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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The effects of financial stress and household socio-economic deprivation on the malnutrition statuses of children under five during the COVID-19 lockdown in a marginalized region of South Punjab, Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Muhammad Babar Alam; Muhammad Shahid; Bashar Isam Alzghoul (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
The lockdown after the COVID-19 pandemic not only caused public health crises and income stress but also put millions at risk of food insecurity and malnutrition across the globe, especially in low and middle-income countries [LMICs]. This study evaluated the effects of financial stress and household socio-economic deprivation on the nutritional status of 1551 children under the age of five during COVID-19 in Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire was used between November 2020 and April 2021 to collect information on age, height, children’s weight, and socio-economic status from 1152 rural households from underdeveloped regions in Punjab, Pakistan. With the help of the proportionate simple random sampling method, this study employed a model (binary logistic regression) to calculate the likelihood of malnourishment.
Provision of mother's own milk for preterm infants during the COVID-19 pandemic: differential effect of insurance

AUTHOR(S)
Lauren E. Boudreau; Betty R. Vohr; Richard Tucker (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Mother-infant dyads faced many challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, the impact was different depending on socio-economic determinants. This study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal provision of mother's own milk (MOM) at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge among preterm infants. It hypothesized that fewer infants would be discharged home on any MOM during the pandemic period compared to a pre-pandemic period. This is a retrospective analysis of infants born <34 weeks' gestation admitted to the Women and Infant's Hospital NICU. Infants born pre-pandemic (1/1/2019 to 2/29/2020) were compared to infants born during the pandemic (3/1/2020 to 4/30/2021). Maternal and neonatal variables were analyzed by group.
The relationship between nutrition-physical activity behaviors of autistic children with their families and fhildren's obesity levels during Covid pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Cevik Guner U. Umran; Bilkay İrem

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
The family has a key role in the obesity management of children with autism. This study examines the relationship between the nutrition-physical activity behaviors of autistic children with their families and children’s obesity levels during covid-19 pandemic. The descriptive and cross-sectional study involved 80 parents of autistic children. A positive correlation was found between children’s mean BMI values before and during the pandemic(p = 0.000). Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Scale(FNPAS) and Brief Autism Mealtime Behavior Inventory(BAMBI) score were 55.18 ± 7.86 and 31.76 ± 8.79, respectively. In addition, it was found that 32.5% of the children ate more than before the pandemic, 50.0% engaged in less physical activity, and 16.3% didn’t do any physical activity. The study results suggesting the risk of obesity.
Experiences pertaining to child nutrition and care provision among early care and education stakeholders, sponsors, and center directors during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multi-method study

AUTHOR(S)
Temitope Erinosho; Bethany Jana; Kaitlyn Loefstedt (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This study used multiple methods (interviews, survey) to assess experiences of stakeholders, sponsors, and center-based early care and education (ECE) program directors pertaining to child nutrition (e.g., provision of nutritious foods, mealtime practices, CACFP administration/use) and the provision of child-care (i.e., day-to-day ECE operations and programming) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants included stakeholders from 22 national and state agencies associated with the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) who also work to promote nutrition and quality child-care, representatives of 17 CACFP sponsor organizations, and 40 center-based ECE program directors who participated in interviews, as well as 100 ECE directors who completed surveys. Data were collected across four states. Thematic analyses of interviews and descriptive methods were used to analyze data collected.

The role of muslim parents in familiarizing halal snacks in Indonesia after the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sisca Wulandari; Edi Sumatirta; Siti Fatimatul Zuhro

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Halal Science And Technology Conference

The  ease  of  ordering  snacks  through  online  applications  after  the  COVID-19  pandemic  makes  it difficult for parents to control the halal snacks consumed by their children. In fact, there are still many parents who do not understand what halal snacks are like. Whereas the knowledge and behavior of parents  greatly  influence  the  way  children  choose  whatever  snacks  to  consume.  This  community service activity is expected to increase understanding of the role of parents in familiarizing children with halal snacks. The methods are: a) the lecture method, used to convey knowledge about changes in the halal logo in Indonesia, the urgency, ways, and creative media to familiarize children with halal snacks; b)  the  question  and  answer  method,  used  to  provide feedback  to  parents  as  well  as  to  get parents'  feedback  on  the  material  that  has  been  delivered  during  the  activity;  (3)  the  practical method, used to practice making a variety of simple creative media that can easily familiarize halal snacks  on  child.

