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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 250
Relationship-based practice and digital technology in child and family social work: learning from practice during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ruth Copson; Anne M. Murphy; Laura Cook (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Developmental Child Welfare
Vital services provided by social workers to children in care or on the edge of care were largely delivered “online” during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper explores the potential impact of these changes on vulnerable children and their families. Relationship-based practice is integral to social work and the shift to digital communication during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to accelerated practice changes and implications for relationship building both with and between service users. Going forward, social workers and other professionals are likely to move to an increasingly hybrid model of communication, combining both digital and face-to-face methods. This article identifies the impact of digital communication on relationships in professional practice, drawing on three studies of digital communication in the UK carried out at the University of East Anglia.
Sanitary measures to contain COVID-19 spread decreased pediatric hospitalizations due to other respiratory infections in São Paulo, Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Gabriela Marengone Altizani; Viviane da Mata Pasti Balbão; Gilberto Gambero Gaspar (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

After the Covid-19 pandemics hit Brazil and sanitary measures were adopted to contain its dissemination, pediatric hospital admissions were apparently fewer than usual. The authors aimed to describe the time trends of public hospital admissions of children and adolescents due to respiratory infections (RIs) in São Paulo State, Brazil, before and after the adoption of sanitary measures to contain the dissemination of Covid-19. Ecological, time-series study on the monthly average number of admissions per day of children and adolescents (< 16 years) admitted to public hospitals of São Paulo due to acute RIs between January 2008 and March 2021. Data from 2008 to 2019 were used to adjust the statistical model, while data from 2020 and 2021 were compared to the values predicted by the model.

Global, regional, and national minimum estimates of children affected by COVID-19-associated orphanhood and caregiver death, by age and family circumstance up to Oct 31, 2021: an updated modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
H. Juliette T. Unwin; Susan Hillis; Lucie Cluver (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health

In the 6 months following our estimates from March 1, 2020, to April 30, 2021, the proliferation of new coronavirus variants, updated mortality data, and disparities in vaccine access increased the amount of children experiencing COVID-19-associated orphanhood. To inform responses, this study aimed to model the increases in numbers of children affected by COVID-19-associated orphanhood and caregiver death, as well as the cumulative orphanhood age-group distribution and circumstance (maternal or paternal orphanhood). It used updated excess mortality and fertility data to model increases in minimum estimates of COVID-19-associated orphanhood and caregiver deaths from our original study period of March 1, 2020–April 30, 2021, to include the new period of May 1–Oct 31, 2021, for 21 countries.

Early childhood care and education access in South Africa during COVID-19: Evidence from NIDS-CRAM

AUTHOR(S)
Gabrielle Wills; Jesal Kika-Mistry

Published: February 2022   Journal: Development Southern Africa
Using a longitudinal telephonic survey of adults, this paper provides empirical evidence from South Africa on early childhood care and education (ECCE) attendance trends just before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. About 39% of adult respondents living with children aged 0–6 indicated that at least one child had attended an ECCE programme in February 2020. After a period of ECCE programme closures and lockdowns, estimates fell to as low as 7% in July/August 2020, partially recovered to 28% in November/December 2020, dropped again to 7% in early February 2021 but then recovered significantly to 36% by April/May 2021. A decomposition analysis suggests that a large part of the recovery in ECCE attendance in 2021 was attributed to higher reported perceived ability to be able to afford ECCE programme fees. This could relate to lower fee ECCE programmes resuming operations in anticipation of government relief payments.
Caregiver experiences managing persistent childhood asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Brennen Caveney; Jill S. Halterman; Maria Fagnano (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Clinical Pediatrics
COVID-19 has adversely affected child wellness, but it is unclear whether the pandemic led to changes in home management of chronic diseases like asthma. This research surveyed 93 caregivers of children with persistent asthma from 2 ongoing asthma trials to measure changes in home asthma management, stressors, access to health care, and caregivers’ worry about COVID-19 affecting their child’s health. It conducted descriptive analyses, and assessed whether caregiver worry about COVID-19 was associated with asthma management, stressors, health care access, or recent symptoms.
COVID-19 and child welfare policy in Chile: the experience of front-line workers

