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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 82
Parents’ hesitation about getting their children vaccinated against COVID-19 in Japan

AUTHOR(S)
Takeshi Yoda; Hironobu Katsuyama

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Given the urgent global need for vaccinating individuals of all ages against the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the extent and reasons for parents’ willingness to get their children vaccinated is important. This study used an internet-based questionnaire survey to determine parents’ willingness to get their children (0 to 15 years) vaccinated in Japan and was conducted in April 2021 before COVID-19 vaccination for children began. Socio-demographic information, information about parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated, reasons for their responses, and parents’ willingness to get themselves vaccinated were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated based on the other variables.
Is symptom screening useful for identifying COVID-19 infection in school settings? Georgia, USA

AUTHOR(S)
Megan Swanson; Marisa Hast; Eleanor Burnett (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Journal of School Nursing
This study’s goal was to characterize the utility of symptom screening in staff and students for COVID-19 identification and control of transmission in a school setting. It conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data for staff, students and associated household members in a Georgia school district exposed to COVID-19 cases who received RT-PCR testing and symptom monitoring. Among positive contacts, 30/49 (61%) of students and 1/6 (17%) of staff reported no symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Symptom sensitivity was 30% in elementary students and 42% in middle/high students. Fifty-three percent (10/19) of symptomatic positive contacts had at least one household member test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with 50% (10/20) of asymptomatic positive contacts. The absence of symptoms in children is not indicative of a lack of SARS-CoV-2 infection or reduced risk of infection for associated household members. Testing all close contacts of people with COVID-19 in schools is needed to interrupt transmission networks.
Covid-19, children, clinical trials and compassion: the ethical case for using innovative or compassionate treatments.

AUTHOR(S)
V. Larcher; A. Caplan; J. Brierley

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Safe, effective SARS-CoV-2 treatment has not yet been determined, though some drugs have favourable mortality and morbidity benefits in specific situations. No treatments have been explicitly tested in children, who are, therefore, once again therapeutic orphans. We echo calls to enrol patients, including children, into trials but note children recruited to date have been additions to adult studies. Few were recruited during the initial pandemic despite the emergence of PIMS-TS/MIS-C, which surely demanding paediatric-specific research.

Prevalence and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with and without symptoms seeking care in Managua, Nicaragua: results of a cross-sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Jorge A. Huete-Pérez; Kacey C. Ernst; Cristiana Cabezas-Robelo (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aimed to capture key epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nicaraguan children (≤18 years) seeking medical care, between 6 October and 16 November 2020. In this cross-sectional study, 418 children were recruited: 319 with symptoms characteristic of COVID-19 and 99 with no symptoms of illness. Children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. A questionnaire was employed to identify symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities and COVID-19 prevention measures. Research was carried out in four hospitals and two clinics in Managua, Nicaragua, where schools and businesses remained open throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease | Countries: Nicaragua
Assessment of a program for SARS-CoV-2 screening and environmental monitoring in an urban public school district

AUTHOR(S)
John Crowe; Andy T. Schnaubelt; Scott SchmidtBonne (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: JAMA Netw Open

Scalable programs for school-based SARS-CoV-2 testing and surveillance are needed to guide in-person learning practices and inform risk assessments in kindergarten through 12th grade settings. To characterize SARS-CoV-2 infections in staff and students in an urban public school setting and evaluate test-based strategies to support ongoing risk assessment and mitigation for kindergarten through 12th grade in-person learning. This pilot quality improvement program engaged 3 schools in Omaha, Nebraska, for weekly saliva polymerase chain reaction testing of staff and students participating in in-person learning over a 5-week period from November 9 to December 11, 2020. Wastewater, air, and surface samples were collected weekly and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA to evaluate surrogacy for case detection and interrogate transmission risk of in-building activities.

Reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and their role in the transmission of infection according to age: a case-control study

AUTHOR(S)
Mauro Calvani; Giulia Cantiello; Maria Cavani (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics

The locations where children get exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and their contribution in spreading the infection are still not fully understood. Aim of the article is to verify the most frequent reasons for SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and their role in the secondary transmission of the infection. A case-control study was performed in all SARS-CoV-2 positive children (n = 81) and an equal number of age- and sex- matched controls who were referred to the S. Camillo-Forlanini Pediatric Walk-in Center of Rome. The results of all SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swabs performed in children aged < 18 years from October 16 to December 19, 2020 were analyzed.

The role of children and adolescents in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus within family clusters: A large population study from Oman

AUTHOR(S)
Abdullah Alqayoudhi; Abdullah Al Manji; Sulien Al khalili (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health

In Oman, many extended families tend to live in one household. Some families can include 20–30 individuals with the majority of them being children. This study investigates the role of children in spreading SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19 within family clusters in Oman. This retrospective study includes data of 1026 SARS-CoV-2 positive children (≤18 years) collected from the national surveillance database for COVID-19 between 1 February 2020 and 30 May 2020.

Feasibility and acceptability of SARS-CoV-2 testing and surveillance in primary school children in England: Prospective, cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Felicity Aiano; Samuel E. I. Jones; Zahin Amin-Chowdhury (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Plos One

The reopening of schools during the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about widespread infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in educational settings. In June 2020, Public Health England (PHE) initiated prospective national surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in primary schools across England (sKIDs). This study used this opportunity to assess the feasibility and agreeability of large-scale surveillance and testing for SARS-CoV-2 infections in school among staff, parents and students. Staff and students in 131 primary schools were asked to complete a questionnaire at recruitment and provide weekly nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing (n = 86) or swabs with blood samples for antibody testing (n = 45) at the beginning and end the summer half-term. In six blood sampling schools, students were asked to complete a pictorial questionnaire before and after their investigations.

