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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Risk of COVID-19 hospitalizations among school-aged children in Scotland: a national incident cohort study

Ting Shi; Jiafeng Pan; Emily Moore (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Global Health

There is considerable policy, clinical and public interest about whether children should be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 and, if so, which children should be prioritised (particularly if vaccine resources are limited). To inform such deliberations, we sought to identify children and young people at highest risk of hospitalization from COVID-19. This study used the Early Pandemic Evaluation and Enhanced Surveillance of COVID-19 (EAVE II) platform to undertake a national incident cohort analysis to investigate the risk of hospitalization among 5-17 years old living in Scotland in risk groups defined by the living risk prediction algorithm (QCOVID). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between risk groups and COVID-19 hospital admission. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic status, co-morbidity, and prior hospitalization.

Evidence and rationale for vaccinating children and adolescents against SARS-CoV-2: a comprehensive narrative review

Nikolaos Karantaglis; Antonios Gkantaras; Despoina Iordanidou (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Signa Vitae

Vaccines remain the most rigorous and cost-effective weapon of the public health care system against infectious diseases. The development of safe and effective vaccines against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as an imperative response to the unprecedented morbidity and mortality of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the subsequent immense pressure on health care systems, families and global society. Despite the typically mild disease course of SARS-CoV-2 in minors, the associated rare but potentially life-threatening complications, as well as the emergence of new highly transmissible variants, led promptly to the extension of COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials in children and adolescents. To date, various COVID-19 vaccine candidates have been successfully trialed in pediatric populations, followed by their incorporation into corresponding vaccination campaigns in both high- and low-income countries. However, the universal COVID-19 vaccination of children and adolescents remains a matter of debate, along with skepticism about their overall safety and benefits in this age group. This narrative review attempts to summarize the multi-faceted burden of COVID-19 on minors, highlighting the favourable safety/effectiveness profile of COVID-19 vaccines in this age group, elucidating the raised concerns and presenting the current implemented vaccination strategies.

A socio-ecological perspective on parents' intentions to vaccinate their children against COVID-19

Laura M. Canaday; Jessica D. Resnick; Hsuan Liu (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccine
From 2013 to 2016, the H1N1 component of live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) performed very poorly in contrast to the inactivated influenza vaccine. We utilized a primary, differentiated human nasal epithelial cell (hNEC) culture system to assess the replication differences between isogenic LAIVs containing the HA segment from either A/Bolivia/559/2013 (rBol), which showed poor vaccine efficacy, and A/Slovenia/2903/2015 (rSlov), which had reasonable vaccine efficacy. There were minimal differences in infectious virus production in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, but the rSlov LAIV showed markedly improved replication in hNEC cultures at both 32 °C and 37 °C, demonstrating that the HA segment alone could impact LAIV replication in physiologically relevant systems.
Current status of COVID-19 vaccination: safety and liability concern for children, pregnant and lactating women

Swagat Kumar Das; Manish Paul; Bikash Chandra Behera (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines

Since its inception, Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has claimed a significant number of lives around the world. COVID-19 vaccine development involves several vaccine platforms, including traditional live-attenuated or killed viral particles, viral vectors or DNA, and mRNA-based vaccines. The efficacy and effectiveness (EV) of these vaccines must be assessed in order to determine the extent to which they can protect us against infection. Despite the fact that some affluent countries attempted to vaccinate the majority of their inhabitants, children and pregnant women were first excluded.

Factors that differentiate COVID-19 vaccine intentions among Indiana parents: implications for targeted vaccine promotion

Katharine J. Head; Gregory D. Zimet; Constantin T. Yiannoutsos (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
Given low rates of uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine for children 12–17 and 5–11 years old, research is needed to understand parental behaviors and behavioral intentions related to COVID-19 vaccination for their children. In the state of Indiana, this study conducted a non-random, online survey of parents or caregivers (N = 10,266) about their COVID-19 vaccine intentions or behaviors, demographic characteristics, and potential motivating reasons for getting the vaccine.
Did this pandemic trigger a spike in mothers′ hesitancy over their children’s routine immunizations? A cross sectional study

M. Shwethashree; A. Vanmathi; Saurish

Published: April 2022   Journal: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health

The COVID-19 pandemic has created a lot of disruptions for delivery of health care services like routine immunization. Delayed immunization can lead to outbreak of many vaccine preventable diseases. The current pandemic created confusions and fear among mothers to vaccinate their children. This study was an initiative to understand the struggles faced by them during the pandemic. It aims to estimate the prevalence of hesitancy for routine immunization among urban mothers during COVID-19 pandemic and to determine the factors responsible for their hesitancy.

