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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 85
Navigating play in a pandemic: examining children’s outdoor neighborhood play experiences

AUTHOR(S)
Cassie J. Brownell

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Play
Much research about children's play as a tool for navigating social worlds and difficult circumstances describes individuals or small groups of children playing synchronously, frequently in school or lab settings. Fewer studies consider the possibilities of asynchronous outdoor play, the topic of this paper. Drawing from a series of photographs generated in the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the author describes children's outdoor play in a Canadian urban neighborhood. Adapting elements of narrative inquiry, she highlights how elements of play lingered on the sidewalk for others not just to see but also to play with. Specifically, she outlines instances of play that occurred with what she terms an ‘anonymous other.’ The author theorizes how‐amidst COVID-19 and sustained social/physical distancing‐play shifted in unexpected ways. Ultimately, she forwards new understandings about the intersection of play with materials, environments, and persons for consideration by scholars, caretakers, urban planners, and policymakers.
Impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on 24-h movement behaviours among children in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Yazeed A. Alanazi; Anne-Maree Parrish; Anthony D. Okely

Published: March 2022   Journal: Child

In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak as a pandemic. This led many governments to place restrictions on population movement to aid in pandemic control. These restrictions were expected to produce some type of impact on the daily lives of children and their families. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on 24-h movement behaviours among Saudi children aged 6–12 years, during the pandemic. An online survey of Saudi parents (n = 1021) was conducted between 1 October to 11 November 2020 to gather information about the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on children's 24-h movement behaviours, parent and child factors that may be associated with movement behaviours, and perceived changes in children's movement behaviours.

Children's perspectives on friendships and socialization during the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative approach

AUTHOR(S)
Danaë Larivière-Bastien; Olivier Aubuchon; Aurélie Blondin (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Child

Good quality friendships and relationships are critical to the development of social competence and are associated with quality of life and mental health in childhood and adolescence. Through social distancing and isolation restrictions, the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the way in which youth socialize and communicate with friends, peers, teachers and family on a daily basis. In order to understand children's social functioning during the pandemic, it is essential to gather information on their experiences and perceptions concerning the social changes unique to this period. The objective of this study was to document children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their social life and friendships during the COVID-19 pandemic, through qualitative interviews. Participants (N = 67, 5–14 years) were recruited in May and June 2020. Semi-structured interviews were conducted via a videoconferencing platform. A thematic qualitative analysis was conducted based on the transcribed and coded interviews (NVivo).

Emotional and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms of preterm vs. full-term children during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions

AUTHOR(S)
Marion Bailhache; Maeva Monnier; Flore Moulin (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Pediatric Research

Preterm children are at higher risk of developing mental health problems than full-term children. Deterioration of children’s mental health was observed during COVID-19 pandemic restrictive measures. This study compared emotional and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms during school closure between preterm and full-term children. Data from two French birth cohorts—ELFE and EPIPAGE-2—were used. In 2011, infants born ≥22 weeks’ gestation were recruited. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire when the children were 9 years old and experiencing school closure. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used.

Socioemotional development in infants of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: the role of prenatal and postnatal maternal distress

AUTHOR(S)
Gabrielle Duguay; Julia Garon-Bissonnette; Roxanne Lemieux (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

An upsurge in psychological distress was documented in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated with a longitudinal design whether prenatal and postnatal maternal distress during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with lower infant socioemotional development. Pregnant women (N = 468, Mage = 30,00, 97.6% White) were recruited during the first COVID-19 mandatory lockdown in Quebec, Canada, from April 2nd to April 13th 2020 and were re-contacted at two months postpartum to complete self-reported measures of general (i.e. not specifically related to the COVID-19 pandemic) anxio-depressive symptoms and infant development. Structural equation modeling analyses were performed using maximum likelihood parameter estimation.

