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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 93
Pediatric COVID-19 risk factors in Southeast Asia-Singapore and Malaysia: a test-negative case–control study

AUTHOR(S)
Judith Ju Ming Wong; Chin Seng Gan; Sanghvi Heli Kaushal (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene,

There is a scarcity of population-level data of pediatric COVID-19 infection from Southeast Asia. This study aims to describe and compare epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and outcome data among pediatric COVID-19 cases versus controls in two neighboring countries, Singapore and Malaysia. It used a test-negative case–control study design recruiting all suspected COVID-19 cases (defined by either clinical or epidemiological criteria) from January 2020to March 2021 admitted to two main pediatric centers in Singapore and Malaysia. Data were collected using a standardized registry (Pediatric Acute and Critical Care COVID-19 Registry of Asia).

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 106 | Issue: 4 | No. of pages: 1113–1120 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, health services, infectious disease, pandemic, respiratory diseases | Countries: Malaysia, Singapore
Using community–academic partnerships and a creative excpression contest to engage youth in the development of communication materials for promoting behaviors that prevent COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jacob Szeszulski; Ghadir Helal Salsa; Paula Cuccaro (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Health Promotion Practice
Youth can transmit COVID-19 to adults, but few communication materials exist for engaging youth in COVID-19 prevention behaviors. This study describes the process of leveraging a community–academic partnership in a rapid response initiative to engage youth in a contest (i.e., Youth-Led Creative Expression Contest to Prevent COVID-19 across Texas) to develop creative public health messaging centered on the prevention of COVID-19 transmission and infection for their peers. Core activities included developing a request for applications that solicited submission of creative expression materials promoting the use of COVID-19 prevention behaviors (mask-wearing, social distancing, handwashing, not touching the face) from Texas youth in elementary, middle, and/or high school; sending the request for applications to 48 organizations in Austin, Brownsville, Dallas, El Paso, Houston, and San Antonio in summer 2020; and recruiting a youth advisory board to score submissions and award prizes.
Super-spreaders or victims of circumstance? Childhood in Canadian media reporting of the COVID-19 pandemic: a critical content analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Ciotti; Shannon A. Moore; Maureen Connolly (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Healthcare
This qualitative research study, a critical content analysis, explores Canadian media reporting of childhood in Canada during the COVID-19 global pandemic. Popular media plays an important role in representing and perpetuating the dominant social discourse in highly literate societies. In Canadian media, the effects of the pandemic on children and adolescents’ health and wellbeing are overshadowed by discussions of the potential risk they pose to adults. The results of this empirical research highlight how young people in Canada have been uniquely impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic. Two dominant narratives emerged from the data: children were presented “as a risk” to vulnerable persons and older adults and “at risk” of adverse health outcomes from contracting COVID-19 and from pandemic lockdown restrictions. This reflects how childhood was constructed in Canadian society during the pandemic, particularly how children’s experiences are described in relation to adults. Throughout the pandemic, media reports emphasized the role of young people’s compliance with public health measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and save the lives of older persons.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, communication, COVID-19 response, disease control, information, lockdown, media, social distance | Countries: Canada
Hispanic race is a risk factor for COVID-19 during pregnancy: data from an urban New York City hospital

AUTHOR(S)
Deena Elkafrawi; Giovanni Sisti; Felipe Mercado (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

There are limited studies on predisposing factors for COVID-19 positivity in asymptomatic pregnant women. The literature published to date on asymptomatic COVID-19 pregnant carriers does not focus on pregnancy or pre-pregnancy comorbidities. This study wanted to identify risk factors for COVID-19 in asymptomatic pregnant women. It performed a retrospective chart review of 263 asymptomatic pregnant women admitted to labour and delivery at New York City Health + Hospitals/Lincoln. It analysed the association between race, body mass index (BMI), smoking, indication for admission, gravidity, parity, pre-pregnancy comorbidity, pregnancy comorbidity via uni- and multivariate statistical tests. Only Hispanic race was significant in the univariate analysis (p = .049). At the post-hoc analysis, Hispanics had a higher proportion of COVID-19 cases compared to non-Hispanic Blacks (p = .019). No variables were significantly associated with COVID-19 positivity in the multivariate analysis.

