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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 250
Long COVID—the new “invisible” illness: how school nurses can support the nursing and educational teams for student success

AUTHOR(S)
Megan Roesler; Patricia Fato; Barbara Obst

Published: December 2021   Journal: NASN School Nurse
School-age children are not immune to COVID-19 or the pronounced and persistent symptoms associated with a long-COVID diagnosis. Students may present with a variety of symptoms affecting their physical, cognitive, and mental health. The school community should be educated on the school-based interventions and recommendations for creating an individualized safe and successful return to school plan. As we await approval for vaccinations in school-age children younger than 12 years and continue to reposition ourselves to the waves of this pandemic and new variants of the virus, understanding the medical and educational long-term effects on our students may be a long-term need.
Lessons learned for emergency feeding during modifications to 11 school feeding programs in Latin America and the Caribbean during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Uriyoán Colón-Ramos; Rafael Monge-Rojas; Jael Goldsmith Weil (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Food and Nutrition Bulletin

School feeding programs (SFPs) can play a crucial role in the emergency food and nutrition response, but there is a dearth of information on how SFPs operate during emergencies. A rapid comparative assessment of 11 SFPs throughout Latin America and the Caribbean during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from (1) systematic document search and (2) surveys with key informants (n = 23) about barriers/facilitators to modifications were systematically analyzed using a multiple case study approach.

Child maltreatment prevention service cases are significantly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal investigation into unintended consequences of quarantine

AUTHOR(S)
Kelly M. Whaling; Alissa Der Sarkissian; Natalie Larez (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Maltreatment
Unprecedented financial and emotional stress, paired with measures to slow the spread of COVID-19 (e.g., school closures), place youth at risk for experiencing increased rates of abuse. This study analyzed data from New York City’s Administration for Children’s Services to investigate the frequency of child maltreatment prevention service case openings during this time. Longitudinal counts of case openings were compiled for January through June of the years 2014–2020. An independent samples Kruskal–Wallis H-test suggested that pre-quarantine case openings were significantly larger than case openings during quarantine. To account for the possible influence of other historical events impacting data, a secondary Kruskal–Wallis H-test was conducted comparing only the 4 months of quarantine data available to the 4 months immediately preceding quarantine orders. The second independent samples Kruskal–Wallis H-test again suggested that pre-quarantine case openings were significantly larger than case openings during quarantine. A Poisson regression model further supported these findings, estimating that the odds of opening a new child maltreatment prevention case during quarantine declined by 49.17%.
Parents’ experiences with a sick or injured child during the COVID-19 lockdown: an online survey in the Netherlands

AUTHOR(S)
Chantal D. Tan; Eveline K. Lutgert; Sarah Neill (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents’ health-seeking behaviour and care for a sick or injured child in the Netherlands. It is an online survey on parents’ experiences with a sick or injured child during the COVID-19 lockdown periods was disseminated through social media. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse family and children’s characteristics, parents’ response to a sick or injured child, and the perceived impact of the lockdown on child’s severity of illness and treatment reported by parents. Analyses were stratified for children with and without chronic conditions.

Impact of COVID-19 on carers of children with tracheostomies

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Hall; Nikki Rousseau; David W. Hamilton (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood
This study aims to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the experiences of caregivers of children with tracheostomies. All participants were currently, or had previously cared for, a tracheostomised child who had attended a tertiary care centre in the North of England. Health professionals were purposively sampled to include accounts from a range of professions from primary, community, secondary and tertiary care.
Foster care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative analysis of caregiver and professional experiences

AUTHOR(S)
Adrienne Whitt-Woosley; Ginny Sprang; Jessica Eslinger

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Research is needed to facilitate better understanding of how different groups have been impacted by COVID-19, especially those in already strained service systems such as foster care. These inquiries will support further response, recovery and preparedness efforts. This qualitative study addressed how professionals and caregivers in foster care described being affected by COVID-19 in order to support future research and planning for foster care systems in this pandemic context. A sample of foster parents and foster care professionals (N = 357) from a mostly rural, southeastern state in the U.S. participated in the study.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child protective services caseworkers and administrators

AUTHOR(S)
Veronica Renov; Lauren Risser; Rachel Berger (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted children and young people experiencing child abuse and neglect. Child Protective Services (CPS) has played an important role in supporting children and families during the COVID-19 pandemic. Few studies to-date have evaluated the impact of the pandemic on CPS caseworkers and administrators in the United States. These interviews aim to explore CPS caseworkers' and administrators' experiences working and serving families during the pandemic.

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on child abuse and neglect: a cross-sectional study in a French child advocacy center

AUTHOR(S)
L. Massiot; E. Launay; J. Fleury (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

This study aimed to describe the impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown in France on the activity of a Child Advocacy Center. This cross-sectional, observational study included all children involved in the activity of the CAC during the first lockdown, from March 16 to May 10, 2020 and the next 3 months and the corresponding periods in 2018 and 2019. Cases were considered severe when a hospitalization, social alert and/or judicial report to the prosecutor was decided.

