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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 67
Association between early initiation of breastfeeding and reduced risk of respiratory infection: implications for nonseparation of infant and mother in the COVID-19 context

Bindi Borg; Karleen Gribble; Karan Courtney-Haag (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Maternal & child nutrition
Early initiation of breastfeeding, within 1 h of birth, is vital for the health of newborns and reduces morbidity and mortality. Secondary analysis of the 2016 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) showed that early initiation of breastfeeding significantly reduced the risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under 2 years. Early initiation of breastfeeding requires maternal proximity. Separation of infant and mother inhibits early initiation of breastfeeding and increases the risk that infants will suffer from ARIs. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, guidance varied, with some recommending that infants and mothers with SARS-CoV-2 be isolated from one another. Nepal's Ministry of Health and Population recommended nonseparation, but the adherence to this guidance was inconsistent. Maternal proximity, nonseparation and early initiation of breastfeeding should be promoted in all birthing facilities.
COVID-19 infection in children and infants: current status on therapies and vaccines

Giuseppina Malcangi; Alessio Danilo Inchingolo; Angelo Michele Inchingolo (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Children
Since the beginning in December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak appeared to affect mostly the adult population, sparing the vast majority of children who only showed mild symptoms. The purpose of this investigation is to assess the status on the mechanisms that give children and infants this variation in epidemiology compared to the adult population and its impact on therapies and vaccines that are aimed towards them. A literature review, including in vitro studies, reviews, published guidelines and clinical trials was performed. Clinical trials concerned topics that allowed a descriptive synthesis to be produced. Four underlying mechanisms were found that may play a key role in providing COVID-19 protection in babies. No guidelines are available yet for therapy due to insufficient data; support therapy remains the most used. Only two vaccines are approved by the World Health Organization to be used in children from 12 years of age, and there are currently no efficacy or safety data for children below the age of 12 years.
COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes: glycemic control and side effects

Barbara Piccini; Benedetta Pessina; Francesco Pezzoli (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Pediatric diabetes

Two vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) for minors aged 12 years and over. Currently, people with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are prioritized for vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate possible glycemic control modification, insulin dose adjustment and adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccination in young T1D individuals, users of different technology levels. 39 T1D individuals, who received a whole vaccination cycle of either Moderna or Pfizer- BioNTech vaccines, were enrolled, 24 of whom using advanced hybrid closed loop systems (AHCLs) and 15 using intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM). Symptoms after each dose and the following variables were considered: time in range 70-180 mg/dl (TIR), time in different glucose ranges, mean glucose levels, coefficient of variation (CV), total daily dose (TDD) and bolus proportion.

Parental gender differences in attitudes and willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19

Ran D. Goldman; Rosario Ceballo

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

COVID-19 affects family life world-wide. Determinants of hesitancy around vaccinating children against COVID-19 are critical in guiding public health campaigns. Gender differences among parents may determine willingness to vaccinate children against COVID-19. Secondary analysis of the COVID-19 Parental Attitude Study (COVIPAS) surveying care givers of children presenting for emergency care in 17 sites in 6 countries during peak pandemic (March–June, 2020). This study assessed risk perceptions, vaccination history and plans to vaccinate children against COVID-19 once available. It compared responses given by father or mother and used multivariable logistic regression.

Exploring the attitudes, concerns, and knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccine by the parents of children with rheumatic disease: cross-sectional online survey

Özlem Akgün; Gülşah Kavrul Kayaalp; Fatma Gül Demirkan (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Vaccine
Vaccination programs are effective strategies in preventing infectious diseases and controlling epidemics. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in children has not yet been approved globally, and it is unclear what attitude families will take when it is approved in children. This study aimed to investigate the underlying causes of vaccine acceptance, hesitation, and refusal, as well as concerns about the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine by parents of children with rheumatic diseases.
Public attitudes and influencing Factors towards COVID-19 vaccination for adolescents/children: a scoping review

Yuxin Liu; Qianwen Ma; Huini Liu (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Public Health
This scoping review screened, included, sorted, and analyzed relevant studies on COVID-19 vaccination for children or adolescents before 31 December 2021 in databases, including Pubmed, Elsevier, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Wiley.
Intention to vaccinate children for COVID-19: a segmentation analysis among Medicaid parents in Florida

Matthew W. Kreuter; Rachel Garg; Alexis Marsh (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
COVID-19 vaccines have been granted emergency use authorization for children ages 5 years and older. To understand how racially and ethnically diverse parents of young children enrolled in Medicaid feel about a prospective COVID-19 vaccine for their children, an online survey that included both close-ended and open-ended items to a statewide sample in Florida (n = 1951) was administered. This study used quantitative responses to conduct a statistical audience segmentation analysis that identified five distinct sub-groups that varied widely in the likelihood that they would get a COVID-19 vaccine for their child. Qualitative responses were used to illustrate differences between the groups.
Why do parents willingness-to-pay to vaccinate their children against COVID-19? A real-world evidence in Taizhou, China

Tao-Hsin Tung; Xiao-Qing Lin; Yan Chen (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to explore whether parents are willing to pay to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 in China.With a self-administered online questionnaire, we investigated parents’ willingness to pay for their children to be vaccinated against COVID-19 in Taizhou, China. Of the 1,845 parents who answered the structured questionnaire when they received an e-mail or e-poster invitation, 1788 samples with valid data underwent data analysis.

