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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 45
Effect of outreach messages on adolescent well child visits and COVID-19 vaccine rates: an RCT

AUTHOR(S)
Mary Carol Burkhardt; Anne E. Berset; Yingying Xu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
To determine effectiveness of text/telephone outreach messages, with and without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine information. We conducted an intent-to-treat, multiarm, randomized clinical trial with adolescents aged 12-17 years. Eligible patients did not have an adolescent well-care visit in the past year or scheduled in the next 45 days or an active electronic health record portal account. We randomized participants to the standard message, COVID-19 vaccine message, or no message (control) group and delivered 2 text messages or telephone calls (per family preference) to the message groups. The primary outcome was adolescent well-care visit completion within 8 weeks, and secondary outcomes were adolescent well-care visit scheduled within 2 weeks and receiving COVID-19 vaccine within 8 weeks.
Public health communication: Attitudes, experiences, and lessons learned from users of a COVID-19 digital triage tool for children

AUTHOR(S)
Janet Michel; Julia Rehsmann; Annette Mettler (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The pandemic has made public health communication even more daunting because acceptance and implementation of official guidelines and recommendations hinge on this. The situation becomes even more precarious when children are involved. Our child-specific COVID-19 online forward triage tool (OFTT) revealed some of the public health communication challenges. This study aimed to explore attitudes, experiences, and challenges faced by OFTT users and their families, in regard to public health recommendations. It selected key informants (n = 20) from a population of parents, teachers, guardians, as well as doctors who had used the child-specific COVID-19 OFTT and had consented to a further study. Videos rather than face-face interviews were held. Convenience and quota sampling were performed to include a variety of key informants. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for themes.

Family attitudes toward the use of technological devices by children during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Esra Tural Büyük; Hatice Uzsen; Merve Koyun

Published: July 2022   Journal: Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions
This study aimed to find out the technological device using behaviors of the children and the attitudes of their families regarding this during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The study was a descriptive research composed of the mothers of 0- to 18-year-old children who were contacted through social media. Descriptive statistics of data were carried out with frequency and percentage distribution based on the demographic characteristics of the mothers. The mean age of the parents included in the study was found to be 35 ± 7 years; 89.1% were females and 31% were secondary school graduates.
The effect of online education on knowledge about Covid-19 masks in high school students in Jakarta: a pre-experiment study

AUTHOR(S)
Kholis Ernawati Ernawati; Fathul Jannah; Faras Qodriyyah Sani (et al.)

Published: July 2022
One way to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus is to wear a mask in public. The purpose of the research is online education with videos and their influence on knowledge of the use of masks and how to dispose of them as an effort to prevent the transmission of COVID-19. The research design was a pre-experiment with one group pre-test and post-test design. A pre-test was carried out in the study, then counseling with video media, a question-and-answer session, and a post-test. Respondents were high school students in Jakarta with a sample size of 50 people taken by quota sampling. Data collection techniques used google form and intervention with videos shared online via Whatsapp in July 2020. Analyze data with mean difference test.
How to tell the kids? Parental crisis communication during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Doreen Reifegerste; Claudia Wilhelm; Claudia Riesmeyer

Published: June 2022   Journal: Studies in Communication Sciences
Crisis communication in a pandemic is challenging for parents, who have to explain risks and prevention measures to their children without transferring their own worries. Studies about crises indicate, that inappropriate crisis communication with children can ignite fears, worries, and even trauma among them. Recommended parental communication strategies in such situations are: (1) to consider developmental level to ensure comprehensibility; (2) to address age-related concerns; and (3) to use naturally occurring situations to talk about the crisis. However, the application of such strategies during a world-wide crisis is not known yet. Thus, this study analyzed how parents explained their children the COVID-19 pandemic, which media they used, and which situations they employed.
The role of family communication: family health and welfare during pandemic covid

AUTHOR(S)
Maulana Rezi Ramadhan; Dewi Kurniasih Soedarsono; Retno Setyorini

Published: June 2022   Journal: Jurnal Kajian Komunikasi

The Covid-19 pandemic causes psychological stress, such as fear and anxiety, and requires exceptional recovery. Such conditions can lead to mental disorders and the risk of developing physical health even in a healthy person without a medical history. The purpose of this study was to find a theoretical model of the  relationship between family communication, physical resilience, and family economic well-being, to describe  the role of the family in maintaining family health during the pandemic, and describe the role of the family in maintaining family economic well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study uses a quantitative method with a descriptive and correlational approach. The population in Rancatungku Village, Bandung Regency, West Java Province, is an area affected by COVID-19, with a total sample of 420 respondents.

