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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 80
Reopening schools and the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Israel: a nationwide study

AUTHOR(S)
Ido Somekh; Tamy Shohat (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
The benefits of school reopening must be weighed against the morbidity and mortality risks and the impact of enhancing spread of COVID-19. This study investigated the effects of school reopening and easing of social distancing restrictions on the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Israel, between March-July 2020.
Simulating preventative testing of SARS-CoV-2 in schools: policy implications

AUTHOR(S)
Ali Asgary; Monica Gabriela Cojocaru; Mahdi M. Najafabadi (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
School testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection has become an important policy and planning issue as schools were reopened after the summer season and as the COVID-19 pandemic continues. Decisions to test or not to test and, if testing, how many tests, how often and for how long, are complex decisions that need to be taken under uncertainty and conflicting pressures from various stakeholders. This study aims to develop an agent-based model and simulation tool that can be used to analyze the outcomes and effectiveness of different testing strategies and scenarios in schools with various number of classrooms and class sizes.
Korean mothers’ morality in the wake of COVID-19 contact-tracing surveillance

AUTHOR(S)
Eun-Sung Kim; Ji-Bum Chung

Published: January 2021   Journal: Social Science & Medicine
The Korean government collects and releases sociodemographic information about people infected with COVID-19, their travel histories, and whether or not the patients wore masks. Korean mothers then upload this information on the boards of online groups called “mom cafes.” Based upon a digital ethnography of 15 “mom cafes,” this article examines how Korean mothers understand the travel histories of virus patients and explore the relationships between morality and materiality in the context of infectious disease surveillance.
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on treatment adherence and patients’ behavior

AUTHOR(S)
Lev Dorfman; Raouf Nassar; Dalit Binjamin Ohana (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Pediatric Research
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic affects medical care worldwide, including patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, we aimed to assess its impact on health care provision, fear of infection, adherence to medical treatment, and compliance with preventative instructions in children and adolescents with IBD.
Immune determinants of COVID-19 disease presentation and severity

AUTHOR(S)
Petter Brodin

Published: January 2021   Journal: Nature Medicine
COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, is mild to moderate in the majority of previously healthy individuals, but can cause life-threatening disease or persistent debilitating symptoms in some cases. The most important determinant of disease severity is age, with individuals over 65 years having the greatest risk of requiring intensive care, and men are more susceptible than women. In contrast to other respiratory viral infections, young children seem to be less severely affected. It is now clear that mild to severe acute infection is not the only outcome of COVID-19, and long-lasting symptoms are also possible. In contrast to severe acute COVID-19, such ‘long COVID’ is seemingly more likely in women than in men. Also, postinfectious hyperinflammatory disease has been described as an additional outcome after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here our current understanding of the immunological determinants of COVID-19 disease presentation and severity is discussed, and it is related to known immune-system differences between young and old people and between men and women, and other factors associated with different disease presentations and severity.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 27 | No. of pages: 28-33 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, disease control, disease transmission, COVID-19
The obligation of parents with COVID‐19 positivity to stay separated from their children

AUTHOR(S)
Melike Yavaş Çelik

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing

The aim of this study was to examine the experience of parents with coronavirus disease 2019 which demanded they separate from their children. Designed as a descriptive and qualitative study; the interviews were guided by a questionnaire developed by researchers in light of the relevant literature.

Considerations for the transportation of school aged children amid the Coronavirus pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Yousif Abulhassan; Gerard A. Davis

Published: January 2021   Journal: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives
Close proximity seating and the distinctive anthropometric characteristics of young children introduce unique challenges when implementing control strategies to promote safe transportation on school buses. Though face coverings may become one of the most commonly used controls on mass transportation to reduce the spread of COVID-19, the lack of personal protective equipment specifically designed for young children requires further investigation into control strategies to potentially reduce the spread of COVID-19 among school bus passengers. The purpose of this paper is to identify potential concerns and countermeasures (immediate and long term) to be considered for the safe transportation of children amid the Coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis by taking into consideration the design of school bus cabins and the anthropometric characteristics of children. COVID-19 mitigation strategies concerning cabin design and busing operations are discussed to provide general recommendations for operating fleets while providing as safe and healthy a passenger environment as possible considering both practicality and cost-effectiveness.
Cite this research | Vol.: 9 | No. of pages: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: disease transmission, school attendance, COVID-19 response
Effects of voluntary event cancellation and school closure as countermeasures against COVID-19 outbreak in Japan

AUTHOR(S)
Yoshiyuki Sugishita; Junko Kurita; Tamie Sugawara

Published: December 2020   Journal: Plos One
To control the COVID-19 outbreak in Japan, sports and entertainment events were canceled and schools were closed throughout Japan from February 26 through March 19. That policy has been designated as voluntary event cancellation and school closure (VECSC). This study assesses VECSC effectiveness based on predicted outcomes. A simple susceptible–infected–recovered model was applied to data of patients with symptoms in Japan during January 14 through March 26. The respective reproduction numbers for periods before VECSC (R0), during VECSC (Re), and after VECSC (Ra) were estimated.
SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in educational settings: a prospective, cross-sectional analysis of infection clusters and outbreaks in England

