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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Incidence, severity, and presentation of type 2 diabetes in youth during the first and second year of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Sabitha Sasidharan Pillai; Phinnara Has; Jose Bernardo Quintos (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Diabetes Care

This study aims to describe the evolving impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the incidence and presentation of new-onset pediatric type 2 diabetes. Retrospective medical record review of youth with new-onset type 2 diabetes comparing the prepandemic period (1 January 2017–29 February 2020) with the first (1 March 2020–31 December 2020) and second pandemic year (1 January 2021–31 December 2021) were conducted.

Access to healthcare for children and adolescents with a chronic health condition during the COVID-19 pandemic: first results from the KICK-COVID study in Germany

Julia M. Göldel; Clemens Kamrath; Kirsten Minden (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
This study examines the access to healthcare for children and adolescents with three common chronic diseases (type-1 diabetes (T1D), obesity, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)) within the 4th (Delta), 5th (Omicron), and beginning of the 6th (Omicron) wave (June 2021 until July 2022) of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany in a cross-sectional study using three national patient registries. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was given to parents of pediatric patients (<21 years) during the routine check-ups. The questionnaire contains self-constructed items assessing the frequency of healthcare appointments and cancellations, remote healthcare, and satisfaction with healthcare. In total, 905 parents participated in the T1D-sample, 175 in the obesity-sample, and 786 in the JIA-sample. In general, satisfaction with healthcare (scale: 0–10; 10 reflecting the highest satisfaction) was quite high (median values: T1D 10, JIA 10, obesity 8.5). The proportion of children and adolescents with canceled appointments was relatively small (T1D 14.1%, JIA 11.1%, obesity 20%), with a median of 1 missed appointment, respectively. Only a few parents (T1D 8.6%; obesity 13.1%; JIA 5%) reported obstacles regarding health services during the pandemic. To conclude, it seems that access to healthcare was largely preserved for children and adolescents with chronic health conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: care of disabled children, COVID-19 response, diabetes, disabled children, health care, lockdown, obesity, social distance | Countries: Germany
Behavioral problems among type 1 diabetes mellitus children with good and poor metabolic control during COVID-19 pandemic

Nur Rochmah; Luh Ayu Asri Wijani; Muhammad Faizi (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal Of Comprehensive Pediatrics

Children with type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) often experience emotional and behavioral problems such as anxiety and depression. Social restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic caused social restrictions and limited access to healthcare facilities, which may have worsened the metabolic control. This study aimed to analyze the behavioral problems among type 1 diabetes mellitus children with good and poor metabolic control during COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted in January - August 2021 in the Endocrine Outpatient Clinic of General Hospital Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. Type-1-DM children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were divided into two groups based on metabolic control, including good (HbA1C ≤ 8) and poor (HbA1C > 8). The Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 (PSC-17) was used as a screening tool with the domain internalizing problems (IP), externalizing problems (EP), and attention problems (AP). The data were analyzed using Pearson or Spearman test with Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) version 18.0.

The incidence and causes of acute hospitalizations and emergency room visits in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a single-centre experience

Zuzanna Nowak; Jakub Gawlik; Anna Wędrychowicz (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood. Because acute glycaemic com-plications account for most concerns in the management of T1DM in children, special attention during the challenging time of the global COVID-19 pandemic is required to prevent deteriorations resulting in acute hospitalization. Aim of the study is to assess how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the incidence and causes of acute hospitalizations and emergency room visits in adolescents with established type 1 diabetes mellitus, and to characterize the admitted population. The study was conducted as a retrospective evaluation of acute hospitalizations of 39 T1DM patients between 15 and 17 years of age in the period 2018-2021.

Psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in racially/ethnically diverse youth with diabetes

Jessica M. Valenzuela; Karen Dimentstein; Shanique Yee (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

This study examined caregiver perceived impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on a diverse sample of U.S. youth with diabetes and their families. Caregivers of youth with diabetes completed an electronic survey in English or Spanish at two sites. Participants provided demographic and disease characteristics and completed the COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Scales (CEFIS). Glycemic health was assessed via Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from medical chart review. Analysis of variance and analyses of covariance were utilized to examine racial/ethnic differences in glycemic health and in COVID-19 Exposure, Impact, and Distress scales. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to predict HbA1c. Thematic analysis was conducted on open-ended responses regarding the effects of COVID-19 on youth and families’ overall and diabetes-related well-being.

COVID-19 and diabetes in children

Sara Prosperi; Francesco Chiarelli

Published: September 2022   Journal: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
This review describes the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and adolescents, investigating changes in diabetes presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic, possible links between severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and diabetes, and mechanisms of pancreatic β-cell destruction. Although glycemic control in individuals with already known diabetes mellitus did not worsen during the pandemic, there was a worrying increase in diabetic ketoacidosis in children with new-onset diabetes, probably due to containment measures and delayed access to emergency departments. Moreover, new evidence suggests that SARS-CoV-2 has the capacity to directly and indirectly induce pancreatic β-cell destruction, and the risk of newly diagnosed diabetes after COVID-19 increased in both children and adults. While long-term studies continue to follow children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, this review discusses available findings on the relationship between COVID-19 and diabetes. It is important to emphasize the need to maintain close links between families of children with chronic conditions and their pediatricians, as well as to promote early access to healthcare services, in order to reduce dangerous delays in diabetes diagnosis and prevent diabetic ketoacidosis.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | No. of pages: 157-168 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, diabetes, health services, lockdown, social distance
Quality of life and psychological burden of parents of children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study during the lockdown period of COVID-19

Nikolaos Rikos; Andreas Mpalaskas; Maria Fragiadaki (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Nursing Reports
The current study aimed to investigate how parents of children, adolescents, and young adults with DM1 perceived quality of life and psychological burden during the lockdown period of COVID-19. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 110 parents in Greece in spring 2021. Perceived quality of life was measured using the Parent Diabetes Distress Scale, and psychological burden was measured using the Spielberger State/Trait Anxiety Inventory, and both were assessed with correlational analysis.
Psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic for adolescents with type-1-diabetes: a qualitative interview study involving adolescents and parents

Michael Zeiler; Tanja Wittek; Theres Graf (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Behavioral Medicine
This study aims to investigate the psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents with type-1-diabetes (T1D). We conducted 18 semi-structured interviews including adolescents with T1D (n = 10, 50% female, 15-18 years) and their parents (n = 8, 88% mothers). The main topics addressed were experiences during confinement regarding everyday life, lifestyle behaviors, diabetes management and treatment.
Healthy lifestyle gone bad: effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the daily habits of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Giovana B. de Oliveira; Janine Alessi; Isadora Nunes Erthal (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism

This study aims to assess caregivers’ perception about the changes in the daily habits of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Primary caregivers of youth aged ≤18 with or without type 1 diabetes were selected for the diabetes and the control groups. Caregivers estimated the youth’s time (hours) of physical activity and screen time before and during the pandemic, and rated the quality of eating habits and medication adherence from 0 to 10. The primary outcome was the change in physical activity time, screen time, and eating habits scores during isolation. Between-group analyses and within-group comparisons were conducted. A post hoc analysis was performed using logistic regression to correct for confounding factors.

Changes in type 2 diabetes trends in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jessica A. Schmitt; Ambika P. Ashraf; David J. Becker (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

There is concern that the growing incidence of pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) may have been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. To examine whether trends in new-onset pediatric T2D—inclusive of patients requiring hospitalization and patients managed as outpatients—were impacted during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to compare patient characteristics prior to and during COVID-19. A retrospective single-center medical record review was conducted in a hospital which cares for 90% of Alabama’s pediatric T2D patients. Patients with new-onset T2D referred from March 2017 to March 2021 were included. Counts of patients presenting per month (“monthly rates”) were computed. Linear regression models were estimated for the full sample and stratified by Medicaid and non-Medicaid insurance status. Patient characteristics prior to vs during COVID-19 were compared.

