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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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A win-win for all of us: COVID-19 sheds light on the essentialness of child care as key infrastructure

AUTHOR(S)
Owusua Yamoah; Sarah Balser; Callie Ogland-Hand (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Child care centers in the United States allow many parents and caregivers to work in and outside of the home and support the growth and development of children. Child care closures and COVID-19 mitigation measures at the onset of the pandemic heightened the need for and awareness of the role of child care as core infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived role and benefits of child care based on the lived experiences of parents/caregivers and staff navigating child care during the pandemic. It conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with parents/caregivers (n = 20) of children who attended child care and staff (n = 12) who were working at child care programs in Ohio from September to November 2020. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed through the lens of four frameworks (i.e., capabilities, developmental, economics, and mutualism) related to child well-being.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on educational, psychosocial and behavioral aspects of children: a cross sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Ramya Pandi; Aradhya Korapati; Kanta Kumari (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics

The outbreak of COVID-19 appeared first in China and then, rapidly, spread to the rest of the world, and WHO declared it as a pandemic.A nation-wide closure of educational institutions was implemented as an emergency measure in India in March 2020. Meanwhile the traditional classroom instructions were replaced by online classes and home-based learning. Pandemic stressors such as boredom, being in isolation, one of the family members hospitalized/ succumbed to covid, etc, may have even more negative impact on children’s behaviour and emotions. Objectives were to study the impact of covid 19 pandemic on psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional survey conducted among the parents attending paediatric OPD in NRI general and superspeciality hospital, Mangalagiri, between September 2021 to December 2021 over a period of 70 day along with their children of age group between 3 years to 18 years with an aim to explore various psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children and their correlation.

Childhood and children's migration in the era of COVID‐19: a case study of Zimbabwean children/young people's migration to South Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Roda Madziva; Innocent Mahiya; Chamunogwa Nyoni

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children & Society
This paper draws on research with a group of Zimbabwean orphaned young people. It explores their experiences of migrating to South Africa during the COVID-19 period when official borders were closed. It draws attention to the complexities of south–south migration in the era of COVID-19 in a way that situates the orphaned child migrants as having contradictory, fluid identities that are simultaneously victimised, agentic and infinitely more complex than the dominant binary representation of adult/child.
How parental internet use impacted parenting practices and children's behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Demetris Hadjicharalambous; Loucia Demetriou; Elena Michael–Hadjikyriakou

Published: December 2022   Journal: British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies

This survey aimed to investigate how online parental behavior affects their parenting practices and how such practices may affect their family relations, their children’s social competencies, school achievements, and self–esteem. It examined a sample of 357 Greek-speaking parents (77.3% mothers and 22.7% fathers). It applied Young's (1998) Internet Addiction Questionnaire, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), and Kontopoulou's (2008) questionnaire to assess children's school performance and social competencies, their self-esteem, and family relationships.

The impact of COVID‐19 on school‐age children

AUTHOR(S)
Glen Stone; Tyler Witzig; Constance McIntosh

Published: December 2022   Journal: Psychology in the Schools
The paper examines the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on school-age children and their families. Changes to their daily lives were examined through the lens of their physical, mental, and emotional well-being. An analysis of current literature was conducted examining the emerging research on the pandemic's effects on families. A case example is provided to offer a narrative snapshot of the many experiences faced by children and families throughout school closures and stay at home orders.
Natural course of health and well-being in non-hospitalised children and young people after testing for SARS-CoV-2: a prospective follow-up study over 12 months

AUTHOR(S)
Snehal M. Pinto Pereira; Roz Shafran; Manjula D. Nugawela (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe

Despite high numbers of children and young people (CYP) having acute COVID, there has been no prospective follow-up of CYP to establish the pattern of health and well-being over a year following infection. A non-hospitalised, national sample of 5086 (2909 SARS-COV-2 Positive; 2177 SARS-COV-2 Negative at baseline) CYP aged 11–17 completed questionnaires 6- and 12-months after PCR-tests between October 2020 and March 2021 confirming SARS-CoV-2 infection (excluding CYP with subsequent (re)infections). SARS-COV-2 Positive CYP was compared to age, sex and geographically-matched test-negative CYP.

The change in children's subjective relational social cohesion with family and friends during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multinational analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Oliver Nahkur; Dagmar Kutsar

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Sociology
As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, social-distancing measures have been implemented worldwide, including school closures. Previous studies indicated that children's relational social cohesion with family (RSC-Fa) and friends (RSC-Fr) may have decreased during the pandemic, but some children described that positive experiences were gained from the confinement measures of social distancing. Mostly, these studies are qualitative or capture a single country and have an exploratory character. Using data collected in 2021 of more than 20,000 children primarily aged 9–13 years as part of the International Children's Worlds COVID-19 Supplement Survey from 18 countries (Germany, Turkey, Bangladesh, Italy, Albania, Romania, Chile, Wales, Taiwan, Belgium, Algeria, Israel, Russia, South Korea, Indonesia, Estonia, Finland, and Spain), this study aimed to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected children's RSC-Fa and RSC-Fr and explore the role of relational factors. RSC-Fa and RSC-Fr are measured through satisfaction in relationships with family members and friends before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. This study employed descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis.
Play and learn: children's agency through the COVID-19 pandemic in Mozambique

