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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 71
Engaging Latino families about COVID-19 vaccines: a qualitative study conducted in Oregon, USA

Jonathan Garcia; Nancy Vargas; Cynthia de la Torre (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Health Education & Behavior

Latinos are disproportionately vulnerable to severe COVID-19 due to workplace exposure, multigenerational households, and existing health disparities. Rolling out COVID-19 vaccines among vulnerable Latinos is critical to address disparities. This study explores vaccine perceptions of Latino families to inform culturally centered strategies for vaccine dissemination. Semistructured telephone interviews with Latino families (22 mothers and 24 youth, 13–18 years old) explored COVID-19 vaccine perceptions including (1) sources of information, (2) trust of vaccine effectiveness and willingness to get vaccinated, and (3) access to the vaccine distribution. We identified thematic patterns using immersion–crystallization.

Covid-19, children, clinical trials and compassion: the ethical case for using innovative or compassionate treatments.

V. Larcher; A. Caplan; J. Brierley

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Safe, effective SARS-CoV-2 treatment has not yet been determined, though some drugs have favourable mortality and morbidity benefits in specific situations. No treatments have been explicitly tested in children, who are, therefore, once again therapeutic orphans. We echo calls to enrol patients, including children, into trials but note children recruited to date have been additions to adult studies. Few were recruited during the initial pandemic despite the emergence of PIMS-TS/MIS-C, which surely demanding paediatric-specific research.

‘We are going into battle without appropriate armour’: a qualitative study of Indonesian midwives' experiences in providing maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic

Alya Hazfiarinia; Shahinoor Akter; Caroline S. E. Homer (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Women and Birth

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the provision of maternity care worldwide. The continuation of maternity services during the pandemic is vital, but midwives have reported feeling overwhelmed in providing these services at this time. However, there are limited studies in Indonesia that have explored the experiences of midwives in providing care during the pandemic. This study aims to explore Indonesian midwives’ experiences in providing maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

What is the best-available evidence about the effects of public-health measures in schools (K-12), as well as about supporting adherence to these measures?

This study searched the COVID-END global and domestic inventories of best evidence syntheses to identify evidence documents that focused on the effects of and supporting adherence to public health measures in schools (K-12). The search terms used were: “school” AND (“effectiveness” OR “adherence” OR “public health measure” OR “public health” OR “measure”). It also contacted 40+ Canadian evidence-synthesis teams by email.

Recommendations for the urgent need to vaccinate school-aged and adolescent children against COVID-19 in the Asia–Pacific region

Jun Kobayashi; Rie Takeuchi; Fumiko Shibuya (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Tropical Medicine and Health
This study recommends urgent expansion of a vaccination program for adolescents and school-age children against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Western Pacific region. Since July 2021, SARS-CoV-2 infections in children have increased rapidly in this region. As infection rates rise due to the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, current preventive strategies such as mask wearing and social distancing have controlled its spread effectively. Prolonged school closure is currently being promoted to suppress virus spread among children. However, the negative impact of prolonged school closure is significant. Although vaccination of children under 12 is still controversial, preparations must be made now for their vaccination.
How can we best use COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents? A perspective from the United States

Donna L. Tyungu; Sean T. O’Leary; Amy B. Middleman

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health
With interest, we read the commentary by Zhong et al. entitled, ”How can we best use COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents?” discussing the risk and benefits of vaccination for the adolescent age group and concluding that the risk-benefit ratio for vaccinating healthy adolescents was equivocal [1]. The authors noted in the first sentence of the article, “Mass vaccination of the world population is our ticket out of the COVID-19 pandemic.” This study posits that the adolescent age group, a significant proportion of the “world population,” is an important group to vaccinate to curb the spread of COVID-19 disease and to directly protect children and adolescents at risk of disease and disease complications.
Parent and peer norms are unique correlates of COVID-19 vaccine intentions in a diverse sample of US adolescents

Adam A. Rogers; Rachel E. Cook; Julie A. Button

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

Recent studies have documented worrisome levels of hesitancy and resistance to the COVID-19 vaccine, including within the adolescent population. In this study, we examined attitudinal (perceived severity of COVID-19, vaccine-related concerns) and interpersonal (parent and peer norms) antecedents of adolescents’ intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Participants were 916 adolescents (ages 12 – 17) from across the United States (47.3% male) representing diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (26% African American, 22% Hispanic/Latinx; 35% White; 7% Asian American). They completed a survey on their experiences and attitudes surrounding COVID-19 and the COVID-19 vaccine.

SARS-CoV-2 screening testing in schools for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities

Michael R. Sherby; Tyler J. Walsh; Albert M. Lai (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in schools primarily for typically developing children is rare. However, less is known about transmission in schools for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), who are often unable to mask or maintain social distancing. The objectives of this study were to determine SARS-CoV-2 positivity and in-school transmission rates using weekly screening tests for school staff and students and describe the concurrent deployment of mitigation strategies in six schools for children with IDD.
Does school reopening affect SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among school-age children in Milan?