Movement behaviors and mental health of caregivers of preschoolers in China during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jie Feng; Wendy Yajun Huang; Patrick Wing Chung Lau (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine
This study aimed to examine the associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), sleep, and the mental health of caregivers of preschool children following the COVID-19 outbreak. From 5 October to 16 December 2020, responses from 2476 respondents in China were collated through an online survey or a written questionnaire. Movement behaviors (PA, SB, screen time, and sleep), mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress), and demographic information were self-reported by the respondents. Linear mixed models were used for data analysis.
Projecting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child marriage

AUTHOR(S)
Joshua Yukich; Matt Worges; Anastasia J. Gage (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

The study projects the potential impact of COVID-19 on child marriage in the five countries in which the burden of child marriage is the largest: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, and Nigeria. The projected impact of the pandemic on child marriage is based on a Markov model. A review of empirical and theoretical literature informed construction and parameter estimates of five pathways through which we expect an elevated marriage hazard: death of a parent, interruption of education, pregnancy risk, household income shocks, and reduced access to programs and services. Models are produced for an unmitigated scenario and a mitigated scenario in which effective interventions are applied to reduce the impact.

Daily stress and use of aggressive discipline by parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Bridget Freisthler; Jennifer Price Wolf; Caileigh Chadwick (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Violence
To assess the relationship between stress throughout the day and aggressive discipline practices by parents during COVID-19 stay at home orders. For this study, participants took baseline survey online, then provided data three times a day (10 a.m., 3 p.m., and 9 p.m.) for 14 consecutive days using Ecological Momentary Assessment procedures. Data were collected from 323 participants, covering 9,357 observations from April 13 to May 27, 2020 in Central Ohio during stay-at-home orders due to COVID-19. Use of aggressive discipline, including corporal punishment and psychological aggression, was measured using the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory. For each higher level of stress, parents had 1.3 greater odds of using aggressive discipline. Having used aggressive discipline at baseline was related to three times greater odds of using it during the study period. Higher situational stress was associated with use of aggressive parenting. When combined with less contact with mandatory reporters, this places children at risk for abuse and neglect that may go without detection and intervention for longer time-periods. First responders and medical professionals become more important in identifying and reporting suspected child maltreatment, as this may be a child’s only contact with a mandated professional for six months to a year.
Early childhood teachers of color in New York City: heightened stress, lower quality of life, declining health, and compromised sleep amidst COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Mariana Souto-Manning; Samantha A. Melvin

Published: November 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic and measures to mitigate its spread affected every facet of education and society. The closure of sites of early care and education posed risks to the health, nutrition, social well-being, and emotional development of young children. In the U.S., threats to the quality of life and wellness of early childhood teachers and young children ages birth to eight (early childhood according to definition issued by the National Association for the Education of young children) intensified existing inequities. These inequities were visible in stigmatizing children and families in neighborhoods with high infection rates; trauma emanating from the death and bereavement of family members; loss of employment and economic hardships; more young children living in extreme poverty; disruptions to child protection services; and higher rates of depression, anxiety, and stress. Stress, anxiety, and disrupted sleep, expected responses to a threat as sizeable as the COVID-19 pandemic, were further exacerbated by racialized inequities in access and rates of vaccination
Caregivers’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and their children’s behavior

AUTHOR(S)
Stephanie M. Reich; Melissa Dahlin; Nestor Tulagan (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
The COVID-19 pandemic has financial and emotional impacts on families. This study explored how caregivers’ financial strain and mental health are associated with changes in their young children’s behavior during the pandemic. It additionally considered whether having a sense of purpose moderated these associations. Caregivers (n = 300) in the emergency department of a children’s hospital were surveyed anonymously about changes to their employment (e.g., reduced/increased hours and job loss), ability to pay for expenses and whether their child’s behavior had changed. Aligned with the Family Stress Model, caregivers’ financial strain was associated with poor mental health, inconsistent sleep routines, and changes in children’s problematic and prosocial behaviors. A sense of purpose buffered some of these relationships. Families are differently affected by the pandemic and our findings underscore the need for supporting caregivers’ mental health and connecting them with resources.
An examination of coping strategies and intent to leave child welfare during the COVID 19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Francie J. Julien‑Chinn; Colleen C. Katz; Eden Wall

Published: November 2021   Journal: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal
Child welfare work is inherently difficult, and child welfare agencies are known to experience high rates of turnover. This study sought to expand the existing literature on intention to leave one’s child welfare agency and commitment to child welfare work through examining the coping mechanisms of frontline workers. Having and utilizing healthy coping mechanisms has proved beneficial to child welfare workers in previous research. This paper examined specific coping mechanisms identified in the Comprehensive Organizational Health Assessment and how they were associated with child welfare workers’ intent to leave their agency and their commitment to remain in the field of child welfare during the SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Over 250 child welfare caseworkers were surveyed using the COHA instrument. Using both bivariate analysis and linear regression, specific coping mechanisms were identifyed, such as staying present with friends and family, as highly influential and discuss ways to strengthen these areas.
The effects of COVID-19-related stress among parents and children in Ohio child care programs: a mixed-methods study

AUTHOR(S)
Kimberly Burkhart; Sonia Minnes; Owusua Yamoah (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Children's Health Care
COVID-19-related stress effects on the caregiver and child are largely unexplored. Caregivers (N = 114) of children between the ages of 3 months and 10 years accessing Ohio child care completed a parent survey (fall 2020), and additional caregivers (N = 20) completed an interview. Caregivers reported a mean of 70 (SD = 19; scale 1–100) on COVID-19-related stress. In adjusted regression models, higher caregiver-reported COVID-19-related stress was associated with increased odds of child aggression and poor social skills. Exploratory analyses indicated that these associations may be partly mediated by the caregiver working from home and losing their temper. Qualitative findings reflect caregiver COVID-19 stress and complement quantitative findings. Caregivers and children who experience COVID-19 stress should be monitored for persistent problems.
31 - 45 of 250

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.