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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 301
COVID-19 and educational inequality: How school closures affect low- and high-achieving students

AUTHOR(S)
Elisabeth Grewenig; Philipp Lergetporer; Katharina Werner (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Economic Review
In spring 2020, governments around the globe shut down schools to mitigate the spread of the novel coronavirus. This study argues that low-achieving students may be particularly affected by the lack of educator support during school closures. It collects detailed time-use information on students before and during the school closures in a survey of 1099 parents in Germany.
"Public health and social measures' considerations for educational authorities: schooling in the time of COVID-19: Considerations for health and educational authorities on the public health and social measures to reopen schools as safely as possible"

AUTHOR(S)
Kalpana Vincent; Viviane Bianco; Sarah Fuller (et al.)

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2021

The return to face-to-face learning helps children return to a sense of normality, although different normality as prevention and control measures have likely altered school and classroom routines. It is important that schools should have a risk-mitigation strategy in place. Countries should ensure these strategies carefully balance the likely benefits for, and harms to, younger and older age groups of children when making decisions about implementing infection prevention and control measures. Any measure needs to be balanced with the even worse alternative of schools being closed and Any measure introduced by schools should follow standard protocols for implementation. This publication shares more detailed considerations for health and educational authorities on the public health and social measures to reopen schools as safely as possible.

Brief report: A cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and concerns of Chinese families of children with special educational needs and disabilities post-first-wave of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Xueyun Su; Ru Ying Cai; Mirko Uljarević (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic has a multifaceted impact on mental health due to ill health, restrictions and lockdowns, and loss of employment and institutional support. COVID-19 may disproportionally impact families with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) due to the already higher prevalence of mental health conditions in children with SEND and their parents. Therefore, it is essential to determine the short-term impact of the pandemic on the mental health of families with SEND in order to identify their ongoing health support needs. The current study aims to examine the anxiety level and concerns of children with SEND and their parents living in China. The sample consisted of 271 parents of children with SEND aged between 6 and 17 years (Mage = 8.37; SDage = 2.76). Parents completed an online survey between 10 April to 8 June 2020. Both child and parental anxiety levels and various concerns increased after the initial wave of COVID-19 when compared with retrospective pre-COVID-19 levels. Parental anxiety and concern levels were significantly higher for those living in rural areas compared to urban areas. In addition, parental and child anxiety and concern levels were significantly correlated with each other. Parental anxiety at the lowest level made a unique and significant statistical contribution to children's anxiety levels. The implications of the study findings are discussed.
Learning through digital stories for safe school environment

AUTHOR(S)
Sahin Akdag; Zehra Altinay

Published: September 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of digital stories in the learning-based themes of safe schools and to examine the perceptions of special educational needs in safe school environments. Training were carried out with informative videos created through the Distance Education and Information Technology Center (UZEBIM) for principals and teachers-in-charge, and the effectiveness of this process was evaluated through reflective opinion forms. In addition to this, an evaluation form was presented to the prospective special education teachers to obtain their opinions and evaluate the effectiveness of digital stories at safe schools. A total of 100 prospective teachers participated in the evaluation of the impact of digital stories on their learning about safe school environments.
Goal content and attitudes toward physical activity among primary school students during COVID-19 conditional movement control order

AUTHOR(S)
Siong Chin Ngien; John Jeswenny Fresshila

Published: September 2021   Journal: Asian Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
This study examined primary school students’ goal content and attitudes toward physical activity during COVID-19 Conditional Movement Control Order . The participants were 312 students comprising 149 males and 163 females aged 11 and 12 years old from 3 primary schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. Participants were administered the Malay version of the Goal Content for Exercise Questionnaire Malay version (GCEQ; Chai et al., 2019) and Malay version of the Attitudes toward Physical Activity Scale (M-APAS; Jeswenny, 2019).
COVID-19 pandemic and the second lockdown: the 3rd wave of the disease through the voice of youth

