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Hyunjung Lee; Gopal K. Singh
Adolescents and young adults in the United States (US) have experienced a significant increase in drug overdose mortality rates in the last two decades. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, they experienced a lack of access to substance use disorder treatment, stay-home orders, school closure, social isolation, increased psychological distress, and financial strain. Few studies have examined the impact of the pandemic on monthly trends in drug-overdose mortality among youth by race/ethnicity. This study estimates differential changes in monthly drug overdose mortality among youth in the US by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Monthly deaths from the final 2018-2020 national mortality data and the 2021 provisional mortality data were used, and monthly population estimates were obtained from the Census Bureau.
Elisa Dorantes-Acosta; Diana Ávila-Montiel; Jesús Domínguez Rojas (et al.)
Victor Santana Santos; Thayane Santos Siqueira; Ana I. Cubas Atienzar (et al.)
Data regarding the geographical distribution of cases and risk factors for COVID-19 death in children and adolescents are scarce. We describe the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases and deaths in paediatric population and their association with social determinants of health in Brazil. This is a population-based ecological study with a spatial analysis of all cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in Brazil among children and adolescents aged 0–19 years from March 2020 to October 2021. The units of analysis were the 5570 municipalities. Data on COVID-19 cases and deaths, social vulnerability, health inequities, and health system capacity were obtained from publicly available databases. Municipalities were stratified from low to very high COVID-19 incidence and mortality using K-means clustering procedures, and spatial clusters and relative risks were estimated using spatial statistics with Poisson probability models. The relationship between COVID-19 estimates and social determinants of health was explored by using multivariate Beta regression techniques.
Satyajit Kundu; Abu Sayeed; Abebaw Gedef Azene (et al.)
Dietary diversity (DD) is one of the key components of diet quality, and malnutrition due to poor diet quality led to child morbidity and mortality. However, in Bangladesh, there is a lack of information on childhood DD (aged 6–59 months) amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess the minimum DD and its associated factors among children aged 6–59 months during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. A cross sectional study was carried out in six districts of Bangladesh. A total of 1190 respondents were included using cluster random sampling. Individual Dietary Diversity scale (IDDS) for children was used to assess the children's dietary diversity score. Factors associated with DD of children were identified using multilevel binary logistics regression model.
Dalia Stern; Eduardo Arias-de la Garza; María Teresa García-Romero (et al.)
Erly C. Moura; Juan Cortez-Escalante; Rodrigo T. S. Lima (et al.)
This paper aims to analyse the mortality trends in children under five years old in Brazil from 2017 to 2020 and the influence of COVID-19 in 2020.A retrospective study employing secondary data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. Deaths according to cause were extracted and disaggregated into early, late, postneonatal, and 1 to 4-year-old periods. Corrected mortality rates per 1,000 live births and relative risk ratio for the cause of death were calculated.
Andreas Chiabi; Mfie Nji Forgwei; Marie Bissong (et al.)
The first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Cameroon was recorded in March 2020. In response to the pandemic, most countries like Cameroon instituted a number of control measures to curb its spread accross the country. These COVID-19 control measures added to the fear of this disease within the population may have led to other detrimental health effects like: the pattern of hospitalizations and hospital outcomes. This is a cross-sectional study with data from in-patient admission records of children admitted to the pediatric ward of the Regional Hospital Bamenda over a 24 months period (1st of March 2019 to the 28th of February 2021). The pre-pandemic period in Cameroon (that is, the first 12 months, from March 2019 to February 2020) and the pandemic period (that is, the last 12 months, from March 2020 to February 2021) were compared.
Rachel Harwood; Helen Yan; Nishanthi Talawila Da Camara (et al.)
Nabil Ahmed; Anna Marriott; Nafkote Dabi (et al.)
The wealth of the world’s 10 richest men has doubled since the pandemic began. The incomes of 99% of humanity are worse off because of COVID-19. Widening economic, gender, and racial inequalities—as well as the inequality that exists between countries—are tearing our world apart. This is not by chance, but choice: “economic violence” is perpetrated when structural policy choices are made for the richest and most powerful people. This causes direct harm to us all, and to the poorest people, women and girls, and racialized groups most. Inequality contributes to the death of at least one person every four seconds. But it is possible to radically redesign our economies to be centered on equality. It is possible to claw back extreme wealth through progressive taxation; invest in powerful, proven inequality-busting public measures; and boldly shift power in the economy and society. If we are courageous, and listen to the movements demanding change, we can create an economy in which nobody lives in poverty, nor with unimaginable billionaire wealth—in which inequality no longer kills.
While the world was gripped by the unfolding COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, children continued to face the same crisis they have for decades: intolerably high mortality rates and vastly inequitable chances at life. In total, more than 5.0 million children under age 5, including 2.4 million newborns, along with 2.2 million children and youth aged 5 to 24 years – 43 per cent of whom are adolescents – died in 2020. This tragic and massive loss of life, most of which was due to preventable or treatable causes, is a stark reminder of the urgent need to end preventable deaths of children and young people. Data gaps remain a serious challenge to child mortality estimation and monitoring. Almost two thirds of low and middle income countries (97 out of 135) have no reliable mortality data in the past three years. And just 40 countries had high-quality national data for 2020 included in the estimation model, though national or subnational data were available for more than 80 countries or areas to help analyse excess mortality due to COVID-19.
Clare Smith; David Odd; Rachel Harwood (et al.)
Tommy Y. Kim; Esther C. Kim; Adrian Z. Agudelo (et al.)
There are limited studies with varying results evaluating the rate of hospitalizations of pediatric patients tested for COVID-19 in the United States. More information in the pediatric COVID-19 literature is needed. The objective of this study was to describe the rates of positive tests, hospitalization, severe disease, and mortality for COVID-19 in children. This study performed a retrospective analysis of data collected from a data warehouse from 184 hospitals across the United States. All cases of pediatric patients who were tested for COVID-19 were analyzed for test positivity, hospitalization, severe disease, and mortality. A separate subgroup analysis for ages < 1 year, 1–4 years, 5–8 years, 9–14 years, and 15–17 years was performed.
Sabina Rodriguez Velásquez; Léa Jacques; Jyoti Dalal (et al.)
Few data on the COVID-19 epidemiological characteristics among the pediatric population in Africa exists. This paper examines the age and sex distribution of the morbidity and mortality rate in children with COVID-19 and compares it to the adult population within 15 Sub-Saharan African countries. A merge line listing dataset shared by countries within the Regional Office for Africa was analyzed. Patients diagnosed within 1 March and 1 September 2020 with confirmed positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Children's data were stratified into three age groups: 0-4 years, 5-11 years, and 12-17 years, while adults were combined. The cumulative incidence of cases, its medians, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Jie Yang; Rohan D’souza; Ashraf Kharrat (et al.)
UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.
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