Lucia Barcellini; Federica Forlanini; Arianna Sangiorgio (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Plos One
The benefits of schools’ closure, used as a containment strategy by many European countries, must be carefully considered against the adverse effects of child wellbeing. This study assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, which better estimates the real extent of the infection unraveling asymptomatic cases, among schoolchildren aged 3 to 18 in Milan, using dried blood spot, a safe and extremely viable methods for children, and then compared it between September 2020 and January 2021. Secondly, it evaluated the seroconversion rate and compared it between students attending schools in presence and those switched to distance-learning, using a logistic regression model, both as univariate and multivariate, adjusting for age and biological-sex.
Implementation of SARS-CoV2 screening in K–12 schools using in-school pooled molecular testing and deconvolution by rapid antigen test

Nira R. Pollock; David Berlin; Sandra C. Smole (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology logo
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) testing is one component of a multilayered mitigation strategy to enable safe in-person school attendance for the K–12 school population. However, costs, logistics, and uncertainty about effectiveness are potential barriers to implementation. We assessed early data from the Massachusetts K–12 public school pooled SARS-CoV2 testing program, which incorporates two novel design elements: in-school “pod pooling” for assembling pools of dry anterior nasal swabs from 5 to 10 individuals and positive pool deconvolution using the BinaxNOW antigen rapid diagnostic test (Ag RDT), to assess the operational and analytical feasibility of this approach. Over 3 months, 187,597 individual swabs were tested across 39,297 pools from 738 schools.
Parent-for-child mask behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada and the United States: an investigation of attitudes, norms, and perceived control using the theory of planned behavior

Adina Coroiu; Chelsea Moran; Brittany L. Lindsay (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine Reports
Face masks continue to be a necessity until a large proportion of the population, including children, receive immunizations for COVID-19. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental attitudes and beliefs about masks and parent-for-child mask behavior using the Theory of Planned Behavior. A survey was administered in August 2020 to parents of school-aged children residing in the United States and Canada. Measures included sociodemographic variables for the parent and child, attitudes, norms, perceived control over children’s mask use, intentions and enforcement of mask wearing among children (also titled “parent-for-child mask behavior”).
Current and future implications of COVID-19 among youth wheelchair users: 24-hour activity behavior

Ryan T. Conners; Lauren C. Bates; Patricia Pagan Lassalle (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Children
Preventative measures taken worldwide to decrease the transmission of COVID-19 have had a tremendous impact on youth. Following social restrictions, youth with and without physical disabilities are engaging in less physical activity, more increased sedentary behavior, and poor sleep habits. Specifically, youth wheelchair users (YWU) are likely disproportionately affected by COVID- 19 and have a higher risk of contraction due to underlying comorbidities. While all of the negative long-term implications of COVID-19 for YWU cannot be controlled, participation in positive 24-h activity behaviors can decrease chronic disease risk and the likelihood of long-term complications resulting from infection. This commentary is to extend the discourse on the importance of 24-h activity behaviors by focusing on YWU. Specifically, it discuss the importance of chronic disease prevention, provide a brief overview of 24-h activity behaviors, and outline some of the lessons that can be learned from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Do school closures and school reopenings affect community transmission of COVID-19? A systematic review of observational studies

Sebastian Walsh; Avirup Chowdhury; Vickie Braithwaite (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aims to systematically reivew the observational evidence of the effect of school closures and school reopenings on SARS-CoV-2 community transmission.  On 7 January 2021, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, the WHO Global COVID-19 Research Database, ERIC, the British Education Index, the Australian Education Index and Google, were searched for titles and abstracts related to SARS-CoV-2 AND related to schools or non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). The Cochrane Risk of Bias In Non-randomised Studies of Interventions tool was used to evaluate bias.

Religiosity, meaning-making and the fear of COVID-19 affecting well-being among late adolescents in Poland: a moderated mediation model

Dariusz Krok; Beata Zarzycka; Ewa Telka

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Religion and Health
Adolescents have come to be greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ensuing containment measures in recent months. The aim of the present study was to examine the relations among religiosity, meaning-making, fear of COVID-19, and subjective well-being within a moderated mediation model. Three hundred and sixteen late adolescents (173 women and 143 men) in Poland volunteered to take part in the study. The results show that meaning-making mediated relationships between religiosity and life satisfaction, religiosity and positive affect, and religiosity and negative affect. In addition, these mediation effects were moderated by the fear of COVID-19. Specifically, the indirect effects were stronger for adolescents with high fear than for those with low fear, which indicates that fear of COVID-19 serves as a ‘warning’ factor.
Disinfectant use by K-12 school staff to combat SARS-CoV-2

Timothy J. Hilbert; Candace Brancato; Kelsey Carter (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Infection Control
K-12 school staff from Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio were asked about their use of disinfectants to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in schools. Survey participants (n=1,555) reported frequent use of disinfectants, often using unknown products, and were provided little to no training on safe and effective use. Participant concerns included student involvement in disinfection, inadequate ventilation, surface contact time, and potential health effects.
31 - 45 of 71

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.