search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   67     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
31 - 45 of 67
The little jab book: a playbook for COVID-19 vaccination in Nepal
Institution: Save the Children
Published: January 2022

Inspired by The Little Jab Book, this playbook uncovers underlying reasons for vaccine hesitancy in Nepal and includes localized, behavioral science-informed solutions to increase uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. The Busara Center for Behavioral Economics, Common Thread, Save the Children Nepal, and Save the Children’s Center for Utilizing Behavioral Insights for Children (CUBIC) collaborated to conduct quantitative and qualitative research in Province 2 to uncover barriers and enablers to vaccination, and then co-created potential solutions with local and national stakeholders; this research project resulted in 9 behavioral science interventions for parents and health workers in Nepal.

Development and evaluation of a child vaccination chatbot real-time consultation messenger service during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yeong-Joo Hong; Meihua Piao; Jeongeun Kim (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Applied Science
The decreased rate of children’s vaccination has resulted in outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, and vaccination hesitancy is being brought about by the uncertainty caused by the continuing COVID-19 pandemic. With this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of a child vaccination chatbot based on changes in variables such as vaccination information, motivation, self-efficacy, and vaccination behavioral intention. From 30 January to 15 February 2020, 65 parents raising children ≤35 months old who were expected to be vaccinated within three months participated in the trial through online recruitment. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 34) or the control group (n = 31) and were followed up with over a period of 12 weeks. During this period, both groups of participants were provided with vaccination schedule reminders. The experimental group were additionally provided with vaccination-related information and motivation boosters by a chatbot (real-time consultation messenger service); the control group was provided the same information by brochure. Comparing both groups, the experimental group that used the chatbot scored higher on vaccination information, motivation, self-efficacy, and vaccination behavioral intention than the control group. This suggests that the chatbot provided useful and timely information to parents, increasing vaccination motivation, self-efficacy, and vaccination rates.
Adults’ acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine for children in selected lower- and middle-income countries

Suzanna Awang Bono; Ching Sin Siau; Won Sun Chen (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Vaccines
Since emergency approval of COVID-19 vaccines for children aged between 12 and 15 years old was recently obtained in the United States and Europe, we aimed to assess the willingness to vaccinate children with a COVID-19 vaccine in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we launched an online cross-sectional survey in several LMICs. Questions relating to socio-demographic information, knowledge of COVID-19, level of fear/worry of being infected with COVID-19, and willingness to vaccinate children with the COVID-19 vaccine at 50%, 75% and 95% effectiveness levels, were asked. Of the 6571 participants (mean age = 39 ± 14 years), 64.0%, 72.6%, and 92.9% were willing to vaccinate children at 50%, 75%, and 95% effectiveness levels, respectively. Respondents who were undergraduates, who were more worried/fearful about COVID-19, had higher knowledge scores regarding COVID-19, and a higher belief that COVID-19 vaccination is important to protect others, were more willing to accept COVID-19 vaccination of children. COVID-19 vaccination of children will limit the spread of the virus, especially in schools; it may decrease the need for school closures which has a negative effect on child development.
Parent’s perspective towards child COVID-19 vaccination: an online cross-sectional study in Mexico

Juan Luis Delgado-Gallegos; Gerardo R. Padilla-Rivas; Lilia Julieta Gastelum-Arias (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
COVID-19 vaccination programs continue in child populations. Thus, parents’ attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination of their children is crucial for these strategies to succeed. The present study derives from the application of an online COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance & Hesitancy Questionnaire (COV-AHQ) in which we measure parent’s hesitancy towards children’s vaccination (section 4 of the COV-AHQ) and other significant factors. A logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise method was used to quantify the associations between factors and parent’s hesitancy. According to the correlation analysis, the most representative factors predicting vaccine hesitancy/acceptance were positive attitude towards vaccination, parents believing that the COVID-19 vaccine will enhance the economic situation of the country, parents actively researching information, having the willingness to obtain the COVID-19 vaccine themselves, and the possibility of their children developing adverse effects.
Prevalence and factors associated with parents’ non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean

Diego Urrunaga-Pastor; Percy Herrera-Añazco; Angela Uyen-Cateriano (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Vaccines
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with parents’ non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It performed a secondary analysis using a database generated by the University of Maryland and Facebook (Facebook, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA). It included adult (18 and over) Facebook users residing in LAC who responded to the survey between 20 May 2021 and 14 July 2021. It included sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental health, economic and food insecurity, compliance with mitigation strategies against COVID-19, and practices related to vaccination against this disease. The study estimated the crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with their respective 95%CI. It analyzed a sample of 227,740 adults from 20 LAC countries.
Caregivers’ intentions to COVID-19 vaccination for their children in China: a cross-sectional survey

Huangyufei Feng; He Zhu; Haijun Zhang (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Recently, COVID-19 infection in children has increased. Although most countries have not approved the COVID-19 vaccine for children, it is likely that they will do so. There is a clear need to explore caregivers’ intentions and to understand potential hesitancy as means to inform vaccination policies. This study found a relatively high caregivers’ intention rate to have their children vaccinated against COVID-19, and caregivers’ intentions to be vaccinated themselves was associated with their own decision to have their children vaccinated. In this study, older age, lower education level, belief that the COVID-19 vaccine was safe and effective, and residence in Hubei province were associated with increased odds of caregivers intending to have their children vaccinated. Policy makers should address caregivers’ concerns about vaccine safety and encourage caregivers themselves to get vaccinated before they decide to have their children vaccinated.
Parents’ attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination and childhood vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yakup Çağ; Güven Bektemür; Şemsinur Karabela (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health

Vaccination is the most important and successful public health tool for combating infections and epidemics.' During the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has once again become clear that vaccination is the most effective way to protect people from infectious diseases and epidemics. The significance and success of vaccination is indisputable; however, vaccine hesitancy and refusal regarding both COVID-19 and other childhood vaccinations have become serious problems in the fight against vaccine-preventable diseases and epidemics. This study aimed to investigate parental attitudes toward COVID-19 and childhood vaccines, causes of vaccine exitancy and refusal, and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on parental vaccine attitudes.

COVID-19 infection in newborns

Jeffrey M. Perlman; Christine Salvatore

Published: November 2021   Journal: Clinics in Perinatology
The COVID-19 pandemic due to the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has spread worldwide with heavy consequences on global public health during the past 1.5 years. During this time it has become apparent that adults with co-morbidities have the highest risk for severe disease and death, meanwhile it became clearer that children, even though not immune from acquiring the infection, had a less severe presentation and outcome compared to adults. Seroprevalence from some reports seems similar to adults, but the observed cases are less, indicating most likely that children are asymptomatic or very mildly ill to draw medical attention and to be tested.
The COVID-19 prevalence among children: hypotheses for low infection rate and few severe forms among this age group in Sub-Saharan Africa

Sylvain Raoul Simeni Njonnou; Nadia Christelle Noumedem Anangmo; Fernando Kemta Lekpa (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Despite some cases of severe or critical manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) described among children, the prevalence of this infection in the pediatric population is quite low worldwide, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Current data suggest indeed that, independent of the population considered overall, severe and critical cases of COVID-19 are rare among children. This observation prompted the discussion of the possible hypotheses which could explain the low prevalence of COVID-19 among children; amongst others, immunomodulation by the Bacillus Calmette–Guerin vaccine or by some parasitic infections such as malaria, schistosomiasis, and helminthiasis and cross immunization with other coronaviruses commonly found in the sub-Saharan African setting are discussed.
Rapid review: What are the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in children 12 years and under? 
Institution: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools
Published: October 2021
At the outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and during the ensuing first waves, the data from countries worldwide suggested children had much lower incidence of infection, and when infected were much less likely to experience hospitalization, severe illness, and death. As vaccines became available, large proportions of populations over age 12 have been vaccinated and some public health measures have been relaxed, leaving those under age 12 vulnerable to infection and severe illness. With the approval of COVID-19 vaccines for children under 12 years expected shortly, there is a need to develop efficient and equitable immunization prioritization strategies for this age group. Similar to the strategy used with adults, one approach for an immunization strategy may be to offer immunization first to those with underlying health conditions who may be at greater risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes. Another approach may be to offer immunization first to children with the greatest risk of exposure as a result of high rates of infection in the communities in which they live or go to school, or as a result of their living arrangement (e.g., family members at high risk of infection due to occupation). An understanding of risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes among those 12 years and under will support decisions about optimal immunization strategies. This rapid review was produced to support public health decision makers’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This review seeks to identify, appraise, and summarize emerging research evidence to support evidence-informed decision making.
Facilitating COVID-19 vaccination among caregivers of children with medical complexity

