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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 66
Children’s role in the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review of early surveillance data on susceptibility, severity, and transmissibility

AUTHOR(S)
KatyA. M. Gaythorpe; Sangeeta Bhatia; Tara Mangal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in all age groups including infants, children, and adolescents. However, the role of children in the COVID-19 pandemic is still uncertain. This systematic review of early studies synthesises evidence on the susceptibility of children to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the severity and clinical outcomes in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 by children in the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Reviewers extracted data from relevant, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 4th 2020 during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak using a standardised form and assessed quality using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.
School openings and the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy: a provincial-level analysis using the synthetic control method

AUTHOR(S)
Vincenzo Alfano; Salvatore Ercolano; Lorenzo Cicatiello

Published: July 2021   Journal: Health Policy
Schools have been central in the debate about COVID-19. On the one hand, many have argued that they should be kept open, given their importance to youngsters and the future of the country, and the effort many countries have made in establishing protocols to keep them safe. On the other hand, it has been argued that open schools further the spread of the virus, given that these are places with large-scale interaction between teenagers and adults accompanying their children, as well as a major source of congestion on public transportation. This study aims to identify the effect of school openings on the spread of COVID-19 contagion. Italy offers an interesting quasi-experimental setting in this regard due to the scattered openings that schools have experienced. By means of a quantitative analysis, employing a synthetic control method approach, we find that Bolzano, the first province in Italy to open schools after the summer break, had far more cases than its synthetic counterfactual, built from a donor pool formed from the other Italian provinces. Results confirm the hypothesis that despite the precautions, opening schools causes an increase in the infection rate, and this must be taken into account by policymakers.
Sex differences in changes in BMI and blood pressure in Chinese school-aged children during the COVID-19 quarantine

AUTHOR(S)
Na Qiu; Hongmei He; Ling Qiao (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Obesity
There may be sex differences in BMI and blood pressure levels in school-age children, especially in the face of lifestyle changes. This study aimed to explore sex differences in changes in BMI and blood pressure in Chinese school-aged children during the COVID-19 quarantine. The cohort study of 445 school-aged children examined the change of BMI and blood pressure during the five-month quarantine. Multivariable Cox regression models were created to identify potential predictors of overweight, obesity, and elevated blood pressure (EBP).
Low in-school COVID-19 transmission and asymptomatic infection despite high community prevalence

AUTHOR(S)
Sophie E. Katz; Rendie McHenry; Lauren G. Mauer (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics

There is concern that in-person schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic will facilitate disease transmission. Through asymptomatic surveillance and contact tracing for SARS-CoV-2, we found low rates of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and little in-school transmission of COVID-19 when physical distancing and masking strategies were enforced, despite high community prevalence of COVID-19. Opening schools and keeping them open for in-person instruction during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been controversial. Some studies demonstrate minimal impact of in-person learning or school re-opening on community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and others show that transmission may be more common among children in school environments than in community settings. The role of asymptomatic children and faculty/staff in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the school setting is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic disease, asymptomatic infection and transmission in the school setting with strict mitigation strategies in place.


COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and its associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Southwest Ethiopia: institutional-based cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Ayenew Mose; Alex Yeshaneh

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of General Medicine
COVID-19 vaccination is a safe and effective approach to control the pandemic and to prevent its associated morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, there is no study conducted to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and its associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Southwest Ethiopia.
Characteristics of children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Indonesia

AUTHOR(S)
Amin Soebandrio; Tina Kusumaningrum; Frilasita A. Yudhaputri (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical Virology Plus

COVID‐19 in children poses a significant challenge due to the atypical/asymptomatic presentations. The study is aimed to help understand clinical characteristics in Indonesian children for better management and control of transmission. Clinical characteristics of children with confirmed COVID‐19 were retrospectively analysed from the database dating from March to November 2020.

Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 14 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission | Countries: Indonesia
Good knowledge but poor practice toward COVID-19 among Indonesian youth

AUTHOR(S)
Ahmad Fuady; Levina Chandra Khoe; Tiara Berliana Azzahra (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
COVID-19 cases have been increasing among young people as they are often considered to have low compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures. Given that challenge, there have been limited studies exploring this issue. Through a nationwide online survey, this study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward COVID-19 among Indonesian youth and potential interventions to improve their behavior.
COVID-19 in children and the effect of schools reopening on potential transmission to household members

AUTHOR(S)
Shirley Shapiro Ben David; Daniella Cohen; Diana Tasher (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
The effect of reopening schools on children's contribution to SARS-CoV-2 transmission, especially within households, remains controversial. This study describes the clinical presentation of a large ambulatory COVID-19 pediatric cohort and evaluates the role of children in household transmission prior to and following school reopening.
Understanding COVID-19: are children the key?

AUTHOR(S)
Suz Warner; Alex Richter; Zania Stamataki (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open
The devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global health and economic stability is immeasurable. The situation is dynamic and fast-evolving, with the world facing new variants of concern which may have immune escape potential. With threatened treatment and preventative strategies at stake, and the prospect of reinfection prolonging the pandemic, it is more crucial than ever to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which intriguingly disproportionately affects adults and the elderly. Children infected with SARS-CoV-2 remain largely asymptomatic or undergo a transient mild illness. Understanding why children have a milder phenotype and a significant survival advantage may help identify modifiable risk factors in adults.
Assessing School-based Policy actions for COVID-19: an agent-based analysis of incremental infection risk

AUTHOR(S)
Reyhaneh Zafarnejad; Paul M. Griffin

Published: May 2021   Journal: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Many schools and universities have seen a significant increase in the spread of COVID-19. As such, a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions have been proposed including distancing requirements, surveillance testing, and updating ventilation systems. Unfortunately, there is limited guidance for which policy or set of policies are most effective for a specific school system. This study develops a novel approach to model the spread of SARS-CoV-2 quanta in a closed classroom environment that extends traditional transmission models that assume uniform mixing through air recirculation by including the local spread of quanta from a contagious source. In addition, the behavior of students with respect to guideline compliance was modeled through an agent-based simulation.
Pregnancy and delivery considerations during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Jagan Devarajan; Eric Chiang; Kenneth C. Cummings

Published: May 2021   Journal: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicin
Pregnant women are also affected by COVID-19, with infection rates similar to nonpregnant women. Labor and delivery by a women with COVID-19 presents unique challenges for ensuring the safety of the mother, fetus, and newborn as well as the safety of clinicians and other healthcare personnel. This article presents perinatal obstetric anesthetic management strategies derived from the best available evidence to provide guidance in caring for the obstetric patient with COVID-19.
Comparison of clinical features on admission between coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza a among children: a retrospective study in China

AUTHOR(S)
Feng Liang; Xianfeng Wang; Jianbo Shao (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share similar symptoms with influenza A (IA), but it is more worthwhile to understand the disparities of the two infections regarding their clinical characteristics on admission. A total of 71 age-matched pediatric IA and COVID-19 patient pairs were formed and their clinical data on admission were compared.

Post-COVID-19 pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome: association of ethnicity, key worker and socioeconomic status with risk and severity

AUTHOR(S)
Jonathan Broad; Julia Forman; James Brighouse (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Patients from ethnic minority groups and key workers are over-represented among adults hospitalised or dying from COVID-19. In this population based retrospective cohort, we describe the association of ethnicity, socioeconomic and family key worker status with incidence and severity of Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally associated with SARSCoV-2 (PIMS-TS).
Effectiveness of isolation policies in schools: evidence from a mathematical model of influenza and COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Adam A. C. Burns; Alexander Gutfraind

Published: March 2021   Journal: Bioinformatics and Genomics
Non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing, school closures and travel restrictions are often implemented to control outbreaks of infectious diseases. For influenza in schools, the Center of Disease Control (CDC) recommends that febrile students remain isolated at home until they have been fever-free for at least one day and a related policy is recommended for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Other authors proposed using a school week of four or fewer days of in-person instruction for all students to reduce transmission. However, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of these interventions.
COVID-19 symptom surveillance in immunocompromised children and young people in the UK: a prospective observational cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Meera Shaunak; Ravin Patel; Corine Driessens (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMJ Open
This prospective observational cohort study aims to describe the frequency of symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised children and young people in the UK during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. To describe patient/ parent anxiety regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in this cohort.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.