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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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121 - 135 of 140
A citizen science facemask experiment and educational modules to improve coronavirus safety in communities and schools

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah E. Eichler; Austin P. Hopperton; Juan José Alava (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Medicine
There is need to support facemask citizen science and experiential education among children and families as the globe exits from the current lockdown, and teachers and students desire and seek for safe strategies to return to densely-attended schools. COVID-19 is a pandemic respiratory disease that disseminates as infectious respiratory or saliva droplets are released into the environment as people talk, sneeze, and cough. Currently the most publicized methods to prevent local transmission of COVID-19 and promote “droplet safety” in hospitals and communities include hand washing, social distancing, and stay-at-home strategies. In contrast to established benefits for medical masks in hospitals, the benefits of wearing masks or face covers/coverings (hereafter, “facemask”) in the community have been inconsistently debated by the media, creating confusion, and misinformation. Furthermore, high-profile political leaders in countries heavily affected by the pandemic have given misleading signs regarding containment measures associated with COVID-19 increasingly polarizing local communities around arguments on the value of facemasks in promoting public health, which is critically important to incentivize during the emergence of citizens from their lockdowns and during the phase of reopening local economies.
An analysis of child-care and school outbreak data and evidence-based recommendations for opening schools & keeping them open

AUTHOR(S)
Fiona Russell; Kathryn Snow; Margie Danchin (et al.)

Published: September 2020
This report is an analysis of the global literature and available Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) and school outbreak data, 25 January 2020 – 31 August 2020. It aims to explore the role of ECEC and schools in transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
Surveillance of COVID-19 school outbreaks, Germany, March to August 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Eveline Otte im Kampe; Ann-Sophie Lehfeld; Silke Buda (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Eurosurveillance
Mitigation of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Germany included school closures in early March 2020. After reopening in April, preventive measures were taken in schools. This paper analyses national surveillance system data on COVID-19 school outbreaks during different time periods. After reopening, smaller outbreaks (average: 2.2/week) occurred despite low incidence in the general population. School closures might have a detrimental effect on children and should be applied only cautiously and in combination with other measures.
Ethics of COVID-19-related school closures

AUTHOR(S)
Michael Silverman; Robert Sibbald; Saverio Stranges

Published: August 2020   Journal: Canadian Journal of Public Health
COVID-19 mitigation strategies have led to widespread school closures around the world. Initially, these were undertaken based on data from influenza outbreaks in which children were highly susceptible and important in community-wide transmission. An argument was made that school closures were necessary to prevent harm to vulnerable adults, especially the elderly. Although data are still accumulating, the recently described complication, pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome, is extremely rare and children remain remarkably unaffected by COVID-19. We also do not have evidence that children are epidemiologically important in community-wide viral spread. Previous studies have shown long-term educational, social, and medical harms from school exclusion, with very young children and those from marginalized groups such as immigrants and racialized minorities most affected. The policy and ethical implications of ongoing mandatory school closures, in order to protect others, need urgent reassessment in light of the very limited data of public health benefit.
Parents’ knowledge and attitude towards COVID‐19 in children: a Jordanian study

AUTHOR(S)
Sawsan Abuhammad

Published: August 2020   Journal: The International Journal of Clinical Practice

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a rapid global spread.  All individuals of all age groups are at risk of COVID-19. This study aims to describe the knowledge and attitude of Jordanian parents regarding COVID-19 in children, including clinical signs of the disease, modes of transmission and protection measures. A cross-section study among Jordanian parents was conducted. The size of the sample was 810. Information regarding the clinical signs of the disease, modes of transmission, protection measures against COVID-19 and satisfaction with governmental measures was collected.


Burden of illness in households with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2–infected children

AUTHOR(S)
Mehgan F. Teherani; Carol M. Kao; Andres Camacho-Gonzalez (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
This study investigated of illness among household members of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–infected children receiving medical care (n = 32). The study identified 144 household contacts (HCs): 58 children and 86 adults. Forty-six percent of HCs developed symptoms consistent with coronavirus disease. Child-to-adult transmission was suspected in 7 cases.
Childhood detention during COVID-19 in Italy: building momentum for a comprehensive child protection agenda

AUTHOR(S)
Silvia Logar; Maggie Leese

Published: August 2020   Journal: International Health
Childhood detention represents an integral part of the public health response to the COVID-19 emergency. Prison conditions in Italy put detained minors at grave risk of contracting sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To date (29 April 2020), the Italian penitentiary system is housing 161 minors (147 males), most of them in pre-trial custody, as well as 50 children <3 y of age residing with their mothers in detention. Furthermore, the government reported 5265 unaccompanied minor migrants, mainly from Gambia and Egypt. The fundamental approach to be followed in childhood detention during COVID-19 is prevention of the introduction of infectious agents into detention facilities, limiting the spread within the prison and reducing the possibility of spread from the prison to the outside community. This appears challenging in countries like Italy with intense SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
Neonates in the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Eleanor J. Molloy; Anna Lavizzari; Claus Klingenberg (et al.)

