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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 71
Children and parents' preferences about the appearance of dentists with respect to personal protective equipment in pediatric dentistry

Ipek Arslan; Sema Aydinoğlu

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry

Personal protective equipment (PPE) gained importance during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is a global hot topic for all healthcare staff. This study aims to assess children and parents preferences about dentists’ appearance concerning their PPE and to determine the relationship between the preferences of the children and their parents. A total of 250 children aged 6-12 years and their parents were enrolled in the study. Standardised pictures with different sexes, attires, eye protectors, hair protectors, masks and gloves were shown to children and their parents separately and they were asked to chose their preferences. The dental anxiety of the children and their parents were determined using the MCDASf and MDAS, respectively. Decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) indices were employed for the children.

SARS-CoV-2 infection among school population of one developing country: do school closures protect students and teachers against SARS-CoV-2 infection?

Carol Bibiana Colonia; Rosanna Camerano-Ruiz; Andrés Felipe Mora-Salamanca (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Evidence about the effectiveness of school closures as a measure to control the spread of COVID-19 is controversial. This study posit that schools are not an important source of transmission; thus, it analyzed two surveillance methods: a web-based questionnaire and a telephone survey that monitored the impact of the pandemic due to COVID-19 cases in Bogotá, Colombia. It estimated the cumulative incidences for Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and COVID-19 for each population group. Then, it assessed the differences using the cumulative incidence ratio (CIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%)
The effects of school closures on COVID-19: a cross-country panel analysis

Vincenzo Alfano

Published: December 2021   Journal: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy

There has been much debate about the effects and importance of closing, keeping closed, or not opening schools in order to prevent COVID-19 contagion. This policy has been questioned regarding both its efficacy and the social cost it entails, including the possible asymmetric impact it has on genders in many societies due to traditional childcare roles. To the best of our knowledge no existing contribution has attempted to gauge the effectiveness of such a policy over time, in a longitudinal cross-country perspective. This paper aimed to fill the gap in the literature by assessing, at a European level, the effect of school closures (or the lack of such measures) on the numbers of new COVID-19 infections, in the absence of vaccines. Given this policy’s expected change in effectiveness over time, we also measured the effectiveness of having schools closed after a given number of days (from 7 to 100).

Prospective pilot study evaluating SARS-CoV-2 transmission-limiting measures in an on-site school

Shilpa G. Jani; Jasmin Ma; Uma Pulendran (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Academic Pediatrics

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of a comprehensive set of preventive measures in limiting secondary transmission of COVID-19 in schools. A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 transmission in an independent K-8 school in San Mateo County, California. The research was conducted between September 14, 2020 through March 22, 2021 and consisted of: (1) demographic and epidemiological questionnaires; (2) daily symptom reporting; (3) weekly RT-PCR testing; and (4) periodic on-site qualitative observations.

A brief psycho-social intervention for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among perinatal women in LMICs: need of the hour

Ramdas Ransing; Prerna Kukreti; Pracheth Raghuveer (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
COVID-19 vaccines are one of the most effective strategies for preventing COVID-19 infection, as well as the associated mortality and morbidity. Despite the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine acceptance among perinatal women is challenging in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Further, the vaccine hesitancy among perinatal women may have an impact on their children's vaccinations. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the existing research on COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, psychosocial aspects, measures, and the individual level interventions for vaccine hesitancy among perinatal women. In our opinion, there is a need for further research with a specific focus on developing effective and feasible individual-level interventions to address COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among perinatal women in LMICs.
An evaluation of knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and behaviors regarding COVID-19 among parents of pediatric dental patients

Derya Ceyhan; Zuhal Kirzioglu; Feyza Yildirim (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Clinical Pediatrics
Children infected with COVID-19 have a critical part in community-based viral transmission. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and behaviors of parents of pediatric dental patients on COVID-19 and to present required actions to prevent its spreading. A total of 524 parents took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared for determining sociodemographic characteristics and socioeconomic status of parents, along with their COVID-19-related knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. In total, 90.6% of parents were unaware that disease may show no symptoms; 61.1% and 32.6% did not know roles of “close contact with asymptomatic patients” and “dentistry practices” in transmission, respectively; 30.2% thought it could be transmitted to their children at dental clinics, and only 16.4% stated their children as carriers. Parents need to be informed on COVID-19 transmission through contact with asymptomatic individuals, risks associated with dentistry practices, and role of children in transmission.
Parent intentions to vaccinate children with autism spectrum disorder against COVID-19

Kristen Choi; Tracy Becerra-Culqui; Bhumi Bhakta (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between parent vaccine confidence and intention to have their child with autism vaccinated against COVID-19. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted from May to July 2021 with parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (N = 322) who were members of an integrated healthcare system in Southern California.
Model-based assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant transmission dynamics within partially vaccinated K-12 school populations

Jennifer R. Head; Kristin L. Andrejko; Justin V. Remais

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Americas

This study examined school reopening policies amidst ongoing transmission of the highly transmissible Delta variant, accounting for vaccination among individuals ≥12 years. It collected data on social contacts among school-aged children in the California Bay Area and developed an individual-based transmission model to simulate transmission of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 in schools. It evaluated the additional infections in students and teachers/staff resulting over a 128-day semester from in-school instruction compared to remote instruction when various NPIs (mask use, cohorts, and weekly testing of students/teachers) were implemented, across various community-wide vaccination coverages (50%, 60%, 70%), and student (≥12 years) and teacher/staff vaccination coverages (50% - 95%).

