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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 324
COVID-19 infection in children: diagnosis and management

Frank Zhu; Jocelyn Y. Ang

Published: April 2022   Journal: Current Infectious Disease Reports

Due to the rapidly changing landscape of COVID-19, the purpose of this review is to provide a concise and updated summary of pediatric COVID-19 diagnosis and management. The relative proportion of pediatric cases have significantly increased following the emergence of the Omicron variant (from < 2% in the early pandemic to 25% from 1/27 to 2/3/22). While children present with milder symptoms than adults, severe disease can still occur, particularly in children with comorbidities. There is a relative paucity of pediatric data in the management of COVID-19 and the majority of recommendations remain based on adult data.

Breastfeeding/Breast milk safety in infants of mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection

Nursan Cinar; Ozge Karakaya Suzan; Sinem Ozturkler (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers in the lactation period can breastfeed their infants; and whether suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers can breastfeed their infants by taking some precautions. The study also aimed to present the measures that can be taken in line with the evidence. The studies conducted after November 2019 and including infants of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infected mothers were reviewed between 2019 and 2020. A literature review was conducted in five electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Scopus) to reach original quantitative studies in English. The present authors retrieved 46 of the 1,229 studies included after screening. Three studies were cross-sectional studies, 30 were case studies, and 13 were cohorts.
Child transmission of SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sarah L. Silverberg; Bei Yuan Zhang; Shu Nan Jessica Li (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

Understanding of the role of children in COVID-19 transmission has significant implications for school and childcare policies, as well as appropriate targeting of vaccine campaigns. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the role of children in SARS-CoV-2 transmission to other children and adults. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science were electronically searched for articles published before March 31, 2021. Studies of child-to-child and child-to-adult transmission and quantified the incidence of index and resulting secondary attack rates of children and adults in schools, households, and other congregate pediatric settings were identified. All articles describing confirmed transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from a child were included. PRISMA guidelines for data abstraction were followed, with each step conducted by two reviewers.

Screening and vaccination against COVID-19 to minimise school closure: a modelling study

Elisabetta Colosi; Giulia Bassignana; Diego Andrés Contreras (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Lancet. Infectious diseases

Schools were closed extensively in 2020-21 to counter SARS-CoV-2 spread, impacting students' education and wellbeing. With highly contagious variants expanding in Europe, safe options to maintain schools open are urgently needed. By estimating school-specific transmissibility, this study evaluates costs and benefits of different protocols for SARS-CoV-2 control at school. The study developed an agent-based model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools. It used empirical contact data in a primary and a secondary school and data from pilot screenings in 683 schools during the alpha variant (B.1.1.7) wave in March-June, 2021, in France. It fitted the model to observed school prevalence to estimate the school-specific effective reproductive number for the alpha (Ralpha) and delta (B.1.617.2; Rdelta) variants and performed a cost-benefit analysis examining different intervention protocols.

Impact of COVID-19 infection in pregnancy and neonates: a case control study

Camille Daclina; Marie Carbonnela; Manon Rossignol (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction

To evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women who were infected by COVID-19 during pregnancy. A Case control retrospective study was conducted in an Obstetrical Department of a west Parisian area during the first year of COVID-19 pandemic. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between a group of women infected by the SARS-CoV-2 virus during pregnancy (March 2020- February 2021) and a control group of women delivering before pandemic. They were matched according to age and parity. Subgroups of SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring before vs after 37 weeks of gestations and symptomatic vs asymptomatic patients were analyzed. The rate of preterm birthpreeclampsia, placental abruption and stillbirth were compared between the year of pandemic and the year before for all deliveries.

Health disparities, COVID-19, and maternal and childbirth outcomes: a meta-epidemiological study of equity reporting in systematic reviews

Micah Hartwell; Vanessa Lin; Ashton Gatewood (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Pregnant women with COVID-19 are at increased risk for adverse maternal and pregnancy outcomes, and birth complications. Given the health outcome disparities among pregnant women of racial and ethnic minorities and the reliance of medical practice on systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SRMAs)—as they are the apical component in the hierarchy of evidence in medical research—the primary objective of the study is to examine the inclusion of the equity reporting in SRMAs focused on pregnancy outcomes and COVID-19 using PROGRESS-Plus equity framework. PROGRESS represents equity measures of Place, Race, Occupation, Gender, Religion, Education, Social capital, and Socio-economic status.
Protecting breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review of perinatal care recommendations in the context of maternal and child well-being

Aleksandra Wesołowska; Magdalena Orczyk-Pawiłowicz; Agnieszka Bzikowska-Jura (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The objective of this scoping review is to determine to what extent the recommendations on perinatal care protect breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic. The review follows the PRISMA ScR Extension guidelines. The research was conducted in Scopus, Medline via Pubmed, and Web of Science databases from 1 March 2020 to 31 May 2021, using 392 combinations of keywords. The study searched for reviews and original papers published in English providing recommendations on delivery mode, companion during labor, the possibility of skin-to-skin contact (SSC), breastfeeding, and visitors policy. After screening, 86 out of 8416 publications qualified for data extraction. The majority of them indicated that COVID-19 infection is not a sufficient reason for a cesarean section; however, on a national level, cesarean births in severely ill patients were overrepresented.
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation in children and adolescents in Norway: a nationwide population-based study

