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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 234
Risk of infection and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adolescents in households, communities and educational settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Omar Irfan; Jiang Li; Kun Tang (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Global Health
There is uncertainty with respect to SARS-CoV-2 transmission in children (0-19 years) with controversy on effectiveness of school-closures in controlling the pandemic. It is of equal importance to evaluate the risk of transmission in children who are often asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic carriers that may incidentally transmit SARS-CoV-2 in different settings. This review aims to assess transmission and risks for SARS-CoV-2 in children (by agegroups or grades) in community and educational-settings compared to adults. Data for the review were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WHO COVID-19 Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) Database, WanFang Database, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Google Scholar, and preprints from medRixv and bioRixv) covering a timeline from December 1, 2019 to April 1, 2021.
Impact of coronavirus 2019 on mental health and lifestyle adaptations of pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional study

Mona Hashim; Ayla Coussa; Ayesha S. Al Dhaher (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

In light of the pandemic, pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to increased psychological distress and in need of imperative preventive measures. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on mental health, lifestyle adaptations, and their determinants among pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates. A survey was conducted electronically between June and August 2020. Pregnant women were recruited from prenatal clinics in the UAE and invited to participate in an online survey developed on Google Forms. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, the Impact of Event Scale- Revised, the Perceived Support Scale and lifestyle-related factors.

Diagnostic imaging in the newborn, child and adolescent infected with SARS-CoV-2: is there a realistic alternative to lung-HRCT and chest X-rays ? A systematic review of the literature

Costantino Caroselli; Michael Blaivas; Sara Falzetti

Published: July 2021   Journal: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology home
Chest computed tomography (CT) has been frequently used to evaluate patients with potential COVID-19 infection. However, this may be particularly risky for pediatric patients due to high doses of ionizing radiation.This study sought to evaluate COVID-19 imaging options in pediatric patients based on published literature.It performed an exhaustive literature review focusing on COVID-19 imaing of pediatric patients. Researcher used “COVID-19”, “SARS-CoV2”, “coronavirus”, “2019-nCoV”, “Wuhan virus”, “lung ultrasound (LUS)”, “sonography”, “lung HRCT”, “children”, “childhood” and “newborn” as search terms to query online databases including: US National Library of Medicine (PubMed), Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), LitCovid, WHO COVID-19 database and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline Bireme). Articles meeting inclusion criteria were included in the analysis and review.
Prevalence and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in childcare facilities: a longitudinal study

Luise Haag; Judith Blankenburg; Manja Unrath (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
This study aims to evaluate the role of childcare facilities in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, we conducted a longitudinal study to gain further knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, transmission and spread among preschool children, their parents and caretakers. Children between 1 and 6 years of age, their parents and caregivers in 14 childcare facilities in Dresden, Saxony/Germany were invited to participate in the KiTaCoviDD19-study between July 2020 and January 2021. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was assessed up to 4 times during the study period in all participating adults and personal characteristics as well as epidemiologic information of personal SARS-CoV-2 history were obtained. Samples for stool virus shedding of SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by PCR every 2-4 weeks in all participating children.
The toll of COVID-19 on African children: a descriptive analysis on the COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality among the pediatric population in Sub-Saharan Africale myopericarditis after vaccination with the Pfizer- BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 mR

Sabina Rodriguez Velásquez; Léa Jacques; Jyoti Dalal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Infectious Diseases

Few data on the COVID-19 epidemiological characteristics among the pediatric population in Africa exists. This paper examines the age and sex distribution of the morbidity and mortality rate in children with COVID-19 and compares it to the adult population within 15 Sub-Saharan African countries. A merge line listing dataset shared by countries within the Regional Office for Africa was analyzed. Patients diagnosed within 1 March and 1 September 2020 with confirmed positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Children's data were stratified into three age groups: 0-4 years, 5-11 years, and 12-17 years, while adults were combined. The cumulative incidence of cases, its medians, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

Implementation of a pooled surveillance testing program for asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in K-12 schools and universities

Rachelle P. Mendoza; Chongfeng Bi; Hui-Ting Cheng (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
The negative impact of continued school closures during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic warrants the establishment of cost-effective strategies for surveillance and screening to safely reopen and monitor for potential in-school transmission. This paper presents a novel approach to increase the availability of repetitive and routine COVID-19 testing that may ultimately reduce the overall viral burden in the community. This study implemented a testing program using the SalivaClear࣪ pooled surveillance method that included students, faculty and staff from K-12 schools (student age range 5–18 years) and universities (student age range >18 years) across the country (Mirimus Clinical Labs, Brooklyn, NY). The data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, kappa agreement, and outlier detection analysis.
Maternal outcomes and risk factors for COVID-19 severity among pregnant women

Manon Vouga; Guillaume Favre; Oscar Martinez‑Perez (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
Pregnant women may be at higher risk of severe complications associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which may lead to obstetrical complications. We performed a case control study comparing pregnant women with severe coronavirus disease 19 (cases) to pregnant women with a milder form (controls) enrolled in the COVI-Preg international registry cohort between March 24 and July 26, 2020. Risk factors for severity, obstetrical and immediate neonatal outcomes were assessed. A total of 926 pregnant women with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 were included, among which 92 (9.9%) presented with severe COVID-19 disease. Risk factors for severe maternal outcomes were pulmonary comorbidities [aOR 4.3, 95% CI 1.9–9.5], hypertensive disorders [aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.0–7.0] and diabetes [aOR2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.5].
Children’s role in the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review of early surveillance data on susceptibility, severity, and transmissibility