"Cover your mouth and nose": communication about health protection behaviors by role models in YouTube COVID-19 videos for children

AUTHOR(S)
Jocelyn Steinke; Carolyn A. Lin; Tamia Duncan (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: JCOM
YouTube videos offer a potentially useful vehicle for the communication of science, health, and medical information about COVID-19 to children. Findings from this research showed that primary characters appearing in children’s educational YouTube videos about COVID-19 were most often adults, with about an equal number of men and women and few characters from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. Primary characters frequently demonstrated and modeled protective health measures. Adult expert characters (medical professionals and scientists) appeared to some extent in these videos. Directive discourse frames appeared most frequently, followed by the informative and persuasive discourse frames when communicating scientific and health information. Changes in the use of informative, directive, and persuasive frames before and after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) announced guidelines on how to communicate about COVID-19 with children are explored
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 21 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 38 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, communication, COVID-19 response, health services, lockdown, new media, social distance | Countries: United States
Empowering parents to protect children during COVID-19 with message strategy based on efficacy, threat levels, and channel preferences

AUTHOR(S)
Sejin Park; Elizabeth Johnson Avery

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Health Communication

A national survey (n = 500) was administered in March 2020 at the peak of COVID-19 uncertainty to access parents’ perceived abilities to protect children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the threat/efficacy matrix in Witte’s (1992) extended parallel processing model (EPPM), parents’ behavioral intentions to protect children from coronavirus and their perceived COVID-19 knowledge levels are examined based on their positions within the matrix.

Using community–academic partnerships and a creative excpression contest to engage youth in the development of communication materials for promoting behaviors that prevent COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jacob Szeszulski; Ghadir Helal Salsa; Paula Cuccaro (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Health Promotion Practice
Youth can transmit COVID-19 to adults, but few communication materials exist for engaging youth in COVID-19 prevention behaviors. This study describes the process of leveraging a community–academic partnership in a rapid response initiative to engage youth in a contest (i.e., Youth-Led Creative Expression Contest to Prevent COVID-19 across Texas) to develop creative public health messaging centered on the prevention of COVID-19 transmission and infection for their peers. Core activities included developing a request for applications that solicited submission of creative expression materials promoting the use of COVID-19 prevention behaviors (mask-wearing, social distancing, handwashing, not touching the face) from Texas youth in elementary, middle, and/or high school; sending the request for applications to 48 organizations in Austin, Brownsville, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, and San Antonio in summer 2020; and recruiting a youth advisory board to score submissions and award prizes.
Super-spreaders or victims of circumstance? Childhood in Canadian media reporting of the COVID-19 pandemic: a critical content analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Ciotti; Shannon A. Moore; Maureen Connolly (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Healthcare
This qualitative research study, a critical content analysis, explores Canadian media reporting of childhood in Canada during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Popular media plays an important role in representing and perpetuating the dominant social discourse in highly literate societies. In Canadian media, the effects of the pandemic on children and adolescents’ health and wellbeing are overshadowed by discussions of the potential risk they pose to adults. The results of this empirical research highlight how young people in Canada have been uniquely impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic. Two dominant narratives emerged from the data: children were presented “as a risk” to vulnerable persons and older adults and “at risk” of adverse health outcomes from contracting COVID-19 and from pandemic lockdown restrictions. This reflects how childhood was constructed in Canadian society during the pandemic, particularly how children’s experiences are described in relation to adults. Throughout the pandemic, media reports emphasized the role of young people’s compliance with public health measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and save the lives of older persons.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, communication, COVID-19 response, disease control, information, lockdown, media, social distance | Countries: Canada
The impact of a messaging intervention on parents’ school hesitancy during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Morgan S. Polikoff; Daniel Silver; Marshall Garland (et al.)

