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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 139
Association between living with children and outcomes from covid-19: OpenSAFELY cohort study of 12 million adults in England

AUTHOR(S)
Harriet Forbes; Caroline E. Morton; Seb Bacon (et al.)

Published: March 2021
This  population based cohort study, on behalf of NHS England, aimed to investigate whether risk of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) differed between adults living with and without children during the first two waves of the UK pandemic.
Implications of the school-household network structure on SARS-CoV-2 transmission under school reopening strategies in England

AUTHOR(S)
James D. Munday; Katharine Sherratt; Sophie Meakin (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Nature Communications
In early 2020 many countries closed schools to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Since then, governments have sought to relax the closures, engendering a need to understand associated risks. Using address records, this study construct a network of schools in England connected through pupils who share households. It evaluates the risk of transmission between schools under different reopening scenarios. It shows that whilst reopening select year-groups causes low risk of large-scale transmission, reopening secondary schools could result in outbreaks affecting up to 2.5 million households if unmitigated, highlighting the importance of careful monitoring and within-school infection control to avoid further school closures or other restrictions.
Model-based projections for COVID-19 outbreak size and student-days lost to closure in Ontario childcare centres and primary schools

AUTHOR(S)
Brendon Phillips; Dillon T. Browne; Madhur Anand (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports volume
There is a pressing need for evidence-based scrutiny of plans to re-open childcare centres during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study developed an agent-based model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission within a childcare centre and households. Scenarios varied the student-to-educator ratio (15:2, 8:2, 7:3), family clustering (siblings together versus random assignment) and time spent in class.
The interplay between environmental exposures and COVID-19 risks in the health of children

AUTHOR(S)
Peter D. Sly; Brittany A. Trottier; Catherine M. Bulka

Published: March 2021   Journal: Environmental Health volume
An unusual feature of SARS-Cov-2 infection and the COVID-19 pandemic is that children are less severely affected than adults. This is especially paradoxical given the epidemiological links between poor air quality and increased COVID-19 severity in adults and that children are generally more vulnerable than adults to the adverse consequences of air pollution. This study aims o identify gaps in knowledge about the factors that protect children from severe SARS-Cov-2 infection even in the face of air pollution, and to develop a transdisciplinary research strategy to address these gaps.
The impact of coronavirus outbreak on breastfeeding guidelines among Brazilian hospitals and maternity services: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Walusa Assad Gonçalves-Ferri; Fábia Martins Pereira-Cellini; Kelly Coca (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: International Breastfeeding Journal
The World Health Organization recognizes exclusive breastfeeding a safe source of nutrition available for children in most humanitarian emergencies, as in the current pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Despite the Brazilian national guideline protecting breastfeeding practices, there are many concerns about protecting infants from their infected mothers. This study aimed to analyze how the Brazilian hospitals and maternity services promote and support mothers suspected or diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
The severity and atypical presentations of COVID-19 infection in pediatrics

AUTHOR(S)
Nagwan Y. Saleh; Hesham M. Aboelghar; Sherif S. Salem (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: BMC Pediatrics
Emergence of 2019-nCoV attracted global attention and WHO declared COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern. Therefore this study aimed to explore the severity and atypical manifestations of COVID-19 among children. This is an observational cohort study conducted on 398 children with confirmed COVID-19 by using realtime reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of 2019-nCoV nucleic acid during the period from March to November 2020. Patients were subdivided regarding the severity of COVID-19 presentation into Group I (Non-severe COVID-19) was admitted into wards and Group II (Severe COVID-19) admitted into the PICU.
Outcomes of newborns to mothers with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
K. Ghema; M. Lehlimi; H. Toumi (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Infectious Diseases Now

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly across the world. Given the sharply increased infection rate, the number of pregnant women and children with COVID-19 is correspondingly on the rise. SARS-CoV-2 infection is transmitted through droplets; though hypothesized, other transmission routes have not been confirmed. As of now, it remains unclear whether and how SARS-CoV-2 can possibly be transmitted from the mother to the fetus. This study examines the medical records of 30 neonates born to women with COVID-19, the objective being to provide documented information on maternal-child transmission and infant outcomes.

COVID-19 management in pediatrics

AUTHOR(S)
Magalie L. Alcindor; FitzGerald Alcindor; Kristy E. Richard

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a deadly global pandemic, with scientific efforts improving our understanding of this novel coronavirus. No proven disease-specific therapies exist, although 2 vaccines have been recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration under emergency use authori-zation, and several others are in development or phase III clinical trial testing. COVID-19 presents in greater severity in the medically fragile, obese, elderly, and socially disadvantaged, and children in general are less affected. All children are at risk, but those with comorbidities and neonates are more susceptible. The multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a severe version which can present in any child with a recent COVID-19 infection. The face of the pandemic has been changing in the last few months, with recent increasing cases,virus mutations, and onset of vaccination. This article provides COVID-19 management for children and adolescents and implications for nursing and advanced practice providers.
School attendance, asthma risk, and COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Elissa M. Abrams; Marcus Shaker; Matthew Greenhawt (et al.)

