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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 62
Supporting Families and Children Beyond COVID-19: Social protection in high-income countries
COVID-19 constitutes the greatest crisis that high-income countries have seen in many generations. While many high-income countries experienced the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, or have had national recessions, the COVID-19 pandemic is much more than that. COVID-19 is a social and economic crisis, sparked by a protracted health crisis.

High-income countries have very limited experience of dealing with health crises, having their health and human services stretched beyond capacity, restricting the travel of their populations or having to close workplaces and schools – let alone experience of all of these things combined. These unique conditions create new and serious challenges for the economies and societies of all high-income countries. As these challenges evolve, children – as dependants – are among those at greatest risk of seeing their living standards fall and their personal well-being decline.

This new UNICEF Innocenti report explores how the social and economic impact of the pandemic is likely to affect children; the initial government responses to the crisis; and how future public policies could be optimized to better support children. 
Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on children: an ethical analysis with a global-child lens

AUTHOR(S)
Sydney Campbell; Carlo Cicero Oneto; Manav Preet Singh Saini (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Global Studies of Childhood
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the lives of children and adolescents in resource-limited countries have been significantly impacted in complex ways, while largely having their interests overlooked. The purpose of this colloquium is to examine these impacts across seven resource-limited nations and apply an ethical lens to examine the ways in which children and adolescents have been treated impermissibly.
Vulnerability and resilience in children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Winnie W. Y. Tso; Rosa S. Wong; Keith T. S. Tung (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound impact on the health and development of children worldwide. There is limited evidence on the impact of COVID-19 and its related school closures and disease-containment measures on the psychosocial wellbeing of children; little research has been done on the characteristics of vulnerable groups and factors that promote resilience. This research conducted a large-scale cross-sectional population study of Hong Kong families with children aged 2–12 years.
Supporting Families and Children Beyond COVID-19: Social protection in high-income countries
COVID-19 constitutes the greatest crisis that high-income countries have seen in many generations. While many high-income countries experienced the global financial crisis of 2007–2008, or have had national recessions, the COVID-19 pandemic is much more than that. COVID-19 is a social and economic crisis, sparked by a protracted health crisis.

High-income countries have very limited experience of dealing with health crises, having their health and human services stretched beyond capacity, restricting the travel of their populations or having to close workplaces and schools – let alone experience of all of these things combined. These unique conditions create new and serious challenges for the economies and societies of all high-income countries. As these challenges evolve, children – as dependants – are among those at greatest risk of seeing their living standards fall and their personal well-being decline.

This new UNICEF Innocenti report explores how the social and economic impact of the pandemic is likely to affect children; the initial government responses to the crisis; and how future public policies could be optimized to better support children. 
Mitigating toxic stress in children affected by conflict and displacement

AUTHOR(S)
Anushka Ataullahjan; Muthanna Samara; Theresa S. Betancourt

Published: November 2020   Journal: British Medical Journal
Armed conflict and displacement pose a threat to the health and well-being of children. As the global community begins to recognize the cumulative effects of conflict and displacement, as well as Covid-19, related stressors, our attention has shifted to toxic stress and its short and long term health effects. Toxic stress, regarded as the result of prolonged activation of the stress response, can occur before birth and during childhood is known to contribute to epigenetic changes, with health and neurodevelopmental consequences. However, various social factors and early and appropriate intervention can help mitigate the negative effects.
Covid-19 and the transformation of migration and mobility globally–Time for a re-set: implications for child migration policies arising from COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jacqueline Bhabha

Institution: IOM - International Organization for Migration
Published: November 2020
Although children are less at risk of COVID-19 infection, millions of children – including migrant children – are nevertheless at heightened risk from the pandemic because of their precarious status. Authored by Jacqueline Bhabha, this paper uses available data sources, including crowd-sourced mobility data, media reports and anecdotal accounts, to conduct an initial assessment of the pandemic’s impact on vulnerable migrant children and outline a number of policies that have been enacted to attenuate this vulnerability.
Does the COVID-19 pandemic impact parents’ and adolescents’ well-being? An EMA-study on daily affect and parenting

AUTHOR(S)
Loes H. C. Janssen; Marie-Louise J. Kullberg; Bart Verkuil (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: PLoS One
Due to the COVID- 19 outbreak in the Netherlands (March 2020) and the associated social distancing measures, families were enforced to stay at home as much as possible. Adolescents and their families may be particularly affected by this enforced proximity, as adolescents strive to become more independent. Yet, whether these measures impact emotional well-being in families with adolescents has not been examined. The COVID-19 pandemic affected positive and negative affect of parents and adolescents and parenting behaviors (warmth and criticism) are investigated in this ecological momentary assessment study.
Family coping strategies during Finland’s COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Milla Salin; Anniina Kaittila; Mia Hakovirta; Mia Hakovirta (et al.)