COVID-19 testing among US children, parental preferences for testing venues, and acceptability of school-based testing

AUTHOR(S)
Chloe A. Teasdale; Luisa N. Borrell; Yanhan Shen (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Public health reports

Testing remains critical for identifying pediatric cases of COVID-19 and as a public health intervention to contain infections. This study surveyed US parents to measure the proportion of children tested for COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic, preferred testing venues for children, and acceptability of school-based COVID-19 testing. It conducted an online survey of 2074 US parents of children aged ≤12 years in March 2021. It applied survey weights to generate national estimates, and it used Rao-Scott adjusted Pearson χ2 tests to compare incidence by selected sociodemographic characteristics. It used Poisson regression models with robust SEs to estimate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) of pediatric testing.

Adults’ acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine for children in selected lower- and middle-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
Suzanna Awang Bono; Ching Sin Siau; Won Sun Chen (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Vaccines
Since emergency approval of COVID-19 vaccines for children aged between 12 and 15 years old was recently obtained in the United States and Europe, we aimed to assess the willingness to vaccinate children with a COVID-19 vaccine in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, we launched an online cross-sectional survey in several LMICs. Questions relating to socio-demographic information, knowledge of COVID-19, level of fear/worry of being infected with COVID-19, and willingness to vaccinate children with the COVID-19 vaccine at 50%, 75% and 95% effectiveness levels, were asked. Of the 6571 participants (mean age = 39 ± 14 years), 64.0%, 72.6%, and 92.9% were willing to vaccinate children at 50%, 75%, and 95% effectiveness levels, respectively. Respondents who were undergraduates, who were more worried/fearful about COVID-19, had higher knowledge scores regarding COVID-19, and a higher belief that COVID-19 vaccination is important to protect others, were more willing to accept COVID-19 vaccination of children. COVID-19 vaccination of children will limit the spread of the virus, especially in schools; it may decrease the need for school closures which has a negative effect on child development.
A multi-method examination of ageism in children before and during the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jenny Bauer; Lena-Emilia Schenker; Jennifer Bellingtier

Published: December 2021   Journal: Innovation in Aging
The pandemic has made age more salient. Access to vaccines, mandates to wear masks, and recommendations for contact restrictions have all varied by age. Developmental intergroup theory proposes that greater salience of a feature can lead to greater stereotyping and prejudice. This study investigated this with a multi-method assessment of ageism in children (N = 57, ages 4-8), where data collection occurred both before and during the pandemic. In simulated behavioral measures, children preferred to sit closer to younger adults (mean distance = 1.8 seats) versus older adults (mean distance = 2.8 seats), and, for a simulated treasure hunt, they chose 3.36 younger, versus 1.63 older, teammates. Explicit (picture ratings) and implicit (IAT) ratings also significantly favored younger adults.
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children and young people in households and schools: a meta-analysis of population-based and contact-tracing studies

AUTHOR(S)
Russell Viner; Claire Waddington; Oliver Mytton (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection
The role of children and young people (CYP) in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in household and educational settings remains unclear. This study undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of contact-tracing and population-based studies at low risk of bias. It searched 4 electronic databases on 28 July 2021 for contact-tracing studies and population-based studies informative about transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from 0-19 year olds in household or educational settings. It excluded studies at high risk of bias, including from under-ascertainment of asymptomatic infections. It undertook multilevel random effects meta-analyses of secondary attack rates (SAR: contact-tracing studies) and school infection prevalence, and used meta-regression to examine the impact of community SARS-CoV-2 incidence on school infection prevalence.
Differences in pregnancy and perinatal outcomes among symptomatic versus asymptomatic COVID-19-infected pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Durray Shahwar A. Khan; La‑Raib Hamid; Anna Ali (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

There is dearth of information on COVID-19’s impact on pregnant women. However, literature reported trends of COVID-19 differ, depending on the presence of clinical features upon presentation. This systematic review aimed to assess differences in risk factors, management, complications, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. A search was run on electronic databases to identify studies reporting COVID-19 in pregnancy. Meta-analysis was performed and odds ratios and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Review Manager 5.4.