AUTHOR(S)
Cátia Branquinho; Anabela Caetano Santos; Catarina Noronha (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Child Indicators Research
Around the beginning of the 2021 new year, Europe’s COVID-19 third wave led many leaders to implement a new lockdown period, with the teaching–learning system returning to the online method once more. The present study aimed to understand the health consequences for adolescents and young adults (AYA) during the third wave’s lockdown. This mixed-method study included 592 participants between 16 and 24 years old (M = 19.01, SD = 2.32), with the majority being female (70.9%) and students (82.3%) at high school (55.1%) or university (44.9%). Negative impacts are highlighted in the categories: relationships, physical activity (as well aseno impacts), screen time and academic stress; and no impactsin health and well-being, leisure activities, sleep, diet, academic performance and relationships with teachers and peers. Overall, when compared to the opposite gender, girls report more negative impacts on leisure activities and diet, although more positive impacts on diet, as well as on academic stress; boys stand out in the negative consequences on substance use. At the academic level, students in higher education show more negative impacts on relationships, leisure activities, sleep, diet, screen time and relationships with teachers and peers. Enlightened about the impacts of the second lockdown on their lives, and showing signs of “pandemic fatigue”, this study draws attention to the need to associate psychological support measures with those implemented to contain the COVID-19 pandemic.
Association of elementary school reopening status and county COVID-19 incidence

AUTHOR(S)
Kenneth Michelson; Margaret E. Samuels-Kalow

Published: September 2021   Journal: Academic Pediatrics

This study aims to examine the association between elementary school opening status (ESOS) and changes in pediatric COVID-19 incidence. It conducted a cross-sectional study of US counties with school districts with ≥500 elementary school students. The main exposure was ESOS in September, 2020. The outcome was county incidence of COVID-19. Age-stratified negative binomial regression models were constructed using county adult COVID-19 incidence.

Why lockdown and distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic are likely to increase the social class achievement gap

AUTHOR(S)
Sébastien Goudeau; Camille Sanrey; Arnaud Stanczak (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Nature Human Behaviour
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced teachers and parents to quickly adapt to a new educational context: distance learning. Teachers developed online academic material while parents taught the exercises and lessons provided by teachers to their children at home. Considering that the use of digital tools in education has dramatically increased during this crisis, and it is set to continue, there is a pressing need to understand the impact of distance learning. Taking a multidisciplinary view, this study argues that by making the learning process rely more than ever on families, rather than on teachers, and by getting students to work predominantly via digital resources, school closures exacerbate social class academic disparities. To address this burning issue, this study proposes an agenda for future research and outline recommendations to help parents, teachers and policymakers to limit the impact of the lockdown on social-class-based academic inequality.
Learning in the shadow of a conflict: barriers to education in Syria

AUTHOR(S)
Jiwan Said

Institution: Save the Children
Published: September 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the bleak situation of education in Syria. Recurrent lockdowns and suspension of activities over 2020 and 2021 have limited children’s physical access to school and has worsened the poor economic situation across the country obliging many Syrian families to apply coping mechanisms including removing their children from schools. All of the above has resulted in an estimated 2.5 million children aged 5-17 years – one-third of the school-age population – are out of school. They are unable to exercise their basic right to education as laid out in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). A further 1.6 million school-age children are at risk of being denied this right. These astonishing numbers indicate that a generation is growing up deprived of school in Syria. Those children are also more likely to suffer further violations, including falling victim to violence, child marriage, and engagement in worst form of child labour.

Covid one year on: why children are still out of school
Institution: Save the Children
Published: September 2021

A snapshot survey carried out by Save the Children in 6 countries where schools have reopened, suggests that 18 months into the COVID-19 pandemic, significant numbers of the most vulnerable children are still out of school. This is not because of fear of the virus, but a result of child labour, child marriage, financial hardship, relocation and other consequences of the pandemic - and girls are particularly at risk. These briefs summarise the “out-of-school” context in these 6 countries – Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, Somalia, and Uganda.