Divya Lakhaney; Ellen Shaw; Melissa S. Stockwell (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Clinical Pediatrics
While the Covid-19 pandemic has had significant impact on the general population, it has presented particular challenges for children with medical complexity (CMC) and their families. This article discusses our experience leveraging our pediatric complex care program to facilitate Cocid-19 vaccine distribution to our patients and families.
Parental attitudes and hesitancy about COVID-19 vs. routine childhood vaccinations: a national survey

Mohamad-Hani Temsah; Abdullah N. Alhuzaimi; Fadi Aljamaan (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This study aims to quantify parental acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and assess the vaccine hesitancy (VH) for COVID-19 vs. childhood vaccines. Eight vaccine hesitancy scale (VHS) items, adopted from WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Immunization (SAGE), were used to assess VH for COVID-19 vaccine vs. routine childhood vaccines. We distributed the online survey to parents with the commence of the national childhood COVID-19 vaccination program in Saudi Arabia.

Vaccinating adolescents and children significantly reduces COVID-19 morbidity and mortality across all ages: a population-based modeling study using the UK as an example

Tinevimbo Shiri; Marc Evans; Carla A. Talarico (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vaccines
Debate persists around the risk–benefit balance of vaccinating adolescents and children against COVID-19. Central to this debate is quantifying the contribution of adolescents and children to the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and the potential impact of vaccinating these age groups. In this study, we present a novel SEIR mathematical disease transmission model that quantifies the impact of different vaccination strategies on population-level SARS-CoV-2 infections and clinical outcomes. The model employs both age- and time-dependent social mixing patterns to capture the impact of changes in restrictions. The model was used to assess the impact of vaccinating adolescents and children on the natural history of the COVID-19 pandemic across all age groups, using the UK as an example. The base case model demonstrates significant increases in COVID-19 disease burden in the UK following a relaxation of restrictions, if vaccines are limited to those ≥18 years and vulnerable adolescents (≥12 years). Including adolescents and children in the vaccination program could reduce overall COVID-related mortality by 57%, and reduce cases of long COVID by 75%. This study demonstrates that vaccinating adolescents and children has the potential to play a vital role in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infections, and subsequent COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, across all ages.
Attitudes of parents with regard to vaccination of children against COVID-19 in Poland: a nationwide online survey

Mateusz Babicki; Dagmara Pokorna-Kałwak; Zbigniew Doniec (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vaccines
Within a few months, the scientific world achieved a great success, developing effective and safe vaccines against COVID-19. Many countries with full access to vaccines have introduced recommendations for the vaccination of not only people who are at risk of developing severe COVID-19, i.e., the elderly and chronically ill, but all members of society, including children aged 12 and above as the currently registered preparations can be used above the said age. However, the use of COVID-19 vaccines in children arouses strong emotions, with their sense being frequently questioned. The aim of the paper was to assess the attitudes of Polish parents with regard to vaccinations against COVID-19 administered to their children. The study was conducted with the use of the authors’ original questionnaire, which was distributed online.
Tracking the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine infant vaccinations in the Dominican Republic

Manuel Colomé-Hidalgo; Juan Donado Campos; Ángel Gil de Miguel

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, millions of infants are unprotected against immune-preventable diseases due to interruptions in vaccination services. The direct effects of the pandemic, as well as the non-pharmacological interventions for its containment, mitigation and suppression adopted by many countries, have affected their vaccination programs. This is an ecological study analyzing the performance of the vaccination program in the Dominican Republic before (2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). It compared annual public coverage data, analyzed trends and changes in coverage, dropout rate, and number of partially and unvaccinated infants by geographic area and COVID-19 incidence rate.
31 - 45 of 67

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Read the latest quarterly digest on children and disabilities.

The second digest discussed children and violence during the pandemic.

The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.