Persistent symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection among children and young people: a meta-analysis of controlled and uncontrolled studies

AUTHOR(S)
S. A. Behnood; R. Shafran; S. D. Bennett (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection
Data on the long-term impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and young people (CYP) is conflicting. This study assessed evidence on long-term post-COVID symptoms in CYP examining prevalence, risk factors, type and duration. It is a systematic search of published and unpublished literature using 13 online databases between 01/12/2019 – 31/07/2021. Eligible studies reported CYP ≤19 years with confirmed or probable SARS-CoV-2 with any symptoms persisting beyond acute illness. Random effects meta-analyses examined pooled risk difference in symptom prevalence (controlled studies only) and pooled prevalence (uncontrolled studies also included). Meta-regression examined study characteristics hypothesised to be associated with symptom prevalence.
Risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection in Brazilian children

AUTHOR(S)
Jordana Vaz Hendler; Patricia Miranda do Lago; Gabriel Cardozo Müller (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics and clinical outcome of children hospitalized with COVID-19 and identify the risk factors for severe disease. All hospital admissions of pediatric patients between March and December 2020 in the southern region of Brazil were reviewed and the patients positive for RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were identified. This region encompasses a population of over 2.8 million children and adolescents. Data were extracted from a national database that includes all cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome requiring hospitalization in Brazil.
Parents’ hesitation about getting their children vaccinated against COVID-19 in Japan

AUTHOR(S)
Takeshi Yoda; Hironobu Katsuyama

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Given the urgent global need for vaccinating individuals of all ages against the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the extent and reasons for parents’ willingness to get their children vaccinated is important. This study used an internet-based questionnaire survey to determine parents’ willingness to get their children (0 to 15 years) vaccinated in Japan and was conducted in April 2021 before COVID-19 vaccination for children began. Socio-demographic information, information about parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated, reasons for their responses, and parents’ willingness to get themselves vaccinated were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated based on the other variables.
Is symptom screening useful for identifying COVID-19 infection in school settings? Georgia, USA

AUTHOR(S)
Megan Swanson; Marisa Hast; Eleanor Burnett (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Journal of School Nursing
This study’s goal was to characterize the utility of symptom screening in staff and students for COVID-19 identification and control of transmission in a school setting. It conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data for staff, students and associated household members in a Georgia school district exposed to COVID-19 cases who received RT-PCR testing and symptom monitoring. Among positive contacts, 30/49 (61%) of students and 1/6 (17%) of staff reported no symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Symptom sensitivity was 30% in elementary students and 42% in middle/high students. Fifty-three percent (10/19) of symptomatic positive contacts had at least one household member test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with 50% (10/20) of asymptomatic positive contacts. The absence of symptoms in children is not indicative of a lack of SARS-CoV-2 infection or reduced risk of infection for associated household members. Testing all close contacts of people with COVID-19 in schools is needed to interrupt transmission networks.
Covid-19, children, clinical trials and compassion: the ethical case for using innovative or compassionate treatments.

AUTHOR(S)
V. Larcher; A. Caplan; J. Brierley

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Safe, effective SARS-CoV-2 treatment has not yet been determined, though some drugs have favourable mortality and morbidity benefits in specific situations. No treatments have been explicitly tested in children, who are, therefore, once again therapeutic orphans. We echo calls to enrol patients, including children, into trials but note children recruited to date have been additions to adult studies. Few were recruited during the initial pandemic despite the emergence of PIMS-TS/MIS-C, which surely demanding paediatric-specific research.

Prevalence and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with and without symptoms seeking care in Managua, Nicaragua: results of a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Jorge A. Huete-Pérez; Kacey C. Ernst; Cristiana Cabezas-Robelo (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aimed to capture key epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nicaraguan children (≤18 years) seeking medical care, between 6 October and 16 November 2020. In this cross-sectional study, 418 children were recruited: 319 with symptoms characteristic of COVID-19 and 99 with no symptoms of illness. Children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. A questionnaire was employed to identify symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities and COVID-19 prevention measures. Research was carried out in four hospitals and two clinics in Managua, Nicaragua, where schools and businesses remained open throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease | Countries: Nicaragua
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.