Published: October 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic and global lockdowns fundamentally changed families’ everyday lives. This study aims to examine how families with children coped during the COVID-19 lockdown in Finland and what kind of coping strategies they developed. An online survey including both qualitative and quantitative questions was conducted between April and May 2020 to gather Finnish families’ experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown. Huston’s social-ecological theory was used as an analytical framework. 
The importance of investing in the wellbeing of children to avert the learning crisis
Institution: UNESCO, World Food Programme, *UNICEF, World Health Organisation
Published: October 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has created the largest disruption of education systems in history, affecting nearly 1.6 billion school-age children in more than 190 countries. Already last year, 250 million school-age children being out of school, the world was facing a “learning crisis”. But now with the COVID-19 pandemic, this crisis could turn into a generational catastrophe. While many children will continue with their education once schools reopen, others may never return to school. Current estimates indicate that 24 million children will never return to the classroom and among those, disproportional number of girls. To avert this crisis, we need to reimagine how we deliver good quality and inclusive education to the world children. Among other things, this calls for urgent investments in school health and nutrition programmes and create the conditions for children to lead healthy lives. This also includes health and nutrition literacy offered through the curriculum and through counselling in the school health services which provides young people with knowledge, skills, values, culture and behaviours they need to lead healthy, empowered lives.

The impact of school closures and lockdown on mental health in young people

AUTHOR(S)
Ellen Townsend

Published: October 2020   Journal: Child and Adolescent Mental Health
The COVID‐19 pandemic lockdown response has had a disproportionate and damaging effect on the lives, mental health and well‐being of young people globally. They have been neglected in policy‐making and their needs have been subjugated to those of adults which contravenes the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. This commentary argues that the needs and rights of young people must come first to protect their health, mental health and futures.
How societal responses to COVID-19 could contribute to child neglect

AUTHOR(S)
A. Bérubé; M.-E. Clément; V. Lafantaisie (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
The ecosystemic approach to children’s needs demands a cohesive response from societies, communities, and families. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the choices societies made to protect their community members from the virus could have created contexts of child neglect. With the closure of services and institutions, societies were no longer available to help meet the needs of children. The purpose of this study is to examine parents’ reports on the response their children received to their needs during the COVID-19 crisis. During the period of the spring 2020 lockdown, 414 parents in the province of Quebec, Canada, completed an online questionnaire about the impact of the crisis on the response their children received to their needs.
A child's right to protection during the COVID -19 crisis: an exploratory study of the Child Protective Services of Estonia

AUTHOR(S)
Karmen Toros; Asgeir Falch-Erikse

Published: October 2020   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
In this article, we explore the pandemic’s impact on child protective services in Estonia and survey a representative sample of child protection workers (n = 81), asking three open-ended questions designed to explore child protection practice. These questions concern the impact on organisational design, the workers’ ability to conduct a diagnosis of a child’s care context, and what knowledge they could draw upon, as well as the decision itself.The overall findings indicate that the organisational design left practice unprepared; there was a general lack of ability to act upon referrals and also to conduct investigations to evaluate care contexts. Furthermore, there is a general lack of knowledge of how to deal with protective practices and conduct decision-making during crisis situations.
The effect of the Coronavirus (Covid -19) pandemic on health-related quality of life in children

AUTHOR(S)
Derya Adıbelli; Adem Sümen

Published: October 2020   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The study was conducted to examine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on health-related quality of life in children. The study was conducted with 597 children aged 7–13 and their parents using the online data collection tool via social media.
Association between physical activity and mood states of children and adolescents in social isolation during the COVID-19 epidemic

AUTHOR(S)
Xinxin Zhang; Wenfei Zhu; Sifan Kang (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
This study can help policymakers and healthcare professionals understand physical activity and mood states of Chinese children and adolescents during the epidemic. We should pay attention to the changes in physical activity levels and mood states of children and adolescents.
Estimating the immediate impact of the COVID-19 shock on parental attachment to the labor market and the double bind of mothers

AUTHOR(S)
Misty L. Heggeness

Published: October 2020   Journal: Review of Economics of the Household
This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 shock on parents’ labor supply during the initial stages of the pandemic. Using difference-in-difference estimation and monthly panel data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), I compare labor market attachment, non-work activity, hours worked, and earnings and wages of those in areas with early school closures and stay-in-place orders with those in areas with delayed or no pandemic closures. While there was no immediate impact on detachment or unemployment, mothers with jobs in early closure states were 68.8 percent more likely than mothers in late closure states to have a job but not be working as a result of early shutdowns. There was no effect on working fathers or working women without school age children. Mothers who continued working increased their work hours relative to comparable fathers; this effect, however, appears entirely driven by a reduction in fathers’ hours worked. Overall, the pandemic appears to have induced a unique immediate juggling act for working parents of school age children. Mothers took a week of leave from formal work; fathers working full time, for example, reduced their hours worked by 0.53 hours over the week. While experiences were different for mothers and fathers, each are vulnerable to scarring and stunted opportunities for career growth and advancement due to the pandemic.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.