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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 329
How middle and high school students wear their face masks in classrooms and school buildings

AUTHOR(S)
Gerald Jarnig; Reinhold Kerbl; Mireille N. M. van Poppel

Published: August 2022   Journal: Healthcare
In addition to other mitigation measures, face masks have been used in schools worldwide as a precondition for allowing school attendance during the COVID-19 pandemic. The quality and habits of mask wearing have, however, not been evaluated thus far, leaving uncertainty about the efficacy of this measure. It was the aim of this study to assess the accuracy of face mask wearing by children and adolescents in different school situations. In May and June 2022, students of two selected Austrian schools were asked to provide information about the different variations in wearing a face mask in different situations at school (in classrooms with or without the presence of a teacher, and in school buildings outside classrooms without the presence of a teacher).
[No] Knowledge of pre-school children on the covid-19 pandemic - in the light of parents and teachers' opinions

AUTHOR(S)
Aleksandra Romana Kruszewska; Stanisława Katarzyna Nazaruk; Ewa Grygiel

Published: August 2022   Journal: Rozprawy Społeczne/Social Dissertations
The main aim of the research was to find out about their knowledge or ignorance about the pandemic, about the principles of safe behavior, about virus transmission. The development of the proprietary research tools resulted from an objective fact, because no standardized measurement tools were found for the aforementioned research problems. Surveys, two types of research tools were used: an original questionnaire for parents and worksheets for children.
Children and the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: a Caribbean perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Tracy Evans-Gilbert; Paula Michele Lashley; Emmeline Lerebours (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Pan American Journal of Public Health
This study aims to assess coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surveillance methods, health resources, vaccination coverage and income stratification and quantify burdens of disease and death in children and adolescents in the Caribbean. The investigation was a descriptive, cross-sectional study that included 15 Caribbean countries/territories and utilized surveys and secondary data sources. Quarantine and isolation measures were robust and surveillance strategies were similar. Pediatric specialists were available across the region, but few had designated pediatric hospitals or high-dependency units. There were more cases in children on islands with larger populations. Compared to high-income countries/territories, upper and lower middle-income countries/territories had higher disease burdens, fewer doctors and nurses per 1 000 population, lower bed capacities, and lower vaccination coverage.
SARS-CoV-2 infection in households with and without young children: nationwide cohort study, Denmark, 27 February 2020 to 26 February 2021

AUTHOR(S)
Anders Husby; Giulia Corn; Tyra Grove Krause

Published: August 2022   Journal: Eurosurveillance
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Infections with seasonally spreading coronaviruses are common among young children during winter months in the northern hemisphere; the immunological response lasts around a year. However, it is not clear if living with young children changes the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among adult. This study aimed to investigate the association between living in a household with younger children and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections and hospitalisation.


Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | Issue: 32 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: Denmark
COVID-19: consequences on pregnant women and neonates

AUTHOR(S)
Kritika S. Sharma; Rekha Sharma; Sapna Nehra (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Health Sciences Review

Human species is confronting with a gigantic global COVID-19 pandemic. Initially, it was observed in Wuhan, China, and the COVID-19 cases spread across the globe with lightning speed and resulted in the 21st century pandemic. If scientific reports are taken care of, it is noteworthy that this virus possesses more specific characteristics due to its structure. The distinctive structure has a higher binding affinity with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, and this is used as an access point to gain access to hosts. A complete literature search was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, and deep-diving Google Search using keywords such as "Pregnancy, COVID-19, Newborn, Fetus, Coronavirus 2019, Neonate, Pregnant women, and vertical transmission".

A mother's perspective of consent for maternal and neonatal COVID-19 testing: can we do more?

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Anne East; Sunitha Ramaiah; Kimberley Morris

Published: June 2022   Journal: British Journal of Midwifery

There is ongoing research on the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy and whether vertical viral transmission occurs. This study aimed to determine maternal opinions of COVID-19 testing for pregnant women and newborns in order to influence future clinical practice while advancing global knowledge of the impact of testing on patient experiences. This service evaluation assessed the opinions of 292 pregnant women who were tested for COVID-19 along with their newborn babies using nasopharyngeal swabs and the SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test between 28 April and 21 May 2020.

Hearing outcomes of infants born to mothers with active COVID-19 infection

AUTHOR(S)
Panagiota Kosmidou; Ioannis Karamatzanis; Sotiris Tzifas (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. A major concern of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women is vertical maternal-fetal transmission and the ramifications on infant hearing. This retrospective study aims to investigate whether perinatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2 has an impact on the hearing of the offspring. The study population included neonates born to unvaccinated COVID-19 positive mothers in the University Hospital of Patras, Greece from March 2020 to January 2021. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were performed on the neonates on the first, second,, and seventh day of life. All neonates underwent transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) within the first three months of life and were all examined at the age of nine months.

Covid-19 vaccine in prison: a not-to-be-missed opportunity to promote access to vaccination in adolescents.