Age-dependent seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in school-aged children from areas with low and high community transmission

AUTHOR(S)
Lise Boey; Mathieu Roelants; Joanna Merckx (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
It is not yet clear to what extent SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in children reflect community transmission, nor whether infection rates differ between primary schoolchildren and young teenagers. A cross-sectional serosurvey compared the SARS-CoV2 attack-rate in a sample of 362 children recruited from September 21 to October 6, 2020, in primary (ages 6–12) or lower secondary school (ages 12–15) in a municipality with low community transmission (Pelt) to a municipality with high community transmission (Alken) in Belgium. Children were equally distributed over grades and regions. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Determinants of parental hesitancy to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 in China

AUTHOR(S)
Mei-Xian Zhang; Xiao-Qing Lin; Yan Chen (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Expert Review of Vaccines

Vaccine hesitancy seriously hinders herd immunity. This study explored the determinants of parental hesitancy to vaccinate children against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. A population-based self-administered online questionnaire evaluating parental hesitancy in vaccinating their children against COVID-19 was conducted in Taizhou, China. Of the 2463 parents who received the invitation, 1788 (72.6%) responded to the survey.

COVID-19 in children with cancer and continuation of cancer-directed therapy during the infection

AUTHOR(S)
Badira Cheriyalinkal Parambil; Nirmalya Roy Moulik; Chetan Dhamne (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Indian Journal of Pediatrics

This study aims to report the experience with COVID-19 in children with cancer at the largest tertiary-cancer care and referral center in India. This study is a single tertiary center experience on COVID-19 in children with cancer and continuation of cancer-directed therapy in them. Children ≤ 15 y on active cancer treatment detected with COVID-19 until September 15th, 2020 were prospectively followed up in the study. Patients were managed in accordance with well-laid guidelines. Treatment was continued for children with COVID-19 who were clinically stable and on intensive treatment for various childhood cancers.

SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses are lower in children and increase with age and time after infection

AUTHOR(S)
Carolyn A. Cohen; Athena P. Y. Li; Asmaa Hachim (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Nature Communications
SARS-CoV-2 infection of children leads to a mild illness and the immunological differences with adults are unclear. Here, we report SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses in infected adults and children and find that the acute and memory CD4+ T cell responses to structural SARS-CoV-2 proteins increase with age, whereas CD8+ T cell responses increase with time post-infection. Infected children have lower CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 structural and ORF1ab proteins when compared with infected adults, comparable T cell polyfunctionality and reduced CD4+ T cell effector memory. Compared with adults, children have lower levels of antibodies to β-coronaviruses, indicating differing baseline immunity. Total T follicular helper responses are increased, whilst monocyte numbers are reduced, indicating rapid adaptive co-ordination of the T and B cell responses and differing levels of inflammation. Therefore, reduced prior β-coronavirus immunity and reduced T cell activation in children might drive milder COVID-19 pathogenesis.
Knowledge, attitude and practice toward Corona virus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public hospitals in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Merga Besho; Reta Tsegaye; Mekdes Tigistu Yilma (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of General Medicine
Pregnancy is an immune-suppressed state which makes pregnant women generally more susceptible to COVID-19 infection and severe illness. Extensive precautions have been recommended to avoid exposure to the virus. Knowledge and attitude toward the disease play an integral role in readiness to accept public health measures. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards COVID-19 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed among 415 pregnant women attending antenatal care at public hospitals in three Wollega zones, Ethiopia from July to August 2020.
Risk of infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adolescents in households, communities and educational settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Omar Irfan; Jiang Li; Kun Tang (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Global Health
There is uncertainty with respect to SARS-CoV-2 transmission in children (0-19 years) with controversy on effectiveness of school-closures in controlling the pandemic. It is of equal importance to evaluate the risk of transmission in children who are often asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic carriers that may incidentally transmit SARS-CoV-2 in different settings. This review aims to assess transmission and risks for SARS-CoV-2 in children (by agegroups or grades) in community and educational-settings compared to adults. Data for the review were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WHO COVID-19 Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database, WanFang Database, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Google Scholar, and preprints from medRixv and bioRixv) covering a timeline from December 1, 2019 to April 1, 2021.
Diagnostic imaging in the newborn, child and adolescent infected with SARS-CoV-2: is there a realistic alternative to lung-HRCT and chest X-rays ? A systematic review of the literature

AUTHOR(S)
Costantino Caroselli; Michael Blaivas; Sara Falzetti

Published: July 2021   Journal: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology home
Chest computed tomography (CT) has been frequently used to evaluate patients with potential COVID-19 infection. However, this may be particularly risky for pediatric patients due to high doses of ionizing radiation.This study sought to evaluate COVID-19 imaging options in pediatric patients based on published literature.It performed an exhaustive literature review focusing on COVID-19 imaing of pediatric patients. Researcher used “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV2”, “coronavirus”, “2019-nCoV”, “Wuhan virus”, “lung ultrasound (LUS)”, “sonography”, “lung HRCT”, “children”, “childhood” and “newborn” as search terms to query online databases including: US National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), LitCovid, WHO COVID-19 database and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline Bireme). Articles meeting inclusion criteria were included in the analysis and review.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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