AUTHOR(S)
Javiera Garcia-Meneses; Ivan Chanez-Cortes; Paulina Montoya Ceballos

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Social Work
COVID-19 arrived in Chile amid social protests that questioned the State’s ability to protect children’s rights. Nevertheless, child policy workers continued working despite the drastic changes to their daily work generated by both the pandemic and conflicts within the child welfare system. This article aims to understand how these workers have experienced and overcome these challenges. It shows that they have continued doing interventions with children at the expense of their economic resources and well-being. These findings highlight the need for the government to take immediate action, offering guidelines to improve child policy workers’ labor conditions.
Evaluating an online self-help intervention for parents of children with food allergies

AUTHOR(S)
Naomi Sugunasingha; Fergal W. Jones; George du Toit (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

Parents of children with food allergies (CwFA) experience reduced quality of life (QoL) and may have reduced access to in-person interventions in the COVID-19 pandemic. This trial developed and evaluated an online, self-help, information provision website, aimed at improving QoL in parents of CwFA. In a single-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT), participants were randomised to either receive access to the website or a waiting-list control. At baseline, post-intervention (week 4) and follow-up (week 8), measures of parental food allergy-related QoL, depression, anxiety, stress, intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and self-efficacy were obtained.

Reopening childcare and early learning services: guidelines for East Asia and the Pacific
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: January 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic threatens this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for children in early childhood to develop healthy brains, bodies, and lives. While countries in East Asia and the Pacific have made substantial progress in investing in early childhood development (ECD), services supporting the development and learning of young children will likely suffer more than other education levels as they remain closed or in limited duration for fear of children contracting COVID-19.  This publication has been developed based on LACRO’s publication and adapted to suit the East Asia and the Pacific regional needs and context. It is intended for UNICEF country offices in the region to support their role in providing technical assistance to government partners and other organizations. The publication provides guidelines for reopening of services for young children aged 2 years up until the official primary school entry, either 5 or 6 years, and their families. It also includes a checklist to conduct rapid analysis of the services’ conditions and designing plans for a safe reopening. 

‘It's making his bad days into my bad days’: The impact of coronavirus social distancing measures on young carers and young adult carers in the United Kingdom

AUTHOR(S)
Andy McGowan; Kate Blake-Holmes

Published: January 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
The lockdown measures put in place in March 2020 in England to counter the spread of the coronavirus have had significant implications for the lives and well-being of young carers and young adult carers. In such unprecedented times, little was known about the potential impact on this group and their specific experience of the Covid-19 lockdown restrictions. A rapid review was conducted, 28 young carers responded to a survey and an additional 20 participants were interviewed in January 2021; the survey was repeated with a further 149 responses.
Understanding the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on families involved in the child welfare system: technological capital and pandemic practice