Millions of Bangladeshi children missed their scheduled vaccination amidst COVID-19 pandemic

Sayed Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi; Nujhat Jahan; Nazia Sultana (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
The Government of Bangladesh imposed a movement control order as a mass quarantine strategy to control the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Adherence to the home quarantine may put children at risk by missing routine vaccination. This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on child routine immunization in a rural area of Bangladesh and consider the broader implications. Data for this study comes from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of icddr,b with a population of 90,000 people residing in 16,000 households in 49 villages in a rural, coastal area of Southeast Bangladesh. The study used an explanatory sequential mixed methods design which involved two phases between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020: first, we observed 258 outreach sessions of 86 EPI centers. It calculated the number of Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) outreach sessions suspended and the number of children who missed their routine vaccination due to the COVID-19. It extrapolated the number of Bangladeshi children who missed their routine vaccination using Chakaria HDSS observations. Secondly, in-depth interviews to explain the quantitative results were conducted.

Parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children with COVID-19 vaccine: results of a survey in Italy

Gabriella Di Giuseppe; Concetta Paola Pelullo; Andrea Salvatore Volgare (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the parents’ willingness to vaccinate their children with COVID-19 vaccine and related determinants with specific attention to willingness for adolescents as compared to younger children. Data were collected through a confidential online questionnaire.

“I don’t want my son to be part of a giant experiment”: public attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines in children

Simon N. Williams

Published: January 2022   Journal: Public Health

This qualitative study explored public attitudes to COVID-19 vaccines in children, including reasons for support or opposition to them. Qualitative study using online focus groups and interviews. Group and individual online interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of 24 adults in the United Kingdom to explore their views on the issue of COVID-19 vaccination in children. Data were analysed using a framework approach.

Rapid review update 1: What are the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in children 12 years and under?
Institution: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools
Published: January 2022
At the outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and during the ensuing first waves, the data from countries worldwide suggested children had much lower incidence of infection, and when infected were much less likely to experience hospitalization, severe illness, and death. As vaccines became available, large proportions of populations over age 12 have been vaccinated and some public health measures have been relaxed, leaving those under age 12 vulnerable to infection and severe illness. With the approval of COVID-19 vaccines for children under 12 years expected shortly, there is a need to develop efficient and equitable immunization prioritization strategies for this age group. Similar to the strategy used with adults, one approach for an immunization strategy may be to offer immunization first to those with underlying health conditions who may be at greater risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. Another approach may be to offer immunization first to children with the greatest risk of exposure as a result of high rates of infection in the communities in which they live or go to school, or as a result of their living arrangement (e.g., family members at high risk of infection due to occupation). An understanding of risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes among those 12 years and under will support decisions about optimal immunization strategies. This rapid review was produced to support public health decision makers’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This review seeks to identify, appraise, and summarize emerging research evidence to support evidence-informed decision making.
Attitudes towards influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in parents of asthmatic children during the COVID-19 pandemic

Murat Özer; Nevzat Başkaya; İlknur Bostancı

Published: January 2022   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

This study aimed to determine the differences in attitudes and views towards influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in parents of children with asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic. Asthmatic children in the 6–18 age group who were admitted to the pediatric allergy clinic of our hospital between October 1, 2020 and February 31, 2021 were included in the study. The parents were given a questionnaire asking about their demographics and medical history. Their attitudes and thoughts towards these two vaccines, both before and during the pandemic, and their COVID-19 stories were questioned.

COVID-19 vaccine trials with children: ethics pointers

Caesar Alimisnya Atuire; Sofía P. Salas; Katharine Wright (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMJ Global Health
As healthcare authorities around the world strive to get as many citizens as possible vaccinated against the SAR-CoV-2 virus, many countries have begun including children in the population groups to be vaccinated. Properly designed clinical trials involving children are important to ensure safety, efficacy, and dosage of therapies in (developing) children. Within the complex health, social, and political scenario of the ongoing pandemic, ethics committees and policy makers in low-income and middle-income settings need to consider additional ethical questions when called on to review phase III COVID-19 vaccine trials involving in children. This article sets out some of the ethical questions to keep in mind before, during, and after the implementation of phase III COVID-19 vaccine trials in limited resource settings. Specifically, it discusses and offer succinct answers to the following questions: How relevant will the trial vaccine be for the population participating in the trial? Should vaccines that have not been approved for use among adults be approved for use in trials with children? Which children should be involved in COVID-19 vaccine trials? What criteria of informed consent are to be adopted with minors? Placebo versus an existing already approved vaccine? What specific duties of ancillary care should be taken into consideration for COVID-19 vaccines especially in low-income and middle-income countries? The answers offered here are considerations that can serve as ‘things to think about’ when reviewing or implementing COVID-19 trials involving children in low-income settings.
Adolescents’ attitudes to the COVID-19 vaccination

W. H. S. Wong; D. Leung; G. T. Chua (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Vaccine
Vaccines against COVID-19 are now available for adolescents in Hong Kong but vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier to herd immunity. This survey study explores Hong Kong adolescents’ attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccination. 2609 adolescents from across Hong Kong completed an online survey focused on the intent to vaccinate and the reasons for their choice. 39% of adolescents intended to take the COVID-19 vaccination and significant factors for this decision include: having at least one parent vaccinated, knowing somebody diagnosed with COVID-19 and receiving the influenza vaccine. Adolescents’ major concerns were either the safety and efficacy of the vaccine or the risk of infection. This study has proved that even in adolescents the vaccine hesitancy model is prominent with adolescents’ intentions highly related to confidence in the vaccine and perception of disease risk. Future interventions should target these specific concerns to ensure adolescents are well educated to overcome vaccine hesitancy.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.