Ketil Størdal; Paz Lopez-Doriga Ruiz; Margrethe Greve-Isdahl (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMJ Open

This study aims to determine risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among children and adolescents. It is a nationwide, population-based cohort study which was conducted in Norway from 1 March 2020 to 30 November 2021 and included all Norwegian residents<18 years of age.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 12 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, COVID-19, disease transmission, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic, risk | Countries: Norway
Survey responses of school closures during the COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan

Kuo-Yu Chao; Tung-Yuan Hsiao; Wei Cheng

Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health
Taiwan faced a surge of COVID-19 infections in May 2021. Because new cases were quickly increasing, parents called for school closures. A national parent group used an online survey to collect opinions about upcoming school closings planned by the Ministry of Education. This study evaluated the results of the survey for all respondents and investigated the level of viral transmission following school closures among students in Taiwan.
SARS-CoV-2 positivity in offspring and timing of mother-to-child transmission: living systematic review and meta-analysis

John Allotey; Shaunak Chatterjee; Tania Kew (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMJ

This study aims to assess the rates of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in babies born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the timing of mother-to-child transmission and perinatal outcomes, and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 status in offspring. It is a living systematic review and meta-analysis. Major databases have beeen used as data sources between 1 December 2019 and 3 August 2021.

Giving birth and becoming a parent during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative analysis of 806 women's responses to three open-ended questions in an online survey

Tine S. Eri; Ellen Blix; Soo Downe (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Midwifery

When Europe was hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, changes were made in maternity care to reduce infections. In Norway, hospital maternity wards, postnatal wards, and neonatal units’ companions and visitors were restricted. We aimed to explore the experiences of being pregnant, giving birth and becoming a parent in Norway during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is based on the responses from women who provided in-depth qualitative accounts to the ongoing Babies Born Better survey version 3 during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The responses were analysed with inductive thematic analysis.

Risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfections in children: a prospective national surveillance study between January, 2020, and July, 2021, in England

Anna A. Mensah; Helen Campbell; Julia Stowe (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: DOI:

Reinfection after primary SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncommon in adults, but little is known about the risks, characteristics, severity, or outcomes of reinfection in children. This study aimed to assess the risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in children and compare this with the risk in adults, by analysis of national testing data for England. National surveillance study to assess reinfection of SARS-CoV-2 in children in England  used national SARS-CoV-2 testing data to estimate the risk of reinfection at least 90 days after primary infection from Jan 27, 2020, to July, 31, 2021, which encompassed the alpha (B.1.1.7) and delta (B.1.617.2) variant waves in England. Data from children up to age 16 years who met the criteria for reinfection were included. Disease severity was assessed by linking reinfection cases to national hospital admission data, intensive care admission, and death registration datasets.

Investigating the association between severity of COVID-19 infection during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes

Anita Dileep; Sham ZainAlAbdin; Salah AbuRuz (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports
Pregnant women with COVID-19 require special attention and care, since the infection does not only affect the mother, but also her neonate and adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. The main goal of this retrospective cohort study is to investigate association between the maternal COVID-19 severity and risk of developing adverse neonatal outcomes. Patients were stratified into asymptomatic/mild and moderate to severe COVID-19. The following neonatal outcomes were assessed: gestational age at the time of delivery, birth weight, neonatal infection, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission.
A new threshold reveals the uncertainty about the effect of school opening on diffusion of Covid-19

Alberto Gandolfi; Andrea Aspri; Elena Beretta (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Scientific Reports volume
Studies on the effects of school openings or closures during the Covid-19 pandemic seem to reach contrasting conclusions even in similar contexts. This study aims at clarifying this controversy. A mathematical analysis of compartmental models with subpopulations has been conducted, starting from the SIR model, and progressively adding features modeling outbreaks or upsurge of variants, lockdowns, and vaccinations.
When do children avoid infection risks: lessons for schools during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nina H. Fefferman; Katy-Ann Blacker; Charles A. Price (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: iScience
The physical closing of schools due to COVID-19 has disrupted both student learning and family logistics. There is significant pressure for in-person learning to remain open for all children. However, as is expected with outbreaks of novel infections, vaccines and other pharmaceutical therapeutics may not be instantly available. This raises serious public health questions about the risks to children and society at large. The best protective measures for keeping young children in school focus on behaviors that limit transmission. It is therefore critical to understand how we can engage children in age-appropriate ways that will best support their ability to adhere to protocols effectively. This study aims to synthesize published studies with new results to investigate the earliest ages at which children form an understanding of infection risk and when they can translate that understanding effectively to protective action.
16 - 30 of 324

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.