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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 346
COVID-19 and HIV viral load suppression in children and adolescents in Durban, South Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Asandile Mathamo; Kimesh L. Naidoo; Jienchi Dorward (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses challenges to paediatric and adolescent HIV treatment programme. Modelling exercises raised concerns over potential impact of disruptions. This study aimed to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on viral load (VL) testing among infants, children and adolescents on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Durban, South Africa. Routinely collected, aggregated data of monthly VL counts done on all those less than 19 years old from January 2018 to January 2022 was analysed. An interrupted time series analysis using a Prais-Winsten linear regression model, including terms for lockdowns and excess mortality determined VL trends.

A multi-country study on the impact of sex and age on oral features of COVID-19 infection in adolescents and young adults

AUTHOR(S)
Heba Jafar Sabbagh; Wafaa Abdelaziz; Maryam Quritum (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BMC Oral Health

Oral diseases are features of COVID-19 infection. There is, however, little known about oral diseases associated with COVID-19 in adolescents and young adults (AYA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess oral lesions’ association with COVID-19 infection in AYA; and to identify if sex and age will modify these associations. Data was collected for this cross-sectional study between August 2020 and January 2021 from 11-to-23 years old participants in 43-countries using an electronic validated questionnaire developed in five languages. Data collected included information on the dependent variables (the presence of oral conditions- gingival inflammation, dry mouth, change in taste and oral ulcers), independent variable (COVID-19 infection) and confounders (age, sex, history of medical problems and parents’ educational level). Multilevel binary logistic regression was used for analysis.

Parental beliefs, perceived health risks, and time investment in children: evidence from COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Gabriella Conti; Michele Giannola ; Alessandro Toppeta

Published: November 2022   Journal: lnstitute for Fiscal Studies
When deciding how to allocate their time among different types of investment in their children, parents weigh up the perceived benefits and costs of different activities. During the COVID-19 outbreak parents had to consider a new cost dimension when making this decision: the perceived health risks associated with contracting the virus. What role did parental beliefs about risks and returns play for the allocation of time with children during the pandemic? This study answers this question by collecting rich data on a sample of first-time parents in England during the first lockdown, including elicitation of perceived risks and returns to different activities via hypothetical scenarios.
Characterization of newborn born to mothers infected and not infected by SARS-COV-2 during the pregnancy period

AUTHOR(S)
Alessandra Madalena Garcia Santos; Aline Dahmer Da Silva; Claudia Silveira Viera

Published: November 2022
This study aimed to characterize the mothers affected by SARS-CoV-2 during the gestational period, as well as to present and compare the birth variables of Newborns (NB) of mothers who were infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the gestational period in relation to babies whose mothers were not infected by the virus during the gestational period. Quantitative, retrospective research, carried out in the databases of health information systems: SIVEP – Influenza (Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Influenza), Notifies Covid-19 and Information System for Live Births (SINASC). The sample consisted of all live births and their mothers in the municipality of Cascavel/PR, from July 2020 to December 2021, compared to those newborns of mothers who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy in that period. Descriptive analysis of data using mean, standard deviation and proportion.
The role of parents in shaping the school age children's behavior regarding the prevention of COVID-19 transmission

AUTHOR(S)
Tri Widyastuti Handayani; Dyah Dwi Astuti

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Sciences

The COVID-19   pandemic   has   had   both physical and psychological impacts on school-age children. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the impact of the roles of parents on the behaviour  of  school-age  children  in  preventing  the  transmission  of COVID-19. This   cross-sectional   study   used   a   random sampling technique that collected a sample of 346 parents. The survey was  carried  out  by  distributing  questionnaires  to  the  samples  with school-age  children  6-12  years.

Seroprevalence of SARS CoV-2 among children after the second surge (June 2021) in a rural district of South India: findings and lessons from a population-based survey

AUTHOR(S)
Carolin Elizabeth George; Leeberk Raja Inbaraj; Shon Rajukutty (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of SARS COV 2 among children in the Bangalore Rural district. It conducted a cross-sectional study after the second surge of COVID-19 from 14 June to 13 July 2021 and recruited 412 children through house to house visits from four villages in a rural district. It administered a questionnaire to collect demographics and details of COVID-19 infection and used the ABCHEK Antibody Card test (NuLifecare,India) which is an ICMR approved test for detecting antibodies (IgG & IgM) by immunochromatography using the finger prick method. It used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 for analysis.

Clinical and epidemiological presentation of COVID-19 among children in conflict setting

AUTHOR(S)
Maureen Dar Iang; Ola El Hajj Hassan; Maureen McGowan (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Children
This study aims to describe the observable symptoms of children with COVID-19 infection and analyze access to real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing among children seeking care in Yemen. In the period of March 2020–February 2022, data were obtained from 495 children suspected to have been infected with COVID-19 (from a larger register of 5634 patients) from the Diseases Surveillance and Infection Control Department at the Ministry of Public Health and Population in Aden, Yemen.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | No. of pages: 11 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, health services, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Yemen
Malaria and COVID-19 prevalence in a population of febrile children and adolescents living in Libreville

AUTHOR(S)
Bridy C. Moutombi Ditombi; Bedrich Pongui Ngondza; Charleine Manomba Boulingui (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases

Patients with acute febrile illness need to be screened for malaria and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in malaria-endemic areas to reduce malaria mortality rates and to prevent the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aimed to estimate the frequency of children and adolescents with COVID-19 and/or malaria among febrile patients attending for malaria diagnosis This cross-sectional study was conducted in a sentinel site for malaria surveillance during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (Omicron variant), from October 2021 to December 2021 in Gabon. All febrile patients were tested for malaria using microscopy. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid antigen tests developed by Sansure Biotech®.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 37 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease, malaria, pandemic | Countries: Gabon
Within-family influences on compliance with social-distancing measures during COVID-19 lockdowns in the United Kingdom

AUTHOR(S)
Ozan Aksoy

Published: October 2022   Journal: Nature Human Behaviour
The compliance of adolescents, who are often unfairly portrayed as spreaders of COVID-19, with public health measures is essential for containing diseases. But does adolescents’ compliance develop independently from their parents? Using nationally representative longitudinal data and cross-lagged structural equation panel models, here I study compliance with social-distancing measures of 6,752 triplets that comprise the adolescent child (age 19), their mother and their father during two national lockdowns in the United Kingdom.
Association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with early breastfeeding

AUTHOR(S)
Henry H. Bernstein; Eric J. Slora; Tara Mathias-Prabhu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Academic Pediatrics
The association of maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) status before delivery with breastfeeding is unknown. This study compares breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration between SARS-CoV-2-positive (+) and SARS-CoV-2-negative (-) mothers during the first 2 months of their newborns’ lives. A single center, retrospective cohort study of pediatric contacts during the first 2 months in a diverse mother-infant population (n = 285) compared breastfeeding outcomes by maternal SARS-CoV-2 status during a pandemic surge. Infants of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were also tested before discharge. Comparison of maternal demographics (age, race, ethnicity), maternal/infant characteristics (parity, insurance, delivery mode, infant sex, hospital length of stay), and pediatric contacts by maternal SARS-CoV-2 status included Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests and Poisson regression for count outcomes. Logistic regression compared breastfeeding outcomes between the 2 groups, adjusting for potential confounders and effect modifiers.
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a primary school setting with and without public health measures using real-world contact data: a modelling study

AUTHOR(S)
Lixiang Yan; Stella Talic; Holly Wild (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Global Health

Stringent public health measures have been shown to influence the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within school environments. We investigated the potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a primary school setting with and without public health measures, using fine-grained physical positioning traces captured before the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately 172.63 million position data from 98 students and six teachers from an open-plan primary school were used to predict a potential transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in primary school settings.

Breastfeeding practices during Covid-19

AUTHOR(S)
Tahreem Nisar; Syed Ammar Bin Zia; Sarah Ishaq (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Pakistan BioMedical Journal

The covid-19 has disrupted all parts of life especially maternal-child relationship. Many lactating womenwerequarantinedincovid-19whichhasaffectednourishmentoftheirinfant. Breastfeeding has innumerable benets for both mother and infants as it provides them protection. The Maternal-child relationship is drastically affected if an infant is separated from its mother. It greatly affects lactation, which acts as a shield against infectious diseases. It is approved by all the international agencies and government bodies to promote breastfeeding including the neonates of infected mothers. It is suggested to adopt proper hand and respiratory hygiene measures to prevent transmission from mother to infant. Although many studies and literature reviews have conrmed that there are no direct transmission cases related to coronavirus during breastfeeding. However, WHO, UNICEF, and many other organizations suggested to adopt some hygiene-specic guidelines while practicing lactation. These include wearing a mask, washing hands, and disinfecting surfaces. As we are in the middle of this pandemic and new information is being gathered by scientists, it is hoped that they will also support promoting breastfeeding. As its advantages outweigh the risks of COVID-19. The main aim of this review is to promote early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding during COVID-19.

Risk of COVID-19 hospitalizations among school-aged children in Scotland: a national incident cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Ting Shi; Jiafeng Pan; Emily Moore (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Global Health

There is considerable policy, clinical and public interest about whether children should be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 and, if so, which children should be prioritised (particularly if vaccine resources are limited). To inform such deliberations, we sought to identify children and young people at highest risk of hospitalization from COVID-19. This study used the Early Pandemic Evaluation and Enhanced Surveillance of COVID-19 (EAVE II) platform to undertake a national incident cohort analysis to investigate the risk of hospitalization among 5-17 years old living in Scotland in risk groups defined by the living risk prediction algorithm (QCOVID). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between risk groups and COVID-19 hospital admission. Adjustments were made for age, sex, socioeconomic status, co-morbidity, and prior hospitalization.

I don't know whose mouth has been on this: youth nicotine and cannabis vaping practices in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Sabrina Islam; Kirsten Thompson; Melissa Abadi (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health
Early COVID-19 safety protocols urged physical and social distancing, resulting in minimal contact with others. As social contexts are central to vaping among youth, this study used semi-structured interviews to describe how youth who vape are making sense of their use practices and adaptations. The qualitative analyses revealed changes in vaping frequency and access, social isolation shaping substance- and product-specific use, and motivations and outcomes of dual use of nicotine and cannabis which were closely linked to the pandemic.
Adult and children's use of hand sanitizer during a pandemic - an observational study

AUTHOR(S)
Theresa K. Lopez; Kelly Jones; Ann Roseberry-Lincoln (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology

The use of hand sanitizers has been one of the key public health measures recommended to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during the pandemic. As such, its daily use among the general population has reportedly increased dramatically since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. To better understand the impact of this recommendation, hand sanitizer use, including the frequency and amount handled, was examined among adults in a non-occupational setting and children in both the home and school/childcare settings.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.