The impact of COVID-19 related educational disruption on children and adolescents: An interim data summary and commentary on ten considerations for neuropsychological practice

AUTHOR(S)
Mary K. (Molly) Colvin; Jennifer Reesman; Tannahill Glen (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: The Clinical Neuropsychologist

The coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in educational disruption of historic breadth and duration. The authors describe early studies and interim standardized assessment reports to highlight effects of educational disruption and present critical questions for neuropsychologists. A summary of pre-pandemic and interim literature was compiled, including analyses of national and local assessment data and preliminary studies on academic gains related to remote learning, educational and school services disruption, chronic absenteeism, and child and adolescent mental and physical health during 2020–2021. Ten major themes were identified in the early reports on impacts of educational disruption.

Language use of Russian Roma children in their home environments during the COVID 19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Hristo Kyuchukov

Published: September 2021   Journal: Intercultural Education
The paper presents results from a fieldwork study with Russian Roma children. Two groups of children, 6–8 years and 8–10 years old, were involved in the study. Before the pandemic crisis began in Russia, a large number of Roma children were kept home by the parents. The study was conducted in a Roma settlement of a small town not so far from Moscow, and the author was living with the Roma family for a week. Using an ethnographic approach, he observed the communication between children and adults, children and siblings, children and neighbours. The ROMLAT test was used to measure the knowledge of Roma children regarding different grammatical categories from their mother tongue. The Roma oral tradition served among the community as a factor stimulating the language development of the children and maintaining their Romani.
Kalayaan, katurungan, karangalan and kapwa: a provisional exploration of children’s responses to the Covid-19 pandemic through Philippine virtue ethics

AUTHOR(S)
Noah Romero

Published: September 2021   Journal: Pastoral Care in Education
This article presents a qualitative study in which families recorded themselves reading a child-friendly book about a bear in lockdown and combines ethnographic and autoethnographic methods to examine the reactions of home educated and traditionally schooled children during Aotearoa New Zealand’s Covid-19 lockdowns. This research theorizes data sourced from family reading sessions through the writings of Philippine psychologist Virgilio Enriquez and the indigenous Philippine concepts of kalayaan (relational autonomy), katurungan (justice), karangalan (self-respect) and kapwa (shared inner identity). In so doing, it looks to subjugated knowledge, home education, and children themselves to consider the epistemological and ontological possibilities intimated in interactions rooted in a heightened sense of responsibility and care.
Constructions of quality: Australian Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) services during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Melissa Barnes; Gloria Quiñones; Emily Berger

Published: September 2021   Journal: Teachers and Teaching
There is increasing pressure on Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) settings to align their practices and values to that of schools, with the notion that a quality education in ECEC consists of providing care whilst also ensuring strong learning outcomes. This paper employs the constructs of structural and process quality to theorise the perceived disparities between ECEC institutions and schools and between ECEC services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The experiences of 29 Australian ECEC educators provide insight into the differing constructions of quality across ECEC services during the COVID-19 lockdown periods that occurred from May to August 2020 in the state of Victoria.
The impact of COVID-19 on early childhood reading practices

AUTHOR(S)
Deborah L. Wheeler; Jennifer C. Hill

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Literacy
COVID-19 has changed the daily lives of families, impacted on work, social interactions, and mental health. Since spring 2020, parents have been working from home and children have been home from daycare and school. Parents are experiencing stress in an attempt to satisfy the demands of work, family, and COVID-19 concerns. Due to the fact that children have been home from daycare and school, parents have the sole responsibility of caring for and teaching their children until schools are able to fully and effectively meet the needs of educating students in an adapted format. Research provides a wealth of information documenting the advantages of parents reading to their children. Children benefit from read-alouds with parental interaction, and these benefits include an increase in oral language skills, reading comprehension, vocabulary, and an increase in motivation to read. The purpose of this study is to answer two questions: (1) Since parents were home more often with their children, were parents spending more quality time reading to their two-to four-year-old children? This can be defined as reading developmentally appropriate books to their children with their undivided attention; and (2) Since parents were home more often with their two-to four-year-old children, were parents reading more to their young children? Parents of pre-kindergarten students were surveyed to determine the answers to these questions.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.