AUTHOR(S)
Jordan B. Conrad; Kate Magsamen-Conrad

Published: January 2022   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
Child-welfare practices transformed drastically in 2020 after governments instituted quarantining and social-distancing measures. Child visitation, mental health evaluations and treatment, and court hearings either ceased or only accessible via information communication technologies (ICTs). Peer-reviewed published scholarship about technology use in child welfare is limited to voluntary, supplemental contexts and insufficient to understand the nuanced effects of this transition on vulnerable populations. A critical case study ethnography was used to name this phenomenon, ‘pandemic practice’, and describe how case-management challenges were compounded and/or masked by pandemic practice. Mandatory ICT use in case management contributed to injustices for some families in the child-welfare system, including children spending extended time in foster care, families receiving superficial treatment services and irreparable harm to timely case progression. This study used technology adoption theory and technological capital framework to identify and understand the complexities of pandemic practice beyond a simple digital divide perspective. It presents a hierarchy of technological capital necessary to participate in pandemic practice, suggestions to create sufficient capital and implications for policy and practice.
COVID-19 infections in day care centres in Germany: social and organisational determinants of infections in children and staff in the second and third wave of the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Franz Neuberger; Mariana Grgic; Svenja Diefenbacher (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, German early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres organised children’s attendance in different ways, they reduced opening hours, provided emergency support for a few children, or closed completely. Further, protection and hygiene measures like fixed children-staff groups, ventilation and surface disinfection were introduced in ECEC centres. To inform or modify public health measures in ECEC, we investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in ECEC centres in light of social determinants (i.e. the socioeconomic status of the children) and recommended structural and hygiene measures. We focus on the question if the relevant factors differ between the 2nd (when no variant of concern (VOC) circulated) and the 3rd wave (when VOC B.1.1.7 (Alpha) predominated).
Experience of parents of children with genetically determined leukoencephalopathies regarding the adapted health care services during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Pouneh Amir Yazdani; Marie-Lou St-Jean; Sara Matovic (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Child Neurology
Parents of children with genetically determined leukoencephalopathies play a major role in their children's health care. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, many health care services were suspended, delayed or delivered remotely with telemedicine. This study sought to explore the experience of parents of children with genetically determined leukoencephalopathies during the pandemic given the adapted health care services. Ssemistructured interviews with 13 parents of 13 affected children were conducted. Three main themes were identified using thematic analysis: perceived impact of COVID-19 on health care services, benefits and challenges of telemedicine, and expectations of health care after the pandemic. Parents perceived a loss/delay in health care services while having a positive response to telemedicine. Parents wished telemedicine would remain in their care after the pandemic. This is the first study assessing the impact of COVID-19 on health care services in this population.
Movement and solidarity: community mobilization to mitigate the adverse impact of COVID-19 on families with young children receiving care from early childhood systems

AUTHOR(S)
Sameera S. Nayak; Arielle A. J. Scoglio; Daphney Mirand (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Care in Practice
Emerging research indicates an immense burden on children and families related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study uses data from semi-structured interviews and focus groups with early childhood service providers (n=19) to demonstrate the pandemic's impact on families with very young children and early childhood services in two high-need communities in Massachusetts, USA. This study found that although the pandemic has worsened existing inequities and severely limited resources for young children and families, community mobilization in response to the crisis and innovative strategies stemming from resilience were developed quickly. Findings highlight the usefulness of early childhood systems of care in crisis responses and leveraging public-private cooperation to serve the needs of diverse families with young children. Lessons learned are applicable to global settings with high pre-pandemic inequities and can be used to develop stronger models of crisis response within the early childhood sector in preparation for future crises.
Building long-term family resilience through universal prevention: 10-year parent and child outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Mark E. Feinberg; Lindsey Gedaly; Jacqueline Mogle (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Family Process
As the COVID-19 pandemic has been highly stressful for parents and children, it is clear that strategies that promote long-term family resilience are needed to protect families in future crises. One such strategy, the Family Foundations program, is focused on promoting supportive coparenting at the transition to parenthood. In a randomized trial, we tested the long-term intervention effects of Family Foundations on parent, child, and family well-being one to two months after the imposition of a national shelter-in-place public health intervention in 2020. This study used regression models to test intervention impact on outcomes reported on by parents in a standard questionnaire format and a series of 8 days of daily reports. It also tested moderation of intervention impact by parent depression and coparenting relationship quality.
Perceived impact of lockdown on daily life in children with physical disabilities and their families during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Roxane Varengue; Sylvain Brochard; Sandra Bouvier (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

The first lockdown during COVID-19 pandemic in France led to an abrupt change in children's daily lives. For children with physical disabilities and their families, activities were limited, access to healthcare and therapy was disrupted, and family organization was altered. The objective was to report the impact of the lockdown on daily life activities and well-being of children with physical disabilities as perceived by caregivers. Two online national surveys were addressed to the parents of children with physical disabilities (ECHO survey: 6 April to 11 May 2020) and without disabilities (E-COPAIN survey: 24 April to 11 May 2020), confined at home during the lockdown. A lockdown impact score was calculated from difficulties related to children's well-being (morale, behaviour and social interaction) and daily life activities (schooling and physical activity) and compared between groups. Data on family environment, parental stress and concerns were collected.

16 - 30 of 250

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.