Logo UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
menu icon

Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

RESULTS:   49     SORT BY:


Select one or more filter options and click search below.

UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
Open Access
1 - 15 of 49
Changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among parents with children aged 6–35 months in China: repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2020 and 2021

Kechun Zhang; Xue Liang; Karen Lau Wa Tam (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccines
China is considering to offer COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6–35 months. This study investigated the changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and associated factors among parents with children aged 6–35 months in 2020 and 2021. Two rounds of cross-sectional online surveys were conducted among adult factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A subset of 208 (first round) and 229 (second round) parents with at least one child aged 6–35 months was included in the study.
The effects of COVID‐19 pandemic on early childhood care systems in Hawaii in 2020

Jeffrey K. Okamoto; Keiko Nitta; Kirra Borrello (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Public Health Challenges
he COVID-19 pandemic caused many effects on the referrals to and the work of governmental agencies working with young children. This article describes the impact on the use of early childhood evaluations and services in the State of Hawaii. It looked at several nonpublic data sets from the Hawaii Department of Health and Department of Human Services, comparing the rates of early intervention referrals, lead level screening, childhood immunizations, and child welfare referrals in 2019 and 2020. It also describes effects on the work processes in various early childhood programs from the COVID-19 stay-at-home and work mandates.
Stick with the nose…Saliva rapid antigen testing is not a viable method for testing children under 5 years old.

Shidan Tosif; Lai-yang Lee; Jill Nguyen (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health

Respiratory testing with rapid antigen tests (RATs) in children under 5 years of age may be uncomfortable and presents specific challenges to testing due to compliance and procedural distress. The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity and feasibility of self-collected nasal and saliva RAT tests compared with a combined nose and throat (CTN) swab PCR in children under 5. Children aged between 1 month and 5 years, with confirmed COVID-19 or who were a household contact within 7 days were included. A saliva RAT, nasal RAT and CTN swab were collected by the parent. SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold (Ct) values for CTN tested by PCR were compared with saliva and nasal RAT results. Parent preference for method of sample was recorded.

Clinical features of infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Feifan Xiao; Meiling Tang; Kai Yan (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Annals of Palliative Medicine

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is a public health problem. This meta-analysis reviewed the clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 infection among infants. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies on clinical features of infants with SARS-CoV-2 published before May 1, 2022. Two authors screened and extracted data on the number of infants with SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical features, and number of clinical features. The proportion of asymptomatic infection, mild symptoms, moderate symptoms, severe symptoms, and the clinical features were analyzed.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 11 | Issue: 11 | No. of pages: 20 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, early childhood, health services, infectious disease, pandemic
The stress of parenting in the postpartum period during the COVID-19 pandemic

Ka'Derricka M. Davis; Layna Lu; Brittney Williams (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Women's Health Reports

The COVID-19 pandemic produced a major shift in parental roles, which disproportionally exacerbated existing challenges for low-income new parents. Our objective was to identify pandemic-related parenting challenges experienced by low-income postpartum individuals in the context of the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Semistructured interviews with 40 low-income postpartum individuals were conducted within 10 weeks after giving birth in April 2020–June 2020. Interviews addressed maternal health and well-being, parental stress, including COVID-related barriers to providing for children, and access to essential services. Interview themes were developed using the constant comparative method.

Effects of the Omicron variant on perinatal outcomes in full-term neonates

Hyowon Choi; Eun Jung Lee; Yeon-Soon Ahn (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

Research of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) effects on newborns is ongoing. But the research of specific variant’s effects is none. This study analyzed the effects of the Omicron variant on the perinatal outcomes of full-term newborns during the Omicron wave period.  Between December 2021 and April 2022, this study was conducted on all newborns who visited a single center. We investigated due to the Omicron maternal infection maternal pregnancy complications, delivery methods, birth week, Apgar scores, neonatal resuscitation program requirement, whether respiratory support was required until 12 h after childbirth, suspicious infectious status, and mortality depending on maternal Omicron infection.

Related risk factors of early childhood caries in Zhejiang Province, China during the COVID-19 pandemic

Chaoqiang Huang; Kangqi Zhu; Yibing Feng (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This work aims to examining the latest early childhood caries situation in children aged 3 and 5 and its related risk factors in Zhejiang Province during the COVID-19 pandemic. There are 3,537 children and their main caregivers participate in this study. Chi square test or U-test were used to analyze whether there were differences in the prevalence of dental caries under different variables. The risk factors on ECC were determined by multivariate logistic analysis.

Day-to-day life during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal qualitative study with Canadian parents of young children

Caroline Sanders; Tess Amyot; Theresa J. Frank (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood
The COVID-19 pandemic brought about changes to the lives of families with young children. It has been associated with physical and psychological risk, yet the impact on younger children is poorly examined. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the day-to-day life of parents of young children living in a small northern city in British Columbia, Canada. Ten mothers with children aged 0–5 years participated in a six-week longitudinal study between November 2020 and March 2021. This article presents data from entry and exit interviews that were analysed using Todorov's narrative theory. Three key themes were identified: (1) gaps in health services; (2) gaps in early childhood education and programs; and (3) changes to/lost social interactions.
COVID-19 vaccination intentions, concerns, and facilitators among US parents of children ages 6 months through 4 years

Aaron M. Scherer; Courtney A. Gidengil; Amber M. Gedlinske (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Children aged 6 months through 4 years have become eligible for COVID-19 vaccination, but little is known about parental intentions regarding, concerns about, or facilitators to COVID-19 vaccination for this age group. To evaluate parental intentions, concerns, and facilitators for COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6 months through 4 years and to help inform the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ deliberations and recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6 months through 4 years. This cross-sectional study fielded an online survey from February 2 to 10, 2022, among a nonprobability sample of US parents of children aged 6 months through 4 years who were recruited through Qualtrics using quota-based sampling for respondent gender, race and ethnicity, and child age group.

Changes in early childhood social behavior during the Covid 19 pandemic

Zikra Zikra; Afdal Afdal; Indah Sukmawati (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research
Social behavior is voluntary behavior that benefits others including actions such as calming someone down, helping, and sharing. From an early age, social behavior skills need to be developed in early childhood as a foundation for the ability to interact with the wider environment. However, some changes in social behavior occurred in early childhood during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted content analysis to assess changes in early childhood social behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic. All articles found in sciencedirect (n = 13,743) and scholar (n = 165000) from 2020 to July 2021 were reviewed to identify conceptual and empirical changes that focus on changes in social behavior in early childhood. A total of 40 articles were identified and examined for themes.
Demographic predictors of mothers' willingness to vaccinate young children against COVID-19, get tested and isolate: a cross-sectional survey before and during the greater Sydney lockdown 2021, Australia

Li Ming Wen; Huilan Xu; Chris Rissel (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Having a COVID-19 vaccination, getting tested, and self-isolating if symptomatic are some of the most important mitigation strategies for preventing the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate whether demographic factors are associated with mothers' willingness to vaccinate their 4-year-old children against COVID-19 if a suitable vaccine becomes available or to get tested and self-isolate if they themselves have COVID-19 symptoms and whether the willingness could be influenced by the Greater Sydney lockdown 2021.  A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between 24th February and 26th October 2021. Questions from the NSW Adult Population Health Survey and from previously published studies were used to assess family demographics, mothers' willingness to vaccinate their young children, and willingness to get tested and self-isolate if symptomatic. The survey involved 604 mothers of children aged 4 years who participated in an existing trial in Sydney, Australia.

A study on online intervention for early childhood eating disorders during COVID-19

Silvia Cimino; Carlos A. Almenara; Luca Cerniglia

Published: March 2022   Journal: Internationaol Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eating disorders are among the most common clinical manifestations in children, and they are frequently connected with maternal psychopathological risk, internalizing/externalizing problems in children, and poor quality of mother–child feeding exchanges. During the COVID-19 lockdown, in person assessment and intervention were impeded due to the indications of maintaining interpersonal distancing and by limits to travel. Therefore, web-based methods were adopted to meet patients’ needs. In this study N = 278 participants completed the SCL-90/R and the CBCL to examine the psychopathological symptoms of mothers and children (age of the children = 24 months); moreover, the dyads were video-recorded during feeding and followed an online video-feedback based intervention. Maternal emotional state, interactive conflict, food refusal in children, and dyadic affective state all improved considerably, as did offspring internalizing/externalizing problems and mothers’ depression, anxiety, and obsession–compulsion symptoms.
Family socioeconomic status and Chinese preschoolers’ anxious symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic: the roles of parental investment, parenting style, home quarantine length, and regional pandemic risk

Limin Zhang; Hongjian Cao; Chaopai Lin (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Using data from 16,161 families with target child of 3-6 years old in Hubei, China during COVID-19 pandemic, this study examined the association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and preschoolers’ anxious symptoms (PAS). Parental investment and parenting style were tested as mediators for this association. Home quarantine length was tested as a moderator for this direct association and for the associations between family SES and parenting processes, whereas regional pandemic risk was tested as a moderator for the entire model.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on respiratory morbidity during infancy: a birth-cohort study

Nataly Rosenfeld; Avigdor Mandelberg; Ilan Dalal (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

To evaluate the incidence of wheezing and overall respiratory morbidity in healthy infants born during the first peak of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, compared with infants born during the preceding year. This was a single-center retrospective birth cohort study to compare a cohort of children born between February and March 2020 (COVID-19 group) to a control group of children born between February and March 2019 (pre-COVID-19 group). At 1 year of age, this study collected respiratory data using parental and telephone questionnaires. Primary outcome: wheezing incidence and/or bronchodilator use. Secondary outcomes: recurrent wheezing, emergency-room visits, hospital admissions, pneumonia diagnosis, and admissions due to lower-respiratory-tract-infections (LRTI). It included the following covariate risk factors in the logistic regression models; atopy, daycare attendance, breastmilk feeding, parental smoking, C-section, siblings, and gestational age.

COVID-19 infections in day care centres in Germany: social and organisational determinants of infections in children and staff in the second and third wave of the pandemic

Franz Neuberger; Mariana Grgic; Svenja Diefenbacher (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, German early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres organised children’s attendance in different ways, they reduced opening hours, provided emergency support for a few children, or closed completely. Further, protection and hygiene measures like fixed children-staff groups, ventilation and surface disinfection were introduced in ECEC centres. To inform or modify public health measures in ECEC, we investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in ECEC centres in light of social determinants (i.e. the socioeconomic status of the children) and recommended structural and hygiene measures. We focus on the question if the relevant factors differ between the 2nd (when no variant of concern (VOC) circulated) and the 3rd wave (when VOC B.1.1.7 (Alpha) predominated).
1 - 15 of 49

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


Subscribe to updates on new research about COVID-19 & children



facebook twitter linkedin google+ reddit print email
Article Article

Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
Campaign Campaign

COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.