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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Changes in utilization and access to care for children and youth with special health care needs during the COVID-19 pandemic

Kristin Hittle Gigli; Genevieve Graaf

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) are vulnerable to health care disruption, and policies were adopted to mitigate COVID-19-related disruptions. This study compared CYSHCN use of and access to care in 2019 to 2020. Using the National Survey of Children's Health, it identified CYSHCN and assessed differences in health care use, unmet health care needs, frustrations accessing care, and barriers to care using multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Parents of children with congenital heart defects during the COVID-19 pandemic: an examination of mental health variables, risk factors, and protective factors

Kayla Harvey

Published: September 2022   Journal: Heart & Lung: The Journal of Cardiopulmonary and Acute Care
Little is known about the mental health burden or the factors that contribute to mental health variables in parents of children with congenital heart defects (CHD) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine risk and protective factors associated with anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and perceived stress in parents of young children with CHD during the COVID-19 pandemic. A nonexperimental design was used in this study of 127 parents of children aged newborn to five years with CHD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between COVID-19 stressors, CHD care-related factors, parental resilience, external support, and mental health variables.
The refinement of home exercise program for children and adolescents with muscular dystrophy in the present COVID-19 pandemic scenario: a scoping review

Pallavi Harjpal; Rakesh K. Kovela; Anushka Raipure (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Cureus
Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are a category of hereditary illnesses characterized by the gradual malfunction and/or weakening of the skeletal muscles. This disease of the muscles also results in hypotonia and joint contracture, along with raised serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. To prevent complications, continuous physiotherapy is advised for children with muscular dystrophy, which is even asked to perform at home as a home exercise program (HEP). As a result, the home exercise program (HEP) is critical in maintaining the optimal health of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The present coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has adversely affected these children as there was very little scope to get direct help from a physiotherapist. Meanwhile, the home program was continued by many to compensate for the direct benefit. However, because of the lack of specific guidelines and structured methodology to follow for a home program, there was a deterioration in the health status of many children. There is a need to understand how the children are getting affected and the way the home program can be refined to help needy children with muscular dystrophy. Our scoping review aims to identify the present home program patterns being followed for children with DMD and their scope for refinement. The data were collected from electronic databases including PubMed, ProQuest, Cochrane, and Web of Science.
Psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in racially/ethnically diverse youth with diabetes

Jessica M. Valenzuela; Karen Dimentstein; Shanique Yee (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

This study examined caregiver perceived impact of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on a diverse sample of U.S. youth with diabetes and their families. Caregivers of youth with diabetes completed an electronic survey in English or Spanish at two sites. Participants provided demographic and disease characteristics and completed the COVID-19 Exposure and Family Impact Scales (CEFIS). Glycemic health was assessed via Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from medical chart review. Analysis of variance and analyses of covariance were utilized to examine racial/ethnic differences in glycemic health and in COVID-19 Exposure, Impact, and Distress scales. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to predict HbA1c. Thematic analysis was conducted on open-ended responses regarding the effects of COVID-19 on youth and families’ overall and diabetes-related well-being.

COVID-19 history increases the anxiety of mothers with children in intensive care during the pandemic in Turkey

Eren Yildiz; Zuhal Koc Apaydin; Berna Alay (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Children
This study aimed to examine the mental status of mothers whose children were hospitalized during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in places where risk factors are higher such as pediatric intensive care units, and to contribute to the development of psychological health policies, especially for these high-risk groups in epidemic situations. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2021 and July 2021. The population of the study was mothers whose children were hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit during the study period. Data collection was carried out via a face-to-face interview method by experienced nurses working in pediatric clinics using a sociodemographic data form, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Fear of COVID-19 Inventory, and the Coronavirus Anxiety Inventory.
Rural parent and elementary school student resilience to COVID-19: disability status and parental predictors of change

Suzannah B. Chatlos; Preeti G. Samudra; Jillian M. Magoon (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: School Psychology International
Little is known about how the COVID-19 pandemic relates to child and parent functioning in a rural population. The present study investigated how disability status and parent factors related to resilience in a rural population before and after the shift to remote instruction. Parents of elementary-aged children in a rural area of the U.S. completed an online questionnaire, rating their own functioning and their child's academic, cognitive, and socioemotional functioning (1) retrospectively thinking back to a month before the pandemic, and (2) at the time of the survey, approximately four months after the onset of pandemic changes.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in parents of infants with colic and on health care use

Karola de Graaf; Robin Hartjes; Claudia Barbian (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

This study aims to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of parents of infants with colic and on healthcare use. It is a retrospective cohort study. Data of 64 parents of infants with colic prepandemic and 43 parents of infants with colic during the pandemic were analysed using validated questionnaires on parental stress, depression and anxiety.

Psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and their families

Nur Berna Çelik; Yağmur Ünsal; Dicle Canoruç Emet (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Turkish Archives of Pediatrics

This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial impact of the pandemic in pediatric patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and their families and whether congenital adrenal hyperplasia imposes an additional burden compared to other endocrine disorders. Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (n = 38) and congenital hypothyroidism (n = 41) and their families were enrolled in the prospective longitudinal survey study. Questionnaires that were completed remotely in June 2020 and in July 2021 included Depression Anxiety Stress Scale short form, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, and purpose-built daily routine, parent, and child COVID information scores, factors affecting drug usage, and parents’ thoughts about the pandemic. At the end of 1 year, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale short form and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were repeated in the congenital adrenal hyperplasia group and they were questioned about the incidence and severity of coronavirus infection.

