sport parents in two waves - early in the pandemic (N = 751) and as programs began to resume (N = 707). Data showed elite sport parents were more willing to return. Although most participants returned to play, significant numbers had not resumed participation. Parent comfort was the most important factor associated with resuming. However, parents allowed children to resume play due to perceived external pressure, potentially creating stress among parents regarding sport participation decisions. Attending school in person and household income were associated with the ability to resume sport suggesting the need to provide school sport environments and consider the financial impacts of COVID-19 on sport families.
Harnessing the power of telemedicine to accomplish international pediatric outcome research during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah B. Mulkey; Margarita Arroyave-Wessel; Colleen Peyton (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of telemedicine and telecare
The COVID-19 pandemic occurred during planned neurodevelopmental follow-up of Colombian children with antenatal Zika-virus exposure. The objective of the study was to leverage the institution's telemedicine infrastructure to support international clinical child outcome research. In a prospective cohort study of child neurodevelopment (NCT04398901), we used synchronous telemedicine to remotely train a research team and perform live observational assessments of children in Sabanalarga, Colombia. An observational motor and conceptional standardized tool kit was mailed to Colombia; other materials were translated and emailed; team training was done virtually. Children were recruited by team on the ground. Synchronous activities were video-recorded directly to two laptops, each with a telehealth Zoom link to allow simultaneous evaluation of "table" and "standing" activities, and backup recordings were captured directly on the device in Colombia.
Missed and delayed preventive health care visits among US children due to the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lydie A. Lebrun-Harris; Olivia R. Sappenfield; Michael D. Warren

Published: December 2021   Journal: Public Health Reports

The COVID-19 pandemic led to a substantial drop in US children's preventive care, which had not fully rebounded by the end of 2020. We sought to estimate the overall prevalence of missed, skipped, or delayed preventive checkups among households with children in the last 12 months because of the pandemic. We used data from the US Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey, Phase 3.1 (collected April-May 2021). The analytic sample included 48 824 households with ≥1 child or adolescent aged <18 years. We estimated both national and state-level prevalences, examined associations with sociodemographic and household characteristics, and described reasons for missed or delayed preventive visits.

“Why can't I see my friends and family?”: Children's questions and parental explanations about Coronavirus

AUTHOR(S)
Amanda S. Haber; Sona C. Kumar; Hannah Puttre (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Mind, Brain, and Education
Question-explanation exchanges in parent–child interactions foster children's early learning, especially when children are inquiring about unobservable scientific phenomena such as the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). As with other unobservable entities, children must rely on adults to acquire knowledge about COVID-19. Yet, we know very little about what children understand about COVID-19 or its consequences. This study explored developmental changes in children's questions about COVID-19 and parents' explanations. Parents (n = 182) of children (aged 3–8) completed an online survey, which included demographic information, parents' explanations, and children's questions. Parents' explanations referenced germs, used illness analogies, and mentioned mitigation strategies. Most of children's COVID-related questions focused on the consequences of COVID-19. Whereas older children asked more about death, younger children asked about loss of activities.
Perceived impact of lockdown on daily life in children with physical disabilities and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Roxane Varengue; Sylvain Brochard; Sandra Bouvier (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

The first lockdown during COVID-19 pandemic in France led to an abrupt change in children's daily lives. For children with physical disabilities and their families, activities were limited, access to healthcare and therapy was disrupted, and family organization was altered. The objective was to report the impact of the lockdown on daily life activities and well-being of children with physical disabilities as perceived by caregivers. Two online national surveys were addressed to the parents of children with physical disabilities (ECHO survey: 6 April to 11 May 2020) and without disabilities (E-COPAIN survey: 24 April to 11 May 2020), confined at home during the lockdown. A lockdown impact score was calculated from difficulties related to children's well-being (morale, behaviour and social interaction) and daily life activities (schooling and physical activity) and compared between groups. Data on family environment, parental stress and concerns were collected.