Early experience unpredictability in child development as a model for understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: a translational neuroscience perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Sihong Liu; Philip A. Fisher

Published: March 2022   Journal: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Extensive evidence links adverse experiences during childhood to a wide range of negative consequences in biological, socioemotional, and cognitive development. Unpredictability is a core element underlying most forms of early adversity; it has been a focus of developmental research for many years and has been receiving increasing attention recently. This article proposes a conceptual model to describe how unpredictable and adverse early experiences affect children’s neurobiological, behavioral, and psychological development in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The effect of an after-school physical activity program on children’s cognitive, social, and emotional health during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nova Scotia

AUTHOR(S)
Hilary A. T. Caldwell; Matthew B. Miller; Constance Tweedie (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
Children’s physical activity participation declined during the COVID-19 pandemic, and these negative changes could lead to longer-term impacts on children’s cognitive, social, and emotional health. Purpose: To determine parent/caregivers’ perceptions of their children’s cognitive function, peer and family relationships, life satisfaction, physical activity, sleep, positive affect, and global health, before and after participating in the Build Our Kids’ Success (BOKS) programming at after-school programs in Fall 2020. Parents of children participating in the BOKS programming at after-school programs in Nova Scotia, Canada, were recruited. At baseline, 159 parents completed the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measures Information System (PROMIS) parent-proxy questionnaire, and 75 parents completed the measures at follow-up. Independent t-tests were used to determine if there were differences between baseline and follow-up Parent Proxy Questionnaire data.
Sleep and media use among children with neurodevelopmental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Tanaporn Jasmine Wilaisakditipakorn; Carolyn E. Ievers-Landis; Sindhoosha Malay (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Children's Health Care
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders commonly have sleep problems and higher screen time compared with their typically developing peers. Relationships of their media use to sleep are unknown during the COVID-19 pandemic. Seventy-five caregivers/parents of children ages 5–12 years with neurodevelopmental disorders completed surveys during the pandemic, reporting average child media use of 3.35 hours/day (SD = 0.36) and sleep duration of 9.22 hours (SD = 1.27). Media use duration was not significantly related to any sleep outcomes in the total sample. Unexpectedly, in subgroup analyses with COVID-19 exposure/distress variables, greater media use duration significantly related to less sleep-related impairment (p = .012) and disturbance (p = .0004). Clinical implications are that media use/sleep plans should be individually tailored for these at-risk children.
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on young children and their caregivers

AUTHOR(S)
Priscila Costa; Andréia Cascaes Cruz; Annelise Alves (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Child

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted child development and the well-being of caregivers, and such evidence ought to be used to inform public policy decisions. This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on children's behaviours and their caregivers' needs. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 153 caregivers of children (from 0 to 5 years old) from three public daycare centres in Brazil. The Nurturing Care Framework of the World Health Organization was used to guide the assessment of caregivers' needs. Online data collection using a questionnaire was conducted from June to July 2020.

COVID-19–related life experiences, outdoor play, and long-term adiposity changes among preschool- and school-aged children in Singapore 1 year after lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Ka Kei Sum; Shirong Cai; Evelyn Law (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Despite the potential for COVID-19 infection control–related events to have an effect on child well-being, comprehensive assessments of postlockdown changes and persistent outcomes are lacking. This paper aims to survey the extent of COVID-19 lockdown–related lifestyle changes, their differences by child age and family socioeconomic status, and the potential association with child adiposity 1 year after lockdown.  A self-administered, electronic survey was introduced to 2 ongoing child cohorts (the Singapore Preconception Study of Long-term Maternal and Child Outcomes [S-PRESTO] cohort of preschool children aged 1-4.5 years and the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes [GUSTO] cohort of primary school children aged 9-10.7 years) from July 8, 2020, to September 5, 2020, which was 1 to 3 months after the end of strict universal movement restrictions (duration of 73 days ending on June 19, 2020). All active participants from S-PRESTO and GUSTO, 2 population-based, longitudinal, parent-offspring cohorts in Singapore, were invited to participate and monitored through June 15, 2021.