School asthma care during COVID-19: what we have learned, and what we are learning

Elissa M. Abrams; Kamyron Jordan; Stanley J. Szefler

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
The focus of this article is to review school asthma care during COVID-19. Asthma is listed as a risk factor in some guidelines, although children with asthma appear to not be at increased risk of severe respiratory outcomes compared to children without asthma during the pandemic. Differentiating COVID-19 from allergic disease is very difficult to do in the school-aged children. For school management, there is firm evidence that masks do not exacerbate underlying lung conditions including asthma and evidence to date supports that children with asthma can learn in-person at school as they do not appear to be at increased risk of COVID-19 morbidity or mortality. For children and adolescents, the COVID-19 vaccine has been demonstrated to be safe and well tolerated. School asthma management includes remaining on prescribed asthma medications. Asthma management, as with management of all pediatric conditions, must also factor in the impact of adverse social determinants and health disparities. Broadly, the pandemic has also served as a call to resource stewardship and innovation and allowed practitioners to consider how this may impact asthma care moving forward.
Children and COVID-19 in schools

Shamez N. Ladh

Published: November 2021   Journal: Science
Children have a very low risk of severe or fatal COVID-19 but, early in the pandemic, uncertainties about their role in virus transmission led most countries to close educational settings as part of national lockdowns to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In many countries, including parts of North America and the Asia-Pacific regions, schools remained closed to in-person teaching for more than a year. School closures affect not only the education of children, but also their social and emotional well-being, and limit access to social and welfare services, school meals, and school-based immunizations. Therefore, understanding the role of children in SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission, and identifying effective interventions to mitigate risks, are critical for keeping schools safe for staff, students, and their families.
Incidence of COVID-19 in children and young people who play federated football

Rocío Seijo Bestilleiro; Jorge Suanzes Hernández; Diego Batalla Bautista (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Sports Health

This study aims to determine the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection in children and young people who play federated football. Prospective study, from October 2020 to January 2021, in players aged 4 to 19 years from federated football clubs in Galicia, Spain (N = 23,845). Outbreaks and cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were recorded. The cumulative incidence was compared with the incidence registered in Galicia in the same age range.

Competitive sport after SARS-CoV-2 infection in children

Giulia Cafiero; Flaminia Passi; Francesca Ippolita Calo (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
With the gradual resumption of sports activities after the lock-down period for coronavirus pandemic, a new problem is emerging: Allow all athletes to be able to return to compete after SARS-CoV-2 infection in total safety. Several protocols have been proposed for healed athletes but all of them have been formulated for the adult population. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adequacy of Italian practical recommendations for return-to-paly, in order to exclude cardiorespiratory complications due to COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Between April 2020 and January 2021 the Italian Sports Medical Federation formulated cardiorespiratory protocols to be applied to athletes recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The protocols take into account the severity of the infection. Protocols include lung function tests, cardiopulmonary exercise test, echocardiographic evaluation, blood chemistry tests.
Detention of children in the time of COVID-19
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: November 2021
When the pandemic was declared in April last year, UNICEF issued a global call for the immediate and safe release of children from detention, recognizing that they were at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 in confined and overcrowded spaces. This report, Detention of children in the time of COVID, highlights the historic number of children released from detention in response to COVID-19 pandemic, and discusses how these results and related challenges offer a chance to rethink approaches, release more children, end the detention of children and build on these results for wider justice reforms for children.
Facilitating COVID-19 vaccination among caregivers of children with medical complexity

Divya Lakhaney; Ellen Shaw; Melissa S. Stockwell (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Clinical Pediatrics
While the Covid-19 pandemic has had significant impact on the general population, it has presented particular challenges for children with medical complexity (CMC) and their families. This article discusses our experience leveraging our pediatric complex care program to facilitate Cocid-19 vaccine distribution to our patients and families.
Tracking the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine infant vaccinations in the Dominican Republic

Manuel Colomé-Hidalgo; Juan Donado Campos; Ángel Gil de Miguel

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, millions of infants are unprotected against immune-preventable diseases due to interruptions in vaccination services. The direct effects of the pandemic, as well as the non-pharmacological interventions for its containment, mitigation and suppression adopted by many countries, have affected their vaccination programs. This is an ecological study analyzing the performance of the vaccination program in the Dominican Republic before (2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). It compared annual public coverage data, analyzed trends and changes in coverage, dropout rate, and number of partially and unvaccinated infants by geographic area and COVID-19 incidence rate.
16 - 30 of 71

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.