Published: March 2021
In the face of tremendous uncertainty during the current pandemic, there is a need for clear and consistent recommendations and an understanding of the evidence in general, and for families of children with allergic conditions. A common concern of parents of children with asthma is the risk that in-person learning poses during the pandemic. This Rostrum examines the actual risk of in-person learning among children with asthma during novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the discrepancy between perceived and actual risk, the contributing factors to this discrepancy, and possible solutions to narrow this divide.
Demographic, psychological, and experiential correlates of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination intentions in a sample of Canadian families

AUTHOR(S)
Christine L. Lackner; Charles H. Wang

Published: March 2021   Journal: Vaccine: X
The COVID-19 pandemic has been ongoing for close to a year, with second waves occurring presently and many viewing vaccine uptake as the most likely way to curb successive waves and promote herd immunity. Reaching herd immunity status likely necessitates that children, as well as their parents, receive a vaccine targeting SARS-CoV-2. This exploratory study investigated the demographic, experiential, and psychological factors associated with the anticipated likelihood and speed of having children receive a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a sample of 455 Canadian families (858 children; parents’ mean age = 38.2 ± 6.82 years).
Prevalence of RT-qPCR-detected SARS-CoV-2 infection at schools: first results from the Austrian School-SARS-CoV-2 prospective cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Peter Willeit; Robert Krause; Bernd Lamprecht

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe Log inRegister RESEAR
The role of schools in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is much debated. We aimed to quantify reliably the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections at schools detected with reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-qPCR). This nationwide prospective cohort study monitors a representative sample of pupils (grade 1–8) and teachers at Austrian schools throughout the school year 2020/2021. It repeatedly tested participants for SARS-CoV-2 infection using a gargling solution and RT-qPCR and herein reported on the first two rounds of examinations.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease transmission, infectious disease, school attendance | Countries: Austria
A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of the role of schools in the SARS-CoV-2 second wave in Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Gandini; Maurizio Rainisio; Maria Luisa Iannuzzo (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
During COVID-19 pandemic, school closure has been mandated in analogy to its effect against influenza, but it is unclear whether schools are early COVID-19 amplifiers. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study was performed in Italy during the second COVID-19 wave (from September 30, 2020 until at least February 28, 2021). Databases from the Italian Ministry of Education and the Veneto region systems of SARS-CoV-2 cases notification and of schools’ secondary cases tracing were used to compare SARS-CoV-2 incidence in students/school staff and general population and incidence across age groups. Number of tests, secondary infections by type of index case and ratio cases/ tests per school were estimated using an adjusted multivariable generalized linear regression model. Regional reproduction numbers Rt were estimated from Italian Civil Protection daily incidence data with a method of posterior distribution using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm.
SARS-CoV-2 prevalence associated to low socioeconomic status and overcrowding in an LMIC megacity: a population-based seroepidemiological survey in Lima, Peru

AUTHOR(S)
Mary F. Reyes-Vega; M.Gabriela Soto-Cabezas; Fany Cardenas (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
Worldwide, Peru has one of the highest infection fatality rates of COVID-19, and its capital city, Lima, accumulates roughly 50% of diagnosed cases. Despite surveillance efforts to assess the extent of the pandemic, reported cases and deaths only capture a fraction of its impact due to COVID-19′s broad clinical spectrum. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Lima, stratified by age, sex, region, socioeconomic status (SES), overcrowding, and symptoms.
Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the clinical outcomes and placental pathology of pregnant women and their infants: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Irina Oltean; Jason Tran; Sarah Lawrence (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Heliyon
Pregnant women are susceptible to viral infections due to physiological changes such as cell-mediated immunity. No severe adverse pregnancy or neonatal outcomes have been consistently reported in 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) positive pregnancy cases. There are controversies around the role of COVID-19 in pregnancy. A systematic review was conducted to examine clinical maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes. Studies were included if they reported SARS-CoV-2 infection among pregnant women and/or COVID-19 positive neonates as validated by positive antibody testing or viral testing using polymerase chain reaction. Case series, case reports, case-control studies, and comparative studies were included. Eight hundred and thirty-seven records were identified, resulting in 525 records for level I screening. Forty-one were included after full-text review.
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children in summer schools applying stringent control measures in Barcelona, Spain

AUTHOR(S)
Iolanda Jordan; Mariona Fernandez de Sevilla; Victoria Fumado (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Understanding the role of children in SARS-CoV-2 transmission is critical to guide decision-making for schools in the pandemic. We aimed to describe the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adult staff in summer schools.
16 - 30 of 139

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.