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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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256 - 268 of 268
COVID-19 in children and the role of school settings in COVID-19 transmission
Institution: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Published: August 2020
The aim of this document is to provide an overview of the epidemiology and disease characteristics of COVID-19 in children (0-18 years) in EU/EEA countries and the United Kingdom (UK), and an assessment of the role of childcare (preschools; ages 0-<5 years) and educational (primary and secondary schools; ages 5-18 years) settings in COVID-19 transmission.
Objectives for COVID-19 testing in school settings
Institution: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Published: August 2020
The aim of this document is to provide an overview of major aspects of testing, contact tracing, contact identification and contact follow-up in school settings within the EU/EEA countries and the United Kingdom (UK).
Infection control practices in children during COVID-19 pandemic: differences from adults

AUTHOR(S)
Ilker Devrim; Nuri Bayram

Published: August 2020   Journal: The American Journal of Infection Control
Limited studies have been published on practices and management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. Despite the fact that COVID-19 rarely caused any severe disease in children, the asymptomatic children might be playing an important role for spreading COVID-19 in healthcare facilities. This review aimed at sharing our experience of how to handle patients with COVID-19 in a pediatric referral and tertiary care hospital to prevent the possible transmissions to the healthcare workers (HCWs).
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 48 | Issue: 8 | No. of pages: 933-939 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care services, child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, infectious disease
Characterisation of COVID-19 pandemic in paediatric age group: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Naira M. Mustafa; Laila A. Selim

Published: July 2020   Journal: Journal of Clinical Virology
This article performes a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyse the disease characterisation in paediatric age group including the possibility of vertical transmission to the neonates.
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions
Institution: WHO
Published: July 2020
This document is an update to the scientific brief published on 29 March 2020 entitled “Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for infection prevention and control (IPC) precaution recommendations” and includes new scientific evidence available on transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, infectious disease | Publisher: WHO
The role of children in transmission of SARS-CoV-2: a rapid review

AUTHOR(S)
Xue Li; Wei Xu; Marshall Dozier (et al.)

Published: June 2020   Journal: Journal of Global Health
Understanding the role of children in the transmission of SARSCoV-2 is urgently required given its policy implications in relation to the reopening of schools and intergenerational contacts. This article conducted a rapid review of studies that investigated the role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. It synthesized evidence for four categories: 1) studies reporting documented cases of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by infected children; 2) studies presenting indirect evidence on the potential of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) children; 3) studies reporting cluster outbreaks of COVID-19 in schools; 4) studies estimating the proportions of children infected by SARS-CoV-2, and reported results narratively
Cite this research | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission
Novel Coronavirus 2019 transmission risk in educational settings

AUTHOR(S)
Chee Fu Yung; Kai-qian Kam; Karen Donceras Nadua (et al.)

Published: June 2020   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
This report describes the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among children in educational settings (preschool and secondary school). Transmission risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in schools is unknown. These investigations, especially in preschools, could not detect SARS-CoV-2 transmission despite screening of symptomatic and asymptomatic children. The data suggest that children are not the primary drivers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools and could help inform exit strategies for lifting of lockdowns.
COVID-19 vaccine: vaccinate the young to protect the old?

