COVID-19 in Children: An Ample Review
Published: June 2020
Journal: Risk management and healthcare policy
The aim of this review was to describe the current knowledge about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) in children, from epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory perspectives, including knowledge on the disease course, treatment, and prognosis. An extensive literature search was performed to identify papers on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 infection) in children, published between January 1, 2020 and April 1, 2020. There were 44 relevant papers on COVID-19 in children. The results showed that COVID-19 occurs in 0.39–12.3% of children. Clinical signs and symptoms are comparable to those in adults, but milder forms and a large percentage of asymptomatic carriers are found among children. Elevated inflammatory markers are associated with complications and linked to various co-infections. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans in children revealed structural changes similar to those found in adults, with consolidations surrounded by halos being somewhat specific for children with COVID-19. The recommended treatment includes providing symptomatic therapy, with no specific drug recommendations for children. The prognosis is much better for children compared to adults. This review highlights that COVID-19 in children is similar to the disease in the adult population, but with particularities regarding clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, chest imaging, and treatment. The prognosis is much better for children compared to adults, but with the progression of the pandemic; the cases in children might change in the future.