Risk factors for COVID-19-related mortality in hospitalized children and adolescents with diabetes mellitus: an observational retrospective cohort study

Eduardo A. Oliveira; Robert H. Mak; Enrico A. Colosimo (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Pediatric Diabetes

Diabetes has been recognized as a major comorbidity for COVID-19 severity in adults. This study aimed to characterize the clinical outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19-related death in a large cohort of hospitalized pediatric patients with diabetes. It performed an analysis of all pediatric patients with diabetes and COVID-19 registered in SIVEP-Gripe, a Brazilian nationwide surveillance database, between February 2020 and May 2021. The primary outcome was time to death, which was evaluated considering discharge as a competitive risk by using cumulative incidence function.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 23 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, diabetes, hospitalization, infectious disease, mortality rate, pandemic | Countries: Brazil
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on management of children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

Abha Choudhary; Soumya Adhikari; Perrin C. White

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had widespread impacts on the lives of parents and children. This study determined how the pandemic affected Type 1 diabetes patients at a large urban pediatric teaching hospital. It compared patient characteristics, glycemic control, PHQ-9 depression screen, in person and virtual outpatient encounters, hospitalizations and continuous glucose monitor (CGM) utilization in approximately 1600 patients in 1 year periods preceding and following the local imposition of COVID-related restrictions on 3/15/2020 (“2019” and “2020” groups, respectively).

COVID-19 vaccination in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes: glycemic control and side effects

Barbara Piccini; Benedetta Pessina; Francesco Pezzoli (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Pediatric diabetes

Two vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) for minors aged 12 years and over. Currently, people with both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are prioritized for vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate possible glycemic control modification, insulin dose adjustment and adverse effects after COVID-19 vaccination in young T1D individuals, users of different technology levels. 39 T1D individuals, who received a whole vaccination cycle of either Moderna or Pfizer- BioNTech vaccines, were enrolled, 24 of whom using advanced hybrid closed loop systems (AHCLs) and 15 using intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM). Symptoms after each dose and the following variables were considered: time in range 70-180 mg/dl (TIR), time in different glucose ranges, mean glucose levels, coefficient of variation (CV), total daily dose (TDD) and bolus proportion.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents of children with type 1 diabetes during Covid-19 pandemic

C. Carducci; N. Rapini; A. Deodati (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a group of persistent psychological and physiological symptoms due to a traumatic, severe, event. Only few studies focused on the effects of Covid-19 on psychosocial outcomes in children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and their parents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence PTSD in parents of children with T1D during COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. In the period between March and May 2020 we submitted the “Impact of Event Scale – Revised” (IES-R) questionnaire to the parents of 34 children with Type 1 Diabetes, asking them to express their emotions about the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic.

Predictors of mood, diabetes-specific and COVID-19-specific experiences among parents of early school-age children with type 1 diabetes during initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic

Christine H. Wang; Marisa E. Hilliard; Samantha A. Carreon (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Publishing Open Access? Your fees may be covered OA agreements Pediatric Diabetes
The current study explored pre-pandemic sociodemographics, medical characteristics, social/family support, and mood symptoms, and current COVID-19 experiences as predictors of mood, positive/negative diabetes-specific experiences, and COVID-19-specific distress among parents of children with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic. It hypothesized that parents from marginalized backgrounds, youth with higher pre-pandemic A1c and no CGM use, parents with lower pre-pandemic social/family support and more pre-pandemic mood/anxiety symptoms, and those with more negative COVID-19 experiences would have more depressive symptoms, fewer positive and more negative diabetes-specific experiences, and more COVID-19-specific distress during the initial months of the pandemic.
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