AUTHOR(S)
Alberto Giubilini; Julian Savulescu; Dominic Wilkinson

Published: June 2020   Journal: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
When we have a vaccine against COVID-19, who should be vaccinated first? The question is relevant because, initially, vaccine availability will likely be limited. After healthcare and some other essential workers, it might seem the most obvious candidates are the elderly and other groups that are more vulnerable to the virus. However, we argue that this is not necessarily the case. Protecting the most vulnerable might require prioritizing vaccinating children in order to maximize the benefits of indirect immunity for the elderly and the other vulnerable groups. Whether this will be the best strategy from a public health perspective will depend on characteristics of the vaccine and of the virus, which are currently unknown. Here, we assess this possibility from an ethical point of view, by drawing comparisons and analogies with the case of the flu vaccination and with other examples of health policies and practices. We conclude that there are strong ethical reasons to vaccinate the young to protect the old, provided that the risks imposed on children are reasonable, even if that implies using children as a means to protect the elderly and the vulnerable
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 7 | Issue: 1 | No. of pages: 13 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease transmission, immunization programmes, vaccination policies
Breastfeeding and COVID-19
Institution: WHO
Published: June 2020
Breastfeeding is the cornerstone of infant and young child survival, nutrition and development and maternal health. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, followed by continued breastfeeding with appropriate complementary foods for up to 2 years and beyond.
This scientific brief examines the evidence to date on the risks of transmission of COVID-19 from an infected mother to her baby through breastfeeding as well as evidence on the risks to child health from not breastfeeding
A review of COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Parisa Khoshnevisasl; Mansour Sadeghzadeh; Sara Sadeghzadeh

Published: May 2020   Journal: Journal of Comprehensive Pediatrics

This study gathers useful information about the virology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment with special consideration of pediatric patients. This review article helps medical caregivers to receive a quick and effective approach to deal with this disease in their practice.



Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 7 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, epidemiology, infectious disease
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): What do we know about children? A systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Nisha Metha; Oliver Mytton; Edward Mullins (et al.)

Published: May 2020   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
This systematic review aims to understand the infection rate, clinical presentation, clinical outcomes and transmission dynamics for SARS-CoV-2, in order to inform clinical and public health measures. Children appear to be less affected by COVID-19 than adults by observed rate of cases in large epidemiological studies. Limited data on attack rate indicate that children are just as susceptible to infection. Data on clinical outcomes are scarce but include several reports of asymptomatic infection and a milder course of disease in young children, though radiological abnormalities are noted. Severe cases are not reported in detail and there are little data relating to transmission.
Children are unlikely to be the main drivers of the COVID‐19 pandemic – A systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Jonas Ludvigsson

Published: May 2020   Journal: Acta Paediatrica
Many countries have closed schools and kindergartens to minimise COVID‐19, but the role that children play in disease transmission is unclear. This systematic literature review from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and medRxiv/bioRxiv preprint servers to 11 May 2020 identified 700 published and unpublished papers on COVID‐19 transmission by children. Children accounted for a small fraction of COVID‐19 cases and mostly had social contacts with peers or parents, rather than older people at risk of severe disease. Data on viral loads were scarce, but indicated that children may have lower levels than adults, partly because they often have fewer symptoms, and this should decrease the transmission risk. Household transmission studies showed that children were rarely the index case and case studies suggested that children with COVID‐19 seldom caused outbreaks. However, it is highly likely that children can transmit the SARS‐COV‐2 virus, which causes COVID‐19, and even asymptomatic children can have viral loads.

Conclusion
Children are unlikely to be the main drivers of the pandemic. Opening up schools and kindergartens is unlikely to impact COVID‐19 mortality rates in older people.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: children, COVID-19, disease transmission
The impact of unplanned school closure on children’s social contact: rapid evidence review

AUTHOR(S)
Samantha K. Brooks; Louise E. Smith; Rebecca K. Webster (et al.)

Published: April 2020   Journal: Eurosurveillance
Gaining control of an infectious disease outbreak can require making difficult decisions, particularly when infections are human-to-human transmissible. Children are often in close physical proximity at school, have less-than-perfect hygiene behaviours and have low prior immunity to many infections. For this reason, school closures are often proposed as one way of delaying the spread of infection. Given these considerations surrounding school closures, this study aimed to summarise existing literature on children’s activities and contacts made outside the home during unplanned school closures in this rapid evidence review. To expand, it examined: (i) what is currently known about the impact of unplanned school closure on children’s interaction with others outside the home, (ii) who provides childcare during a closure, (iii) what factors are associated with children interacting with others outside the home during a closure, and (iv) what affected parents think about closures.
Cite this research | Vol.: 25 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Education, Health | Tags: child education, child health, COVID-19 response, disease transmission, lockdown, school attendance
256 - 268 of 268

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.