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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 42
Day-to-day life during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal qualitative study with Canadian parents of young children

AUTHOR(S)
Caroline Sanders; Tess Amyot; Theresa J. Frank (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood
The COVID-19 pandemic brought about changes to the lives of families with young children. It has been associated with physical and psychological risk, yet the impact on younger children is poorly examined. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the day-to-day life of parents of young children living in a small northern city in British Columbia, Canada. Ten mothers with children aged 0–5 years participated in a six-week longitudinal study between November 2020 and March 2021. This article presents data from entry and exit interviews that were analysed using Todorov's narrative theory. Three key themes were identified: (1) gaps in health services; (2) gaps in early childhood education and programs; and (3) changes to/lost social interactions.
COVID-19 vaccination intentions, concerns, and facilitators among US parents of children ages 6 months through 4 years

AUTHOR(S)
Aaron M. Scherer; Courtney A. Gidengil; Amber M. Gedlinske (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Children aged 6 months through 4 years have become eligible for COVID-19 vaccination, but little is known about parental intentions regarding, concerns about, or facilitators to COVID-19 vaccination for this age group. To evaluate parental intentions, concerns, and facilitators for COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6 months through 4 years and to help inform the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices’ deliberations and recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6 months through 4 years. This cross-sectional study fielded an online survey from February 2 to 10, 2022, among a nonprobability sample of US parents of children aged 6 months through 4 years who were recruited through Qualtrics using quota-based sampling for respondent gender, race and ethnicity, and child age group.

Changes in early childhood social behavior during the Covid 19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Zikra Zikra; Afdal Afdal; Indah Sukmawati (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research
Social behavior is voluntary behavior that benefits others including actions such as calming someone down, helping, and sharing. From an early age, social behavior skills need to be developed in early childhood as a foundation for the ability to interact with the wider environment. However, some changes in social behavior occurred in early childhood during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted content analysis to assess changes in early childhood social behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic. All articles found in sciencedirect (n = 13,743) and scholar (n = 165000) from 2020 to July 2021 were reviewed to identify conceptual and empirical changes that focus on changes in social behavior in early childhood. A total of 40 articles were identified and examined for themes.
Demographic predictors of mothers' willingness to vaccinate young children against COVID-19, get tested and isolate: a cross-sectional survey before and during the greater Sydney lockdown 2021, Australia

AUTHOR(S)
Li Ming Wen; Huilan Xu; Chris Rissel (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Having a COVID-19 vaccination, getting tested, and self-isolating if symptomatic are some of the most important mitigation strategies for preventing the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate whether demographic factors are associated with mothers' willingness to vaccinate their 4-year-old children against COVID-19 if a suitable vaccine becomes available or to get tested and self-isolate if they themselves have COVID-19 symptoms and whether the willingness could be influenced by the Greater Sydney lockdown 2021.  A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between 24th February and 26th October 2021. Questions from the NSW Adult Population Health Survey and from previously published studies were used to assess family demographics, mothers' willingness to vaccinate their young children, and willingness to get tested and self-isolate if symptomatic. The survey involved 604 mothers of children aged 4 years who participated in an existing trial in Sydney, Australia.

A study on online intervention for early childhood eating disorders during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Silvia Cimino; Carlos A. Almenara; Luca Cerniglia

Published: March 2022   Journal: Internationaol Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eating disorders are among the most common clinical manifestations in children, and they are frequently connected with maternal psychopathological risk, internalizing/externalizing problems in children, and poor quality of mother–child feeding exchanges. During the COVID-19 lockdown, in person assessment and intervention were impeded due to the indications of maintaining interpersonal distancing and by limits to travel. Therefore, web-based methods were adopted to meet patients’ needs. In this study N = 278 participants completed the SCL-90/R and the CBCL to examine the psychopathological symptoms of mothers and children (age of the children = 24 months); moreover, the dyads were video-recorded during feeding and followed an online video-feedback based intervention. Maternal emotional state, interactive conflict, food refusal in children, and dyadic affective state all improved considerably, as did offspring internalizing/externalizing problems and mothers’ depression, anxiety, and obsession–compulsion symptoms.
Family socioeconomic status and Chinese preschoolers’ anxious symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic: the roles of parental investment, parenting style, home quarantine length, and regional pandemic risk

AUTHOR(S)
Limin Zhang; Hongjian Cao; Chaopai Lin (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Using data