Published: January 2022
During the 2020-21 school year, families' access to--and desire to participate in--in-person schooling was highly stratified along racial and income lines. Research to date suggests that "school hesitancy" was driven by concerns about "fit" and safety, as well as simple access to in-person opportunities. In the context of a nationally-representative survey study, we tested the impact of targeted messaging on parents' reported willingness to send their children back for in-person learning in the 2021-22 school year. This study's results suggest that specific messages focused on either fit or safety issues outperform generic messages--they substantially increase the reported likelihood for previously-unsure parents to send their children back for in-person learning (while having no effect on parents who already reported they would or would not send their children back). The results have direct implications for education agencies seeking to address school hesitancy as the pandemic continues.
Preparing for the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of youth

AUTHOR(S)
Eileen R. O’Shea; Kathryn E. Phillips; Kathleen N. O’Shea (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: NASN School Nurse
The COVID-19 pandemic is continuing to have long-term and global effects that the vaccine may not ease. Children and adolescents endured unprecedented periods of loneliness, social isolation, financial stressors, in-home conflicts, changes in living circumstances, and variable access to healthcare, resulting in increased mental health sequelae. Timely recognition of students’ anxiety, depression, and disruptive behaviors will allow appropriate interventions to de-escalate these feelings and prevent suicidal ideations and attempts. As youth return to school, their mental health needs will not subside. School nurses and the multidisciplinary team have a vital role in impacting this population’s already surging increase of mental and behavioral health disorders.
Finding home in online community: exploring TikTok as a support for gender and sexual minority youth throughout COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Alexa Hiebert; Kathy Kortes-Miller

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of LGBT Youth
In March 2020, with the global number of COVID-19 cases on the rise, many people were advised to stay at home and leave only for necessities. Across the globe, people were on lockdown. Very little is known about how this period of quarantine due to the pandemic has impacted the lives of gender and sexual minority youth. Between February and June of 2020, TikTok—a short- video sharing platform—was the most downloaded social media app. The purpose of this study was to use a digital ethnographic approach on TikTok to explore the experiences of gender and sexual minority youth during COVID-19. Thematic analysis of the data collected resulted in an overarching theme of TikTok as a supportive community. Additionally, four sub themes were examined including support with family relationships, identity formation, community and belonging and sharing knowledge and information. This study demonstrates the need for further research into gender and sexual minority youth social media cultures and highlights the resilience and resourcefulness of gender and sexual minority youth when faced with unprecedented circumstances.
The Changing childhood project: a multigenerational, international survey on 21st century childhood
Institution: *UNICEF, Gallup
Published: November 2021

We are living through an era of rapid and far-reaching transformation. As the world has changed — becoming more digital, more globalized, and more diverse — childhood is changing with it. The Changing Childhood Project — a collaboration of UNICEF and Gallup — was created to explore these shifts, and to better understand what it means to be a child in the 21st century. The project seeks to answer two questions: What is it like growing up today? And how do young people see the world differently? To answer these questions, we wanted to hear from children and young people themselves. Comparing the experiences and views of young versus older people offers a powerful lens to explore how childhood is changing, and where generations diverge or converge. The ultimate goal of the project is to centre young people — their experiences and perspectives — in the work of improving life for all children, today and into the future.

How children in Sweden accessed and perceived information during the first phase of the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lise-Lott Rydström; Charlotte Ångström-Brännström; Lucy Blake (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health

This study aims to describe how children in Sweden accessed and perceived information about SARS-CoV2 and Covid-19 during the first phase of the outbreak. This study is a substudy of an international cross-sectional online mixed methods survey examining elements of children’s health literacy in relation to Covid-19. The survey included multiple-choice questions, open-ended questions and drawings and collected information from 50 Swedish children (7–12 years). Data were analysed concurrently on a descriptive level using statistics and content analysis. Quantitative and qualitative data, including the drawings, were considered equally important and resulted in six categories, illuminating how children accessed and perceived information about the pandemic.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.