AUTHOR(S)
Marina Di Napoli Pastore; Francesca Salvi

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children & Society
Social distancing, one of the measures adopted in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, profoundly impacted on the lives of children. The consequences were, however, not homogenous. By focusing on the daily practices of 41 Mozambican children aged 3–10, this study considers how differences in socioeconomic backgrounds led children to respond to the social restrictions in ways that made sense to them. Inspired by Abebe (2019), it identifies how the interruptions of daily routines enabled specific instances of agency on children's part.
The COVID-19 pandemic and quality of life: experiences contributing to and harming the well-being of Canadian children and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Christine Gervais; Isabel Côté; Sophie Lampron-deSouza (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
The pandemic’s restrictive measures such as lockdowns, social distancing, and the wearing of masks transformed young people’s daily lives and brought up major concerns regarding children’s and adolescents’ well-being. This longitudinal mixed study aims to identify how different experiences contributed to children’s and adolescents’ well-being through different stages of the pandemic. The sample comprises 149 Canadian youth from Quebec who shared their experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Children and adolescents were met virtually for semi-directed interviews about their well-being at three measurement time (T1: May 2020 lockdown, T2: July 2020 progressive reopening, and T3: beginning of the second wave). At T3, they also completed a questionnaire measuring their quality of life.
School closures and mental health, wellbeing and health behaviours among children and adolescents during the second COVID-19 wave: a systematic review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Rosella Saulle; Manuela De Sario; Antonella Bena (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Epidemiologia & Prevenzione
This research aims to evaluate the impact of school closures, as a measure to contain the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection, on the psychological well-being of students of all levels starting from the 2020-2021 school year. A systematic literature review was conducted according to the PRISMA 2020 Guidelines. The literature search was conducted on 4 different databases: MedLine, Embase, PsycINFO, and L.OVE Platform. Quantitative observational studies published until 10.01.2022 were included. Studies conducted during the first pandemic wave, i.e., during the 2019-2020 school year and/or during the mandatory lockdown or confinement period, were excluded. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with validated scales. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were carried out independently by two authors.
Children have faced several challenges: analyzing reports of children who became orphans caused by COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Madinatu Hassan

Published: November 2022   Journal: Ilomata International Journal of Social Science
Many children have become orphans due to COVID-19. Their experiences have been under reported due to focus on other areas. This study explores adverse social consequences of children who became orphans due to COVID-19. With the aid of a documentary review approach, this study extracts and analyzes reports from 11 highly ranked news reporting sites in the United States of America that contained expert opinions and narratives on the negative social consequences of being orphaned by COVID-19. Analysis of data followed the narrative thematic analysis procedure. The outstanding themes identified are the loss of caregivers and primary social support system, and increased risk of mental health concerns.
Family dinners and family relationships following the initial onset of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Loren D. Marks; Heather H. Kelley; David C. Dollahite (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Marriage & Family Review
In the context of the COVID-19 shutdowns, we explored associations between family dinner and family well-being among 731 adult parents in the United States who currently had at least one child residing in their home. The panel survey was administered during the summer of 2020 (June 18 through July 22). Participants were asked to respond to questions about relational processes before the COVID-19 shutdowns, at the height of the shutdowns, and currently (i.e., at the time of data collection).
Children's centres, families and food insecurity in times of crisis

AUTHOR(S)
William Baker; Ioanna Bakopoulou

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Poverty and Social Justice
This study examines how children’s centres in a major city in England responded to food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic by helping to run ‘FOOD Clubs’ to support families. Drawing on data from semi-structured interviews with children’s centre staff, it analyses how clubs were organised, why people joined them, and the range of benefits parents derived from them. It extends the literature on food insecurity which focuses heavily on the rise of foodbanks. These data also informs broader policy debates around supporting parents in poverty, effective early years provision and the challenges facing families experiencing food insecurity.
The role of social transfers in mitigating families with children from the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sanna Kärkkäinen; Merita Mesiäislehto; Outi Sirniö (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal of Social Welfare
This study investigated the household income of families with children. Its specific interest was the earned income losses during the COVID-19 pandemic, and how social transfers have mitigated those losses. It assessed the monthly income levels by comparing the information on the year prior to pandemic to income levels during COVID-19 pandemic.
Bear in a window: Australian children's perspectives on lockdown and experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara F. Kelly; Chloé Diskin-Holdaway

Published: November 2022   Journal: Children & Society
This paper examines the reflections of a cohort of Australian children who lived through the 2020–21 COVID-19 pandemic and experienced being in ‘lockdown’; a state of largely being confined to the home for long periods daily. It reports how children reflect on their experiences and illustrates how reflections draw on similar topics focused on localised child concerns regarding health, education, family, digital engagement, mealtimes and food. Further, it argues for the importance of including children's own voices of lived experience in reports regarding life during the pandemic since these perspectives may differ from those reported by adults on children's behalf.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.