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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 960
Onset risk factors for youth involvement in cyberbullying and cybervictimization: a longitudinal study

Anna Sorrentino; Alessia Esposito; Debora Acunzo (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Cyberbullying and cybervictimization are spread worldwide, and due to COVID-19, an increasing number of children and adolescents have been impacted. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research has investigated and highlighted the key risk factors for cyberbullying and cybervictimization, and numerous anti-cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs have been developed and assessed for their efficacy. Despite this, no studies have specifically focused on the individual, relational, and contextual risk factors associated with the onset of youth involvement in cyberbullying and cybervictimization.  To address this lacuna, 333 Italian students aged 10–16 years (M = 12.16, SD = 1.35) were involved in a year-long longitudinal study and filled in the anonymous online actuarial Tabby Improved Checklist two times with a 6-month interval. Onset risk factors for cyberbullying and cybervictimization have been separately analyzed by excluding all students involved in cyberbullying from the original sample or in the cybervictimization baseline (T1).

Disruption to education during COVID-19: school nonacademic factors are associated with children's mental health

Kimberley C. Tsujimoto; Katherine Tombeau Cost; Kaitlyn Laforge-Mackenzie (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatric2

Few studies have examined aspects of the school environment, beyond modality, as contributors to child and youth mental health during the coronavirus pandemic. We investigated associations between nonacademic school experiences and children's mental health. Parents of children ages 6 to 18 years completed online surveys about school experiences (November 2020) and mental health (February/March 2021). Parent-reported and child-reported school experiences (i.e., nonacademic factors) included school importance, adapting to public health measures, and school connectedness. Children's mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, inattention, and hyperactivity were collected using standardized parent-reported measures.

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on educational, psychosocial and behavioral aspects of children: a cross sectional survey

Ramya Pandi; Aradhya Korapati; Kanta Kumari (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics

The outbreak of COVID-19 appeared first in China and then, rapidly, spread to the rest of the world, and WHO declared it as a pandemic.A nation-wide closure of educational institutions was implemented as an emergency measure in India in March 2020. Meanwhile the traditional classroom instructions were replaced by online classes and home-based learning. Pandemic stressors such as boredom, being in isolation, one of the family members hospitalized/ succumbed to covid, etc, may have even more negative impact on children’s behaviour and emotions. Objectives were to study the impact of covid 19 pandemic on psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional survey conducted among the parents attending paediatric OPD in NRI general and superspeciality hospital, Mangalagiri, between September 2021 to December 2021 over a period of 70 day along with their children of age group between 3 years to 18 years with an aim to explore various psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children and their correlation.

Social relations of urban children in the liminal time of the pandemic period

Marzenna Nowicka

Published: December 2022   Journal: The New Educational Review
This paper analysed the social relations of Polish children during the SARSCoV- 2 pandemic. The period of isolation and remote learning was approached as a transitional time using Victor Turner’s concept of liminality. The concept offered a new perspective on children’s experiences during the regime of health protection constraints and the resulting limitations. The research material was collected using focus group interviews with 41 urban children aged 7 and 9 to describe liminal features of their everyday life and characterise their social interactions.
Effects of COVID-19 lockdowns on the development of educational, social and emotional gaps among children: a retrospective chart review

Tanya Ebert; Nimrod Goldschmid; Edmond Sabo (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: The Israel Medical Association journal

School closures due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak affected students physically, socially, and psychologically with an increase in the number of children and adolescent presenting with anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. This study aimed to examine the impact of COVID-19 and lockdown on the mental health of minors during the pandemic period and to characterize the type and number of referrals to a regional psychiatric outpatient clinic. This study included 380 children evaluated in an outpatient child psychiatric clinic. They were divided into two groups: before the lockdowns (BLD) (n=248), from January 2019 to February 2020, and during the lockdowns (LD) (n=132), from March 2020 to April 2021.