KatyA. M. Gaythorpe; Sangeeta Bhatia; Tara Mangal (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in all age groups including infants, children, and adolescents. However, the role of children in the COVID-19 pandemic is still uncertain. This systematic review of early studies synthesises evidence on the susceptibility of children to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the severity and clinical outcomes in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 by children in the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Reviewers extracted data from relevant, peer-reviewed studies published up to July 4th 2020 during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak using a standardised form and assessed quality using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies.
Public health preventive measures and child health behaviours during COVID-19: a cohort study

Xuedi Li; Leigh M. Vanderloo; Jonathon L. Maguire (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Canadian Journal of Public Health

The primary objective was to determine the association between public health preventive measures and children’s outdoor time, sleep duration, and screen time during COVID-19. A cohort study using repeated measures of exposures and outcomes was conducted in healthy children (0 to 10 years) through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) COVID-19 Study of Children and Families in Toronto, Canada, between April 14 and July 15, 2020. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires about adherence to public health measures and children’s health behaviours.

Passive and active immunity in infants born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy: prospective cohort study

Dongli Song; Mary Prahl; Stephanie L. Gaw (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: BMJ Open

This is a prospective observational study aiming toinvestigate maternal immunoglobulins’ (IgM, IgG) response to SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and IgG transplacental transfer, to characterise neonatal antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to longitudinally follow actively and passively acquired antibodies in infants. It was performed in the public healthcare system in Santa Clara County (California, USA).

Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 testing in children during a low prevalence period (VIGIL study 1)

Eleonore Eskander; Camille Jung; Corinne Levy (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Infectious Diseases Now

SARS-CoV-2 induces a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, which overlap with other viral infections very common in children. This study aimed to describe the percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests in symptomatic and asymptomatic ambulatory children and to determine the predictive factors for positivity. From June 1 to July 31, 2020,  a cross-sectional prospective, multicenter study (13 hospital emergency units and 59 ambulatory pediatricians) was conducted throughout France. Children under 15 years of age with a prescription of nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test were enrolled.

Presentation of a participatory approach to develop preventive measures to reduce COVID-19 transmission in child care

Mathias Diebig; Susan Gritzka; Nico Dragano (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology volume
It can be suspected that work in child care facilities is associated with an elevated exposure risk towards SARS-CoV-2 infections. It is still unclear under which conditions employees in those facilities can safely pursue their work. Preventive workplace-related measures to reduce transmission dynamics in this work environment need to be developed. These measures need to build on a solid scientific foundation and be ready for practical use at the same time. Therefore, the aim of the study is to present a participatory approach to identify, minimize, and eliminate workplace-specific COVID-19 transmission within child care. The approach presented combines quantitative as well as qualitative elements and includes a screening of critical workplace conditions and the development of preventive measures to foster a safe workplace design.
School openings and the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy: a provincial-level analysis using the synthetic control method

Vincenzo Alfano; Salvatore Ercolano; Lorenzo Cicatiello

Published: July 2021   Journal: Health Policy
Schools have been central in the debate about COVID-19. On the one hand, many have argued that they should be kept open, given their importance to youngsters and the future of the country, and the effort many countries have made in establishing protocols to keep them safe. On the other hand, it has been argued that open schools further the spread of the virus, given that these are places with large-scale interaction between teenagers and adults accompanying their children, as well as a major source of congestion on public transportation. This study aims to identify the effect of school openings on the spread of COVID-19 contagion. Italy offers an interesting quasi-experimental setting in this regard due to the scattered openings that schools have experienced. By means of a quantitative analysis, employing a synthetic control method approach, we find that Bolzano, the first province in Italy to open schools after the summer break, had far more cases than its synthetic counterfactual, built from a donor pool formed from the other Italian provinces. Results confirm the hypothesis that despite the precautions, opening schools causes an increase in the infection rate, and this must be taken into account by policymakers.
Evaluation of changes in pediatric healthcare activity during the Covid-19 state of alarm in the Canary Islands

Valewska G. Wallis Gómez; María Hernández Apolinario; Pedro Saavedra Santana (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Public Health in Practice

During the SARS-CoV-2 state of alarm (SoA), a 30–70% reduction was observed in the number of visits to Pediatric Emergency Departments (ED), as well as frequent delay in diagnosis or difficulty accessing healthcare services. This study evaluates modifications observed in pediatric healthcare activity during the SoA. This is a descriptive retrospective observational study of the hospital pediatric activity.

The Covid-19 pandemic teaching modalities in Turkey: an evaluation of school gardens and classes

Murat Başeğmez; Cevdet Coşkun Aydın

Published: July 2021   Journal: Health Policy and Technology

The main scientific contribution of this study is to design an approach that can regulate school safety and student health in gardens and classes during the pandemic period using GIS. The method of this study is based on the use of school areas and building data, the creation of 4m2 social distance areas for students, and the evaluation of these areas in terms of health measures. To this aim, first, the relevant guidelines issued by the government institutions in Turkey during the COVID-19 process were examined, in relation to how they will reflect on education policies regarding the sanitary safety of schools. This data was obtained from open-source data sets. Then, in the application stage, 20 schools were selected in order to analyse the sustainability of education in the Balgat district. In addition, the sanitary conditions of classrooms and garden areas were evaluated within the framework of educational policies, taking into account the capabilities of geographical information systems (GIS).

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.