AUTHOR(S)
Sharif A. Ismail; Vanessa Saliba; Jamie Lopez Bernal (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Understanding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and transmission in educational settings is crucial for ensuring the safety of staff and children during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study estimated he rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks among staff and students in educational settings during the summer half-term (June–July, 2020) in England. In this prospective, cross-sectional analysis, Public Health England initiated enhanced national surveillance in educational settings in England that had reopened after the first national lockdown, from June 1 to July 17, 2020.
Shared decision‐making for infant feeding and care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Laura N. Haiek; Michelle LeDrew; Christiane Charette (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Maternal and Child Nutrition
Despite decades of research establishing the importance of breastfeeding, skin‐to‐skin contact and mother–infant closeness, the response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has underscored the hidden assumption that these practices can be dispensed with no consequences to mother or child. This article aims to support shared decision‐making process for infant feeding and care with parents and health care providers during the unprecedented times of the pandemic.
A meta-analysis on the role of children in SARS-CoV-2 in household transmission clusters

AUTHOR(S)
Yanshan Zhu; Conor J. Bloxham; Katina D. Hulme (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
The role of children in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 remains highly controversial. To address this issue, a meta-analysis of the published literature on household SARSCoV-2 transmission clusters (n=213 from 12 countries) was performed. Only 8 (3.8%) transmission clusters were identified as having a paediatric index case. Asymptomatic index cases were associated with a lower secondary attack in contacts than symptomatic index cases (estimate risk ratio [RR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.29). To determine the susceptibility of children to household infections the secondary attack rate (SAR) in paediatric household contacts was assessed. The secondary attack rate in paediatric household contacts was lower than in adult household contacts (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42- 0.91). These data have important implications for the ongoing management of the COVID-19 pandemic, including potential vaccine prioritization strategies.
The role of schools and school-aged children in SARS-CoV-2 transmission

AUTHOR(S)
Stefan Flasche; W. John Edmunds

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Schools form a fundamental part of our society. They are crucial for passing on knowledge and values to younger generations and essential for the mental wellbeing of children and parents alike. Unfortunately, they also present a seemingly excellent environment for the spread of respiratory infections through high-frequency and close contacts in often poorly ventilated environments.  In their assessment of the partial reopening of educational settings in the UK in June and early July, when SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was relatively low, Sharif Ismail and colleagues’ study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases reassuringly found that despite a median of 928 000 children attending educational settings daily, few SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks were identified. Where secondary cases linked to within-school exposure were found, these were more frequently among teaching and administrative staff.
COVID-19: lessons to date from China

AUTHOR(S)
Xiaoxia Lu; Yuhan Xing; Gary Wing-Kin Wong

Published: December 2020   Journal: Archives of Disease in Childhood
In China, there have been more than 1200 paediatric cases. Most paediatric patients acquire the infection through household contact with infected adults. The disease in children is usually self-limiting and most infected children will recover uneventfully within 7–10 days. Other than symptoms of the respiratory tract, many children may present with gastrointestinal symptoms. Older children are more likely to have asymptomatic infection. Although deaths related to SARS-CoV-2 are rarely reported in the paediatric age group, young children and those with underlying medical conditions are more likely to develop severe illness. Only a small fraction of neonates born to infected mother would acquire the virus by vertical transmission. Because a large proportion of children and adolescents may have asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic infection, children are likely to play an important role in community transmission of this infection. Screening of children who have a definitive contact history will facilitate early diagnosis and isolation of all infected children. This review summarises the lessons learned in China with regard to the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the paediatric population.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 105 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 1146-1150 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child mortality, disease transmission, COVID-19 response | Countries: China
Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states

AUTHOR(S)
Ramanan Laxminarayan; Shankar Reddy Dudala Dudala; Brian Wahl (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Science
Although most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in low-resource countries, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in such contexts. Data from the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh provide a detailed view into severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission pathways and mortality in a high-incidence setting. Reported cases and deaths have been concentrated in younger cohorts than would be expected from observations in higher-income countries, even after accounting for demographic differences across settings. Among 575,071 individuals exposed to 84,965 confirmed cases, infection probabilities ranged from 4.7 to 10.7% for low-risk and high-risk contact types, respectively. Same-age contacts were associated with the greatest infection risk. Case fatality ratios spanned 0.05% at ages of 5 to 17 years to 16.6% at ages of 85 years or more. Primary data from low-resource countries are urgently needed to guide control measures.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 370 | Issue: 6517 | No. of pages: 691-697 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, data collection, disease control, disease transmission, COVID-19, epidemiology, low-income countries | Countries: India
Saliva: an important alternative for screening and monitoring of COVID-19 in children

AUTHOR(S)
Catielma Nascimento Santos; Karla Mayra Rezende; Nilson Ferreira de Oliveira Neto (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Brazilian Oral Research
The increasing number of cases of COVID-19 worldwide poses challenges to healthcare systems not only in effectively identifying individuals positive for SARS-CoV-2, but also in isolating cases to minimise contagion in early diagnosing more severe cases that will need hospitalization. Less-invasive collection methods are indispensable in a pandemic scenario as large-scale tests are necessary to understand the actual evolution of contagion in different populations, thus enabling decision-making based on scientific evidence. Saliva has been shown to be an alternative for diagnosing viral infections as this biological fluid can be easily and quickly collected without using specific devices and causing less discomfort during collection, which is an important factor for use in children. Despite the smaller percentage of severe cases of COVID-19 among children, they seem to play an important role in the contagion as they have the same potential of transmission as that of adults. Knowing the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic in children is extremely important, mainly regarding the changing in rules of social distancing, such as re-opening schools and recreational activities spaces.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.