The impact of media on children during the COVID-19 pandemic: A narrative review

M. Mesce; A. Ragona; S. Cimino (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Heliyon
Although mobile technologies are a fundamental part of daily life, several studies have shown increased use of electronic devices, TV, and gaming during childhood in conjunction with the COVID-19 pandemic. The virus affected almost every country, causing uncertainty about the future, social isolation, and distress. This narrative review has searched the scientific literature in the field focusing on children. A non-systematic literature review was conducted in May 2022. Various databases were employed to conduct the document research for this paper, such as “Google Scholar”, “PubMed”, “Web of Science”. Keywords for the search included “screen time”, “media”, “digital use”, “social media”, “COVID-19”, “pandemic”, “lockdown”, “children”, “effect of media on children during COVID”. It was found that both children and adolescents seem to have used technologies to confront struggles provoked by COVID-19, such as the onset or exacerbation of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, moreover, other studies have suggested that increased media use can have positive effects on children depending on usage and monitoring by the parents.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle and wellbeing of children, adolescents and their parents: a qualitative study

Kelly G. H. van de Pas; Marijn L. Hesselink; Robin Schlechtriem (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
Prior studies have shown that changes in daily structure and habits due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected the lifestyle and wellbeing of families. This study aimed to obtain in-depth information on children’s and adolescents’ experiences regarding their lifestyle and wellbeing during the pandemic. Semi-structured interviews with fifteen families were carried out between May and November 2021. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts and fundamental qualitative description to describe the results. Children and adolescents revealed an overall unhealthier lifestyle and decreased wellbeing. These negative effects were even larger in adolescents and children with overweight or psychosocial complaints. Our results revealed that parents were actively involved in maintaining a normal daily structure. Furthermore, diet changes were inconsistent and dependent on food availability. An increase in screen time was experienced as inevitable, and external influences were necessary to keep children and adolescents active. Almost no effects were reported on physical health, whereas negative emotions were experienced in varying degrees.
Persistence of lockdown consequences on children: a cross-sectional comparative study

Marina Picca; Paola Manzoni; Antonio Corsello (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
Lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic had a significant psychological impact on children and adolescents. This study compared lockdown effects on children aged 1–10 years in 2020 and 2021. Two structured questionnaires were administered to 3392 parents in 2020, and 3203 in 2021. Outcomes considered for the data analysis included sleep changes, episodes of irritability, attention disturbances, distance learning and number of siblings. For data analysis, children were divided into two groups: pre-scholar (1–5 years old) and older ones. The lockdown was associated with a significant increase in sleep disturbances in 2020 and persisted after a year. The high prevalence of mood changes persisted unchanged in children under the age of 10 in 2020 and in 2021. Even if strengthened family ties seemed to mitigate the negative impact of lockdowns in 2020, this effect appeared absent or at least reduced in 2021. Irritability and rage in children were perceived to have increased in 2021 compared to 2020. A significant reduction in digital device use was observed in 2021 compared to 2020. Overall, the most harmful consequences of the lockdown in 2020 were still observed in 2021.
Daily COVID-19 stressor effects on children's mental health depend on pre-pandemic peer victimization and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia

Tracy K. Y. Wong; Tyler Colasante; Tina Malti

Published: December 2022   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
Children’s risk of poorer mental health due to the COVID-19 pandemic may depend on risk and protective factors heading into the pandemic. This study examined same-day associations between COVID-19 stressors and children’s mental health using a daily diary design across 14 days, and considered the moderating roles of pre-pandemic peer victimization experiences and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; an indicator of cardiac regulatory capacity). Forty-nine Canadian children aged 8–13 years (Mage = 10.69, 29 girls) participated in the final wave of a longitudinal study just prior to the pandemic and a daily diary extension during the pandemic (N = 686 pandemic measurement occasions).
Face processing in the infant brain after pandemic lockdown