Increased incidence of overweight and obesity among preschool Swedish children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Fäldt; Sahar Nejat; Sofia Edvinsson Sollander (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: European Journal of Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic has had wide effects on child health globally. Increased prevalence of childhood obesity has been observed by a number of countries during the pandemic. The absence of a formal societal lockdown during the pandemic, made Sweden stand out compared to other countries. This study aims to examine changes in BMI among preschool children in Sweden before and during COVID-19 pandemic. Retrospective population-based cross-sectional study, with longitudinal follow-up for a portion of the children. The study included 25 049 children from three Swedish regions, with growth measures at 3- (n = 16 237), 4- (n = 14 437) and 5-years of age (n = 11 711). Care Need Index was used as a socioeconomic parameter at health centre level.

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on food habits and neophobia in children in the framework of the family context and parents' behaviors: a study in an Italian central region

AUTHOR(S)
Annalisa Di Nucci; Umberto Scognamiglio; Federica Grant (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Nutrition

This paper aims to evaluate whether changes in lifestyle and eating habits resulting from the Covid-19 emergency have influenced the post-pandemic level of food neophobia and in children living in an Italian central region.  A sample of 99 children took part in a retrospective assessment carried out with a self-administrated questionnaire. Pre and post-pandemic evaluation of eating habits, physical activity, and lifestyle indicators was carried out. Food neophobia was evaluated following the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). Descriptive statistics were produced. A contingency analysis was performed to check associations between variables.

Mindful feeding: associations with COVID-19 related parent stress and child eating behavior

AUTHOR(S)
Merina Varghese; Adelyn Sherrard; Michael Vang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Appetite
Parent perceived stress has been associated with child obesogenic eating, as parents who are stressed may be less responsive to their children during mealtimes (Gemmill et al., 2013). More recently, mindfulness-based interventions have successfully reduced people's stress levels. However, less is known regarding the role of mindfulness in the child feeding context. In this study, 249 parents of children between the ages of 3 and 12 completed a 20-minute online study to examine the associations among COVID-19 related parent stress (hereby referred to as parent stress), mindful feeding, and child obesogenic eating (i.e., food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating, and desire to drink).
Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on changes in nutritional status and physical activities of school-age children: a scoping review

AUTHOR(S)
Fajar Ari Nugroho; Annisa Nafilata Ruchaina; Angga Galih Luhur Wicaksono

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal Gizi Pangan

This study's objective is to review the consequence of the COVID-19 epidemic on physical activities, sedentary  lifestyles,  screen  time,  and  changes  in  the  nutritional  status  of  school-age  children.  The outcomes  of  this  study  are  intended  to  be  applicable  to  obesity  management  in  children.  This  study reviewed  full-text  articles  and  open-access  publications  on  the  sedentary  lifestyle  of  children  during the pandemic. and the data were analyzed using cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional designs. The results of reviewing 17 articles show that school-age children’s physical activities and nutritional status have  decreased,  but  their  sedentary  lifestyle  and  screen  time  have  increased  due  to  social  restrictions  during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children’s decreased physical activities are caused by the absence of a comparable replacement mechanism as that before the pandemic. Meanwhile, the increasingly sedentary  lifestyle highly influences children’s physical and mental health. Screen time has also increased and is unavoidable during the pandemic because children’s activities were limited and their learning systems are switched to online learning; as a result, their supporting sedentary lifestyle increases while physical activities decrease. These factors have changed the nutritional status of children during the pandemic.

Nutritional status of younger primary school children in urban and rural areas of Montenegro in relation to sex and age during COVID-19 pandemic: a national study

AUTHOR(S)
Dragan Bacovic; Pavle Malovic; Erol Vrevic (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal of Morphology
Prevention and correction of overweight in children and adolescents is also very important for many reasons. According to previous research, the problem tends to vary according to sex, and different ages and the lifestyle in rural and urban areas has changed drastically in recent years and decades. Regarding the above-mentioned, the main goal of this research was to determine the nutritional status of young school children in urban and rural areas of Montenegro in relation to sex and age. The sample in this research has consisted of children aged 6 and 9 (younger school age). The total sample in this research is 800 male and female children who belong to the urban and rural areas of Montenegro. The sample of variables used in this study was: body mass index-percentile values (BMI), and waist circumference and body height ratio (WHtR) which were used as indicators to assess nutritional status.
Proximity matrix indicates heterogeneity in the ability to face child malnutrition and pandemics in Brazil: an ecological study