Observational study of the impact of COVID-19 on sleep in children with and without special educational needs

Heather Elphick; Philippa Howsley; Nathaniel Mills (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Aims and Scope > About > Aims and Scope Journal of Sleep Medicine
Children and young people (CYP) with special educational needs (SEN) are more likely to experience disturbed sleep and poor mental wellbeing. This study explored the differential impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the sleep and mental wellbeing of CYP with and without SEN. The National Institute of Health Research Children and Young People MedTech Cooperative, Sheffield Children’s National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, and The Sleep Charity carried out an online survey between June 23, 2020, and August 17, 2020. The 77-item survey was shared on social media platforms.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with medical complexity

Catherine Diskin; Francine Buchanan; Eyal Cohen (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

Descriptions of the COVID-19 pandemic’s indirect consequences on children are emerging. This study aimed to describe the impacts of the pandemic on children with medical complexity (CMC) and their families. It is a one-time survey of Canadian paediatricians using the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP) was conducted in Spring 2021.

Parental decision and intent towards COVID-19 vaccination in children with asthma: an econometric analysis

Olivier Drouin; Pierre Fontaine; Yann Arnaud (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Vaccination will be instrumental in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic, and vaccination of children will be necessary to achieve herd immunity. Given that children with chronic health conditions may be at increased risk of COVID-19, it is crucial to understand factors influencing parental decisions about whether to have their child vaccinated. The study objectives were to measure parental intent to have their child with asthma vaccinated against COVID-19 and identify the determinants of their vaccination decision. This study is based on a cross-sectional exploratory observational online survey assessing parents' risk perception in the context of COVID-19.

Comparing parental distress and children's difficulties between parents of children with rheumatic diseases and parents of healthy children in families facing the COVID-19 pandemic

Sonia M. Bramanti; Valerio Manippa; Alessandra Babore (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Current Psychology
The COVID-19 pandemic could be a threat for the health status of children with a chronic condition. The present study aimed to explore parents’ and children’s psychological adjustment during the current pandemic, pursuing a triple objective: to compare the psychological adjustment of parents of children with pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRDs) and parents of healthy children; to analyze children’s psychological symptoms (emotional problems and hyperactivity) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and with or without a PRDs diagnosis; to explore the associations of children’s emotional problems and hyperactivity with parents’ psychological adjustment, parent–child interactions and belonging or not to families with PRDs. This cross-sectional study involved 56 parents of children with PRDs and 53 parents of healthy children. Self-report questionnaires about parents’ depression, anxiety, parenting stress, and children’s emotional symptoms and hyperactivity-inattention were administered.
When daily challenges become too much during COVID-19: Implications of family and work demands for work-life balance among parents of children with special needs

Charles Calderwood; Rosanna Breaux; Lieke L. ten Brummelhuis (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Working parents of children with special needs (i.e., emotional, behavioral, and/or learning difficulties) face recurrent stressors that can make balancing work and family demands difficult. This strain has been magnified during the COVID-19 pandemic, as these parents often need to take on greater responsibility in supporting their children’s remote learning, while still meeting their own job-related responsibilities. Accordingly, working parents of special needs children may be particularly vulnerable to adverse outcomes stemming from pandemic-induced changes to work (e.g., teleworking) and education (e.g., remote instruction). We sought to understand how daily family and work challenges influence satisfaction with work–life balance (WLB) in this priority population, with an emphasis on contextualizing this process through chronic job stress perceptions.
Parent support Is related to physical activity among children and youth with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic: findings from the National physical activity measurement (NPAM) study

Maeghan E. James; Nikoleta Odorico; Sarah A. Moore (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Disabilities
Physical activity (PA) among children and youth with disabilities (CYD) has been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Parent PA support and parent PA modelling (i.e., parents engaging in PA themselves) have been shown to be associated with PA in CYD. However, parents’ influence on the PA behaviours of CYD during the pandemic remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parent PA support and parent PA modelling (i.e., parent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA)) and the PA behaviours of CYD. It was hypothesized that higher levels of parent PA support and parent PA modelling would significantly relate to both child MVPA and child PA at any intensity. An online survey was sent to parents of CYD in November 2020 (i.e., during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada) that assessed the MVPA and total PA (any intensity), parent PA support (e.g., encouraging PA, providing transportation for PA), and parent MVPA. Separate linear regression models assessed the relationships between parent PA support and parent PA modelling with (a) child MVPA and (b) child PA at any intensity. Parent and child age, child gender and disability group, marital status, and household type were controlled for in all analyses.
Parent–teacher interactions during COVID-19: experiences of U.S. teachers of students with severe disabilities

Grace L. Francis; Alexandra R. Raines; Alexandra S. Reed (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Education Sciences
In 2020, COVID-19 disrupted all aspects of society across the globe including healthcare, employment, social interactions, and education. In many parts of the world, abrupt school closures caught teachers off guard, as they were forced to immediately shift their practices from in-person to online instruction with little-to-no preparation. Furthermore, during this time, many parents of school-aged children vacillated between multiple roles associated with their employment, household caregiving activities, and supporting their children at home. These challenges were especially challenging for teachers and parents of students with severe disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of U.S. teachers of students with severe disabilities regarding interacting with parents during the COVID-19 pandemic, including when schools initially closed in March 2020 and then reopened in September of 2020. This manuscript outlines six key themes highlighting parent–teacher interactions: (a) parents directing school decisions, (b) teacher inability to meet parent expectations, (c) parent–teacher communication, (d) parents as teachers, (e) parent exhaustion, and (f) teacher helplessness.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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