What are the kids doing? Exploring young children's activities at home and relations with externally cued executive function and child temperament

AUTHOR(S)
Nicole J. Stucke; Gijsbert Stoet; Sabine Doebel

Published: January 2022   Journal: Developmental Science
Young children spend a lot of time at home, yet there is little empirical research on how they spend that time and how it relates to developmental outcomes. Prior research suggests less-structured time—where children practice making choices and setting goals—may develop self-directed executive function in 6-year-olds. But less-structured time may be related to executive function for other reasons—for example, because it provides opportunities to acquire conceptual knowledge relevant to using executive function on tasks. This study thus tested the possibility that less-structured time is also related to younger children's externally cued executive function. In this remote online study, caregivers of 93 3- to 5-year-olds indicated the amount of time their child was typically spending in various activities while at home during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Activities were categorized as structured (primarily lessons with specific goals defined by adults or an app), less-structured (wide range of activities permitting choice and interaction with caregiver), passive (e.g., watching TV or videos), and primarily physical (e.g., bike riding).
Teletherapy for children with developmental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines: a mixed-methods evaluation from the perspectives of parents and therapists

AUTHOR(S)
Kathlynne F. Eguia; Catherine M. Capio

Published: January 2022   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

As a response to the lockdown associated with COVID-19 in the Philippines, therapy services for children with developmental disorders shifted to telehealth (i.e., teletherapy). This study evaluated the delivery of teletherapy from the perspectives of parents and therapists. Participants consisted of parents (n = 47) and therapists (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders who were receiving teletherapy during the lockdown. A mixed-methods triangulation design-convergence model was adopted; participants were invited to respond to an online survey with closed- and open-ended questions. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and non-parametric inferential tests, while qualitative data were examined using thematic analysis.

The impact of school strategies and the home environment on home learning experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in children with and without developmental disorders

AUTHOR(S)
Elke Baten; Fieke Vlaeminck; Marjolein Mués (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Using the Opportunity-Propensity Model (Byrnes in Dev Rev 56:100911, 2020; Byrnes & Miller in Contemp Educ Psychol 32(4);599–629, 2007), the current study investigated which factors helped predicting children’s home learning experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic, thereby examining differences between children with (DD; n = 779) and without (TD; n = 1443) developmental disorders. MANCOVA results indicated more negative experiences for DD children and their parents. SEM-results revealed the alignment between different teachers and autonomous motivation in children as the most important predictors for the outcome variables. Less predictors were significant for DD as compared to TD children which suggests other factors are at play in the DD group. Limitations, strengths and suggestions for future research are being discussed, together with some implications for classroom practices and remote learning approaches.
Are there any changes in mothers' attitudes? Analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on child-rearing attitudes

AUTHOR(S)
Mehmet Toran; Bülent Özden

Published: January 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The present study aims to examine the impact of the time spent by mothers at home with their children during the quarantine period that was implemented due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the mothers’ child-rearing attitudes, taking into consideration some variables and the experiences of mothers. The study was designed using embedded mixed design, in which qualitative and quantitative research methods were used together. The quantitative research group consisted of 673 mothers and the qualitative research group consisted of 16 mothers. The research data was gathered online using the Lime Survey platform, and the interviews with the mothers were also held online. Demographic information form, the Child Rearing Attitude Scale, and a semi-structured interview form were used as data collection tools. Moderator variable analysis was used for the quantitative research data and descriptive analysis was used for the qualitative research data in support of the quantitative data.
Early impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on promotion of infant activity, strength and communication: a qualitative exploration

AUTHOR(S)
Kailey Snyder; Priyanka Chaudhary; Angela Pereira (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Acta Psychologica

Fostering physical activity, muscle strengthening and communication skills in diverse environments are vital to ensuring healthy infant development; however, promotion of these skills may be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore healthcare workers, parents and childcare providers' perceptions of the pandemic's influence on how they engage with infants to promote physical activity, muscle strength and communication. 37 subjects (12 = parents; 12 = childcare providers, 13 = healthcare workers) participated in a semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed via an inductive content analysis.

31 - 45 of 85

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.