Published: August 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has predominantly affected adults of higher age groups, and the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on infants and neonates appears to be small. While we are gathering emerging evidence on the exact SARS-CoV-2 disease process, intrauterine or perinatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains ambiguous, and vertical transmission has yet to be proven although viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has been found in placental membranes and breast milk. In contrast, breast milk of mothers who contracted COVID-19 can provide antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. There are rare case reports of infected infants, the majority of whom were asymptomatic, and symptomatic late-onset viral sepsis has so far only been reported in a 3-week-old infant and a 26-week preterm infant.

 

 

COVID-19 in children and the role of school settings in COVID-19 transmission
Institution: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Published: August 2020
The aim of this document is to provide an overview of the epidemiology and disease characteristics of COVID-19 in children (0-18 years) in EU/EEA countries and the United Kingdom (UK), and an assessment of the role of childcare (preschools; ages 0-<5 years) and educational (primary and secondary schools; ages 5-18 years) settings in COVID-19 transmission.
Objectives for COVID-19 testing in school settings
Institution: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
Published: August 2020
The aim of this document is to provide an overview of major aspects of testing, contact tracing, contact identification and contact follow-up in school settings within the EU/EEA countries and the United Kingdom (UK).
Infection control practices in children during COVID-19 pandemic: differences from adults

AUTHOR(S)
Ilker Devrim; Nuri Bayram

Published: August 2020   Journal: The American Journal of Infection Control
Limited studies have been published on practices and management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. Despite the fact that COVID-19 rarely caused any severe disease in children, the asymptomatic children might be playing an important role for spreading COVID-19 in healthcare facilities. This review aimed at sharing our experience of how to handle patients with COVID-19 in a pediatric referral and tertiary care hospital to prevent the possible transmissions to the healthcare workers (HCWs).
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 48 | Issue: 8 | No. of pages: 933-939 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child care services, child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, infectious disease
Characterisation of COVID-19 pandemic in paediatric age group: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Naira M. Mustafa; Laila A. Selim

Published: July 2020   Journal: Journal of Clinical Virology
This article performes a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyse the disease characterisation in paediatric age group including the possibility of vertical transmission to the neonates.
Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: implications for infection prevention precautions
Institution: WHO
Published: July 2020
This document is an update to the scientific brief published on 29 March 2020 entitled “Modes of transmission of virus causing COVID-19: implications for infection prevention and control (IPC) precaution recommendations” and includes new scientific evidence available on transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission, infectious disease | Publisher: WHO
The role of children in transmission of SARS-CoV-2: a rapid review

AUTHOR(S)
Xue Li; Wei Xu; Marshall Dozier (et al.)

Published: June 2020   Journal: Journal of Global Health
Understanding the role of children in the transmission of SARSCoV-2 is urgently required given its policy implications in relation to the reopening of schools and intergenerational contacts. This article conducted a rapid review of studies that investigated the role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. It synthesized evidence for four categories: 1) studies reporting documented cases of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by infected children; 2) studies presenting indirect evidence on the potential of SARS-CoV-2 transmission by (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) children; 3) studies reporting cluster outbreaks of COVID-19 in schools; 4) studies estimating the proportions of children infected by SARS-CoV-2, and reported results narratively
Cite this research | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, disease control, disease transmission
Novel Coronavirus 2019 transmission risk in educational settings

AUTHOR(S)
Chee Fu Yung; Kai-qian Kam; Karen Donceras Nadua (et al.)

Published: June 2020   Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases
This report describes the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among children in educational settings (preschool and secondary school). Transmission risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in schools is unknown. These investigations, especially in preschools, could not detect SARS-CoV-2 transmission despite screening of symptomatic and asymptomatic children. The data suggest that children are not the primary drivers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools and could help inform exit strategies for lifting of lockdowns.
121 - 135 of 140

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.