Assessing the transition of COVID-19 burden towards the young population while vaccines are rolled out in China

Jun Cai; Juan Yang; Xiaowei Deng (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Emerging Microbes & Infections
SARS-CoV-2 infection causes most cases of severe illness and fatality in older age groups. Over 92% of the Chinese population aged ≥12 years has been fully vaccinated against COVID-19 (albeit with vaccines developed against historical lineages). At the end of October 2021, the vaccination programme has been extended to children aged 3–11 years. This study aimed to assess whether, in this vaccination landscape, the importation of Delta variant infections could shift COVID-19 burden from adults to children. It developed an age-structured susceptible-infectious-removed model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to simulate epidemics triggered by the importation of Delta variant infections and project the age-specific incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections, cases, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and deaths.
Against COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children

Steven R. Kraaijeveld; Rachel Gur-Arie; Euzebiusz Jamrozik

Published: March 2022   Journal: Bioethics
COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in a number of countries with provisional regulatory approval and public support. This article provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, it presents three of the strongest arguments that might justify COVID-19 vaccination of children: (a) an argument from paternalism, (b) an argument from indirect protection and altruism, and (c) an argument from global eradication. This article offers a series of objections to each of these arguments to show that none of them is currently tenable.
Parental COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for children with neurodevelopmental disorders: a cross-sectional survey

Mohammad Ali; Tasnuva Shamarukh Proma; Zarin Tasnim (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Tropical Medicine and Health

Little is known about parental coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). This survey estimated the prevalence and predictive factors of vaccine hesitancy among parents of children with NDD. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 10 to 31, 2021. A structured vaccine hesitancy questionnaire was used to collect data from parents aged ≥ 18 years with children with NDD. In addition, individual face-to-face interviews were conducted at randomly selected places throughout Bangladesh. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the predictors of vaccine hesitancy.

COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in pregnant and lactating women and mothers of young children in Poland

N. Kuciel; J. Mazurek; K. Hap (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Women's Health

The World Health Organization indicated vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 threats to global health. The success of a vaccine depends not only on its efficacy but also on its acceptance. This study aims to define COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in a sample of pregnant and lactating women in Poland. Since mothers are often key decision-makers for whether their children will receive vaccination, it is vital to measure vaccine confidence among this group. An anonymous online survey was distributed to assess the level of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant and lactating women for themselves and their children in Poland.

Missed routine pediatric care and vaccinations in US children during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic

Chloe A. Teasdale; Luisa N. Borrell; Yanhan Shen (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
The COVID-19 pandemic has decreased uptake of pediatric preventive care, including immunizations. This study estimated the prevalence of missed pediatric routine medical visits and vaccinations over the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. It conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 2074 US parents of children ≤12 years in March 2021 to measure the proportion of children who missed pediatric care and vaccinations over the first 12 months of the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among low-income, racially and ethnically diverse US parents

Samantha Schilling; Colin J. Orr; Alan M. Delamater (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Patient Education and Counseling
This study aimed to examine factors impacting U.S. parents’ intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Data were collected February-May 2021 from parents living in six geographically diverse locations. The COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Survey assessed perceived susceptibility and severity to adverse outcomes from the pandemic. Semi-structured interviews assessed perceptions about benefits and risks of vaccinating children..
What is the effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines for children and adolescents, including variants of concern. (Version 8, updated 28 March 2022)
This study retrieved candidate studies and updates to living evidence syntheses on vaccine effectiveness using the following mechanisms: 1) PubMed via COVID-19+ Evidence Alerts; 2) systematic scanning of pre-print servers; 3) updates to the COVID-END inventory of best evidence syntheses; and 4) cross-check with updates from the VESPa team. It included studies and updates to living evidence syntheses identified up to two days before the version release date
A pre-vaccine analysis using the Health Belief Model to explain parents’ willingness to vaccinate (WTV) their children in the United States: implications for vaccination programs

Diana Reindl; Serkan Catma

Published: March 2022   Journal: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research

This study uses the Health Belief Model (HBM) to explain parents’ willingness to vaccinate (WTV) their children with COVID-19 vaccine in the United States (US). The analysis included determining if vaccination choice among parents statistically varied based on geography among the sample collected. A cross-sectional survey was administered on November 2020. Multiple regression analysis was completed, determining which HBM constructs to be most relevant to parents’ WTV their children with COVID-19 vaccine. To determine ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ geographic spots for WTV, a hot spot analysis based on Getis-Ord Gi* statistics was executed.

Willingness, refusal and influential factors of parents to vaccinate their children against the COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Petros Galanis; Irene Vraka; Olga Siskouc (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
This study aimed to estimate parents' willingness and refusal to vaccinate their children against the COVID-19, and to investigate the predictors for their decision. It followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. It searched Scopus, Web of Science, Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and medrxiv from inception to December 12, 2021. It applied a random effect model to estimate pooled effects since the heterogeneity was very high. It used subgroup analysis and metaregression analysis to explore sources of heterogeneity.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.