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Mazzilli; Babak Moazen; Heino Stover (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMJ
Covid-19 vaccination campaigns for adolescents have been taking place in many countries for some months. The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunisation have called for vaccine prioritisation within countries to take into account the needs of those groups that, due to underlying social, ethnic, geographic, or biomedical factors, are at greater risk of getting infected or suffering most severe consequences from covid-19. Since the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considerably higher in prisons and detention facilities than elsewhere, adolescents who are detained in juvenile institutions should be prioritised for vaccination.
Overview of breastfeeding under COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Zehan Pang; Ruolan Hu; Lili Tian (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Immunology
During the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), pregnant and lactating women are at higher risk of infection. The potential of viral intrauterine transmission and vertical transmission by breastfeeding has raised wide concerns. Breastmilk is rich in nutrients that contribute to infant growth and development, and reduce the incidence rate of infant illness and death, as well as inhibit pathogens significantly, and protect infants from infection. Although it is controversial whether mothers infected with COVID-19 should continue to breastfeed, many countries and international organizations have provided recommendations and guidance for breastfeeding. This review presents the risks and benefits of breastfeeding for mothers infected with COVID-19, and the reasons for the absence of SARS-CoV-2 active virus in human milk. In addition, the antiviral mechanisms of nutrients in breastmilk, the levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in breastmilk from COVID-19 infected mothers and vaccinated mothers are also summarized and discussed, aiming to provide some support and recommendations for both lactating mothers and infants to better deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.
Transmission risk of COVID-19 in high school and college water polo

AUTHOR(S)
Raymond J. Kreienkamp; Christopher J. Kreienkamp; Cindy Terrill (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

Concerns that athletes may be at a higher risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission has led to reduced participation in sports during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess COVID-19 incidence and transmission during the spring 2021 high school and college water polo seasons across the United States. This prospective observational study enrolled 1825 water polo athletes from 54 high schools and 36 colleges. Surveys were sent to coaches throughout the season, and survey data were collected and analyzed.

The role of children in household transmission of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Feifan Chen; Yan Tian; Lixin Zhang (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: International journal of infectious diseases

Household is potentially the highest-risk exposure setting of SARS-COV-2 transmission, in which the role of children has remained controversial. Through retrieval in PubMed and EMBASE, studies were included in two parts: meta-analysis of the household secondary attack rate (SAR) and case analysis of household pediatric infections.

Parents' hesitancy to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, a country-wide survey

AUTHOR(S)
Sultan F. Alhazza; Ali M. Altalhi; Khaled M. Alamri (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Parents' hesitancy (PH) toward childhood vaccination, including the vaccine of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is one of the top public health threats. We aim to assess the PH toward children COVID-19 vaccination as compared to PH toward children routine vaccination among the residents of Saudi Arabia. Before the official approval of children's COVID-19 vaccination in the country, a cross-sectional study using an electronically distributed survey was performed. Responses from parents of children younger than 18 years of age were accepted. The Oxford COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale (OC19-VHS) and the routine vaccination hesitancy scale (R-VHS) were used. Parents were classified as hesitant, non-hesitant, and unsure.

Estimated transmission outcomes and costs of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing, screening, and surveillance strategies among a simulated population of primary school students.

AUTHOR(S)
Alyssa Bilinski; Andrea Ciaranello; Meagan C. Fitzpatrick (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Costs and benefits of COVID-19 testing strategies were evaluated in the context of full-time, in-person kindergarten through eighth grade (K-8) education at different community incidence levels. An updated version of a previously published agent-based network model was used to simulate transmission in elementary and middle school communities in the United States. Assuming dominance of the delta SARS-CoV-2 variant, the model simulated an elementary school (638 students in grades K-5, 60 staff) and middle school (460 students grades 6-8, 51 staff).

Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding: a review of evidence and current recommendations in Europe, North America, and Australasia

AUTHOR(S)
Carlo Pietrasanta; Andrea Ronchi; Beatrice Letizia Crippa (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
In the late 2020s, less than 1 year into the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines were introduced on a worldwide scale, with a significant positive impact on the consequences of the disease for several high-risk population groups. In the case of most bacterial or viral respiratory infections, pregnant women are at increased risk of complications, however, neither pregnant nor breastfeeding women were included in the first round of randomized clinical trials evaluating the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines, because of safety and ethical concerns. Nevertheless, most anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have not been expressly contraindicated during pregnancy or breastfeeding, and observational data on immune response, adverse effects, and clinical efficacy in pregnant and breastfeeding women have been progressively gathered during 2021. The vast majority of these data is reassuring for what concerns side effects for women and infants and points out the efficacy of vaccines in protecting women against COVID-19-related complications. Despite this, the hesitancy of pregnant and breastfeeding women at being vaccinated is still real.
impact of the covid 19 pandemic on the process of exclusive breastfeeding

AUTHOR(S)
Nurul Anjarwati; Veny Erlisa Irawan

Published: April 2022   Journal: Jurnal Kesehatan Mesencephalon
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health occurred in all age groups including pregnant women, mothers giving birth, and newborns. Breastfeeding during a pandemic requires special attention because of the short-term and long-term health implications. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the success of exclusive breastfeeding. The research design is qualitative with in-depth interview data collection methods on 7 participants. The sample was selected according to the inclusion criteria, namely mothers who gave birth during a pandemic and when data were collected on children aged 6-12 months in the working area of the Kepanjen Health Center, Kab. Poor. Researchers as the main instrument in the study and interview guides as a reference for questions.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.