AUTHOR(S)
Camila Botelho Miguel; Arianny Lima da Silva; Carlos Antônio Trindade-da-Silva (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Among the social inequalities that continue to still surpasses the basic rights of several citizens, political and environmental organizations decisively “drag” the “ghost” of hunger between different countries of the world, including Brazil. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the difficulties encountered in fighting poverty, which has led Brazil to a worrying situation regarding its fragility in the fight against new pandemics. The present study aims to estimate, compare, and report the prevalence of mortality due to child malnutrition among the macro-regions of Brazil and verify possible associations with the outcome of death by COVID-19. This would identify the most fragile macro-regions in the country with the greatest need for care and investments.

Patterns of adolescent eating behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ludmila Zhuravleva; Elena Zarubina; Aleksey Ruchkin (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BIO Web of Conferences
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated problems of ensuring food security for all strata of the population of many countries of the world, including Russia. For scientific research of these problems, development and implementation of effective practical recommendations in the international scientific community has developed an interdisciplinary the concept of “food security”. Food security is a stable condition processes, mechanisms, infrastructures, relationships and influences related to food production, storage, transportation, supply, consumption and disposal food waste. The concept of food security it is the key to studying the problems of providing for the population food economists, lawyers, specialists management and logistics, marketers, social psychologists, nutritionists, as well as specialists in the field of other sciences. Its place in comprehensive security research food security is also found by the sociology of nutrition, which studies food systems, first of all, in its links such as the consumption of food by various social groups and food waste management. During the third stage of the sociological research, the topic which was the change in the eating behavior of various socio-demographic groups of Russian society in the conditions of ongoing pandemics, the author’s team conducted an analysis of food practices children and adolescents in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods of conducting smart survey and in-depth interviews were selected for the research.
Children's centres, families and food insecurity in times of crisis

AUTHOR(S)
William Baker; Ioanna Bakopoulou

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Poverty and Social Justice
This study examines how children’s centres in a major city in England responded to food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic by helping to run ‘FOOD Clubs’ to support families. Drawing on data from semi-structured interviews with children’s centre staff, it analyses how clubs were organised, why people joined them, and the range of benefits parents derived from them. It extends the literature on food insecurity which focuses heavily on the rise of foodbanks. These data also informs broader policy debates around supporting parents in poverty, effective early years provision and the challenges facing families experiencing food insecurity.
Drivers of socioeconomic inequalities of child hunger during COVID-19 in South Africa: evidence from NIDS-CRAM Waves 1-5

AUTHOR(S)
Olufunke A. Alaba; Charles Hongoro; Aquina Thulare (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

Child hunger has long-term and short-term consequences, as starving children are at risk of many forms of malnutrition, including wasting, stunting, obesity and micronutrient deficiencies. The purpose of this paper is to show that the child hunger and socio-economic inequality in South Africa increased during her COVID-19 pandemic due to various lockdown regulations that have affected the economic status of the population. This paper uses the National Income Dynamics Study-Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM WAVES 1–5) collected in South Africa during the intense COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 to assess the socioeconomic impacts of child hunger rated inequalities. First, child hunger was determined by a composite index calculated by the authors. Descriptive statistics were then shown for the investigated variables in a multiple logistic regression model to identify significant risk factors of child hunger. Additionally, the decomposable Erreygers' concentration index was used to measure socioeconomic inequalities on child hunger in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Impact of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on neonatal nutrition: focus on low- and middle-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
Mwawi Nyirongo; Neelima Agrawal; Amarilys Rojas (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Current Tropical Medicine Reports

This review serves to account for the published literature regarding the changing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on neonatal nutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Initial national and international guidelines regarding breastfeeding were often contradictory. Lack of clear guidelines resulted in separation of mother-neonate dyads and the reliance on non-human sources of milk at institutional levels. Mothers and families were less likely to initiate and/or continue breastfeed during the pandemic due to confusion regarding guidelines, lack of support for lactation, and concern for infection transmission to their neonates. Continued research in neonatal nutrition, however, continues to support the use of breastmilk as the optimal nutritional source for neonates.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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