Remote provision of breastfeeding support and education: systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Gavine; Joyce Marshall; Phyll Buchanan (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Maternal & Child Nutrition
The Covid-19 pandemic has led to a substantial increase in remotely provided maternity care services, including breastfeeding support. It is, therefore, important to understand whether breastfeeding support provided remotely is an effective method of support. To determine if breastfeeding support provided remotely is an effective method of support. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Twenty-nine studies were included in the review and 26 contributed data to the meta-analysis.
Combatting sedentary behaviors by delivering remote physical exercise in children and adolescents with obesity in the COVID-19 era: a narrative review

AUTHOR(S)
Matteo Vandoni; Roberto Codella; Roberto Pippi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Nutrients
The coexistence of childhood obesity (or its risk) and COVID-19 pandemic put children and adolescents in greater risk to develop respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In fact, the restrictions introduced to limit the spread of the virus had detrimental effects on various lifestyle components, especially in young population. This resulted in augmented levels of physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors and a reduced time spent in play outdoors or sport practices. Contrariwise, the increased use of technology led clinicians, teachers, and trainers to maintain relations with obese children/adolescents so as to reduce sedentary behaviors and the associated health risks. This narrative review aims to describe the role of Telehealth and Tele-exercise as useful tools in the management of pediatric obesity during COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth and Tele-exercise were effective in promoting self-monitoring and behavioral changes, including adherence to exercise training programs in children and adolescents. Moreover, tele-exercise platforms such as applications or exergames allowed flexible scheduling, limiting the infection risks.
Parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza after the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Emad Salawati; Hassan Alwafi; Mohammed Samannodi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Patient Preference and Adherence
This paper aims to explore the impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on caregivers’ willingness to vaccinate their children against influenza in 2021 in Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing this decision. An online survey of 2501 caregivers in Saudi Arabia with children aged 6 months– 18 years was conducted between July 15, 2021, and August 2, 2021. A convenience sample of participants that met the inclusion criteria was used as the study sample. Social Science Package Statistical (SPSS) was used for the statistical analysis. Categorical variables were reported as frequencies and percentages. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables to assess the difference between the variables and the parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children against seasonal influenza after the COVID-19 pandemic.
Changes in physical fitness, dietary habits and family habits for Spanish children during SARS-CoV-2 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Oliver Ramos Álvarez; Víctor Arufe Giráldez; David Cantarero Prieto (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Jourmal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Background: habits related to diet and physical activity in children were modified due to the lockdown that Spain had between March and June 2019 because of the health crisis caused by the appearance of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of the study was to know the impact that the lockdown had on physical fitness values in children aged 11–12. The study consisted of 50 Spanish children aged 11–12 (M = 11.40; SD = 0.50), 33 (66%) boys and 17 (34%) girls. Data collection was performed using the Alpha-Fitness Battery, a validated instrument to assess dietary intake, habits and practices, and an ad hoc survey to collect sociodemographic data and other information relevant to the study.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 18 | Issue: 24 | No. of pages: 17 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: behavioural change, child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, physical activity, social distance | Countries: Spain
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children and young people in households and schools: a meta-analysis of population-based and contact-tracing studies

AUTHOR(S)
Russell Viner; Claire Waddington; Oliver Mytton (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection
The role of children and young people (CYP) in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in household and educational settings remains unclear. This study undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of contact-tracing and population-based studies at low risk of bias. It searched 4 electronic databases on 28 July 2021 for contact-tracing studies and population-based studies informative about transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from 0-19 year olds in household or educational settings. It excluded studies at high risk of bias, including from under-ascertainment of asymptomatic infections. It undertook multilevel random effects meta-analyses of secondary attack rates (SAR: contact-tracing studies) and school infection prevalence, and used meta-regression to examine the impact of community SARS-CoV-2 incidence on school infection prevalence.
Decreased risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in children and adolescents during the Delta variant emergence

AUTHOR(S)
Efrén Murillo-Zamora; Xóchitl Trujillo; Miguel Huerta (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Public Health

This study aims to evaluate factors associated with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in children (<10 years old) and adolescents (10 - 19 years old) before (March 2020 - April 2021) and during (May - July 2021) the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant emergence. A retrospective and nationwide cohort study was conducted in Mexico. Data from 26,961 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (IC) were used to evaluate the association of the evaluated exposures with the risk of COVID-19 pneumonia.

COVID-19 and routine childhood and adolescent immunizations: evidence from Louisiana medicaid

AUTHOR(S)
Brigham Walker; Andrew Anderson; Charles Stoecker (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Vaccine
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted routine vaccinations for children and adolescents. However, it remains unclear whether the impact has been different for children and adolescents from low-income families. To address this, this study compared monthly routine vaccination use per 1,000 vaccine-eligible children and adolescents enrolled in Louisiana Medicaid in the years before (2017-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). Compared to the 2017-2019 average vaccination rates, it found a 28% reduction in measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), a 35% reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV), and a 30% reduction in tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap) vaccinations in 2020. Vaccine uptake was lower in April 2020 after the declaration of a state of emergency and in late summer when back-to-school vaccinations ordinarily occur.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.