Tristan S. Yates; Cameron T. Ellis; Nicholas B. Turk-Browne

Published: December 2022   Journal: Developmental Psychobiology
The role of visual experience in the development of face processing has long been debated. We present a new angle on this question through a serendipitous study that cannot easily be repeated. Infants viewed short blocks of faces during fMRI in a repetition suppression task. The same identity was presented multiple times in half of the blocks (repeat condition) and different identities were presented once each in the other half (novel condition). In adults, the fusiform face area (FFA) tends to show greater neural activity for novel versus repeat blocks in such designs, suggesting that it can distinguish same versus different face identities.
General health status and psychological impact of COVID19 pandemic and curfew on children aging 3 to 12 years

Abdullah Shamsah; Maryam Aburezq; Zahraa Abdullah (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

COVID-19 is an infectious disease that was declared as a pandemic and public health emergency in late 2019 and has impacted children's mental health worldwide. This study aimed to assess the general and mental health status of children during different stages of COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify the associated factors. A cross-sectional study conducted on children aging 3 to 12 years in Kuwait during three different stages of COVID19 pandemic (pre-total curfew, during total curfew, and post-total curfew). The psychological status was assessed using the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria.

Social anxiety and depression symptoms in Chinese left-behind children after the lifting of COVID-19 lockdown: a network analysis

Kuiliang Li; Lei Ren; Zhengzhi Feng

Published: December 2022   Journal: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Returning to social life after the lifting of COVID-19 lockdown may increase risk of social anxiety, which is highly co-morbid with depression. However, few studies have reported the association between them. To explore the complex relationship between social anxiety and depression symptoms in left-behind children after the lifting of the COVID-19 lockdown. A cross-sectional survey was conducted 6 months after the lockdown removal. A total of 3,107 left-behind children completed the survey with a mean age of 13.33 and a response rate of 87.77%. Depression and social anxiety severity were assessed by the DSM-5 Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents and the DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, respectively. The symptom-level association between the two disorders was examined using network analysis.
Looking for your cross‐group friends after the breakout? Children's intergroup contact behaviours before and after the onset of COVID-19

Sabahat Cigdem Bagci; Faruk Tayyip Yalcin; Abbas Turnuklu (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: British Journal of Social Psychology
While COVID-19 implications for prejudice have been investigated among adults in previous research, children's intergroup reactions to the pandemic and specifically how native children's contact behaviours with refugees might have changed after the pandemic has not been examined yet. Drawing on a unique longitudinal school dataset (N = 861, 5th graders, M age reported at T1 = 10.38, SD = 0.68) collected before the onset of the pandemic (T1, pre-lockdown), after the onset of the pandemic (T2, post-lockdown), and 6 months after the post-lockdown (T3, follow-up) in Turkey, this study examined how children's contact behaviour (positive and negative contact), contact motivation (self-efficacy and volition), as well as behavioural tendencies (approach and avoidance) have shifted during this period (2.5 years).
Tele-assessment of young children referred for autism spectrum disorder evaluation during COVID-19: associations among clinical characteristics and diagnostic outcome

Rebecca McNally Keehn; Brett Enneking; Liliana Wagner (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Autism
Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a rapid acceleration of innovative research on health services delivery, including real-world clinical implementation and evaluation of tele-assessment for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Extending this promising work, the present study examined clinical characteristics and diagnostic outcome for young children receiving autism spectrum disorder tele-assessment during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Parenting pre-teens during COVID-19 in a rural Midwestern community: an interpretive phenomenological study

Sarah Oerther; Daniel B. Oerther

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
To uncover the experiences of parenting Generation Z pre-teen children in rural communities impacted by the Stay Home Missouri order from April through May 2020. Researchers have focused on urban parents, leading to gaps in understanding the impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on rural parents and children. A qualitative study employing interpretive phenomenology. 14 white cis-male-sexed fathers and cis-female-sexed mothers living in midwestern rural communities participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews with 14 participants parenting pre-teen children were conducted. The interviews were analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. The COREQ checklist was followed. One theme that emerged from the narratives was the study participants’ understandings of parenting, discovered when their routines were disrupted by the Stay Home Missouri order.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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