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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Early influenza vaccination rates decline in children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin Fogel; Eric W. Schaefer; Steven D. Hicks

Published: July 2021   Journal: Vaccine

This investigation sought to determine whether early season rates of pediatric influenza vaccination changed in a season when there was a concurrent COVID-19 pandemic. This study used cohort and cross sectional data from an academic primary care division in Southcentral Pennsylvania that serves approximately 17,500 patients across 4 practice sites. Early season (prior to November 1) vaccination rates in 2018, 2019 and 2020 were recorded for children, age 6 months to 17 years.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 39 | Issue: 31 | No. of pages: 4291-4295 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child immunization, COVID-19, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the provision of routine childhood immunizations in Ontario, Canada

AUTHOR(S)
Pierre-Philippe Piché-Renaud; Catherine Ji; Daniel S. Farrar (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Vaccine

The COVID-19 pandemic has a worldwide impact on all health services, including childhood immunizations. In Canada, there is limited data to quantify and characterize this issue. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study by distributing online surveys to physicians across Ontario. The survey included three sections: provider characteristics, impact of COVID-19 on professional practice, and impact of COVID-19 on routine childhood immunization services. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with modification of immunization services.

Pediatric infectious disease group (GPIP) position paper on the immune debt of the COVID-19 pandemic in childhood, how can we fill the immunity gap?

AUTHOR(S)
Robert Cohen; Marion Ashman; Muhamed-Kheir Taha (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Infectious Diseases Now
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, reduced incidence of many viral and bacterial infections has been reported in children: bronchiolitis, varicella, measles, pertussis, pneumococcal and meningococcal invasive diseases. The purpose of this opinion paper is to discuss various situations that could lead to larger epidemics when the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) imposed by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic will no longer be necessary.
Post-disruption catch-up of child immunisation and health-care services in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Shohel Rana; Rashed Shah; Sabbir Ahmed (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
After the first COVID-19 case was diagnosed in March, 2020, child health service delivery and use declined in rural remote communities in Bangladesh. This paper retrieved annual data for 2019 and 2020 from Bangladesh's district health information system (DHIS) for child immunisation and sick children's care-seeking in six subdistricts of Barishal, Bangladesh.
Relationship between children physical activity, inflammatory mediators and lymphocyte activation: possible impact of social isolation (COVID-19)

AUTHOR(S)
Murilo Merlin; Heloisa Helena de Oliveira; Maria Elizabeth Pereira Passos (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Sport Sciences for Health
Lifestyle and body composition may be simultaneously responsible for immune response modulation. This study aimed to compare plasmatic adipokines concentration and lymphocyte cytokine production in children with diferent daily steps (DS) range, as well as to discuss the potential negative impact of the social isolation during COVID-19 pandemic in this context. DS can be a useful and low-cost way of monitoring children’s health status.
Omics study reveals abnormal alterations of breastmilk proteins and metabolites in puerperant women with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Yin Zhao; You Shang; Yujie Ren (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research
The nutrition contents of breastmilk directly participate in neonatal immune response. The alternations of the components of breastmilk under the context of viral infection not only reflect the physiological changes in mothers but also affect neonatal immunity and metabolism via breastfeeding. Herein, this paper attempts to answer the important questions whether breastmilk production is affected by COVID-19 and whether breastfeeding is still a safe or recommended operation for COVID-19 puerperant women.
Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 in three children of parents with symptomatic COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Shidan Tosif; Melanie R. Neeland; Nigel W. Crawford (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Nature Communications
Compared to adults, children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have predominantly mild or asymptomatic infections, but the underlying immunological differences remain unclear. This study describes clinical features, virology, longitudinal cellular, and cytokine immune profile, SARS-CoV-2-specific serology and salivary antibody responses in a family of two parents with PCR-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their three children, who tested repeatedly SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative. Cellular immune profiles and cytokine responses of all children are similar to their parents at all timepoints. All family members have salivary anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected, predominantly IgA, that coincide with symptom resolution in 3 of 4 symptomatic members. Plasma from both parents and one child have IgG antibody against the S1 protein and virus-neutralizing activity detected. Using a systems serology approach, this study shows higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody features of these family members compared to healthy controls. These data indicate that children can mount an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 without virological confirmation of infection, raising the possibility that immunity in children can prevent the establishment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. 
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child immunization, COVID-19, immunization, infectious disease
COVID-19 and child vaccination: a systematic approach to closing the immunization gap

AUTHOR(S)
Comfort Z. Olorunsaiye; Korede K. Yusuf; Kylie Reinhart (et al.)

Published: September 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to set back major successes that have been achieved in global vaccine initiatives. This is a rapid review and synthesis of the literature on immunization provision and utilization since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 11 papers comprising peer-reviewed articles and key policies and guidelines, published between January 1 and June 15, 2020, were analyzed. Widespread disruptions of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns were reported leaving millions of children worldwide at risk of measles outbreaks. It is also presented an expanded model of the World Health Organization’s Global Routine Immunization Strategic Plan (GRISP) action areas as a tool to help countries quickly adapt to immunization challenges in the presence of COVID-19 and close the emerging immunization coverage gaps.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 381-385 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child immunization, COVID-19, immunization programmes, vaccination, vaccination policies
SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and young people

AUTHOR(S)
Susanna Felsenstein; Christian Hedrich

Published: September 2020   Journal: Clinical Immunology
This manuscript reviews age-related host factors that may protect children from COVID-19 and complications associated, and addresses the confusion around seropositivity and immunity.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 2200 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child immunization, COVID-19, infectious disease
Routine Childhood Immunisation During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Africa: A Benefit–Risk Analysis of Health Benefits Versus Excess Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

AUTHOR(S)
Kaja Abbas; Simon R Procter; Kevin Van Zanvoort (et al.)

Published: July 2020   Journal: The Lancet Global Health
National immunisation programmes globally are at risk of suspension due to the severe health system constraints and physical distancing measures in place to mitigate the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to compare the health benefits of sustaining routine childhood immunisation in Africa with the risk of acquiring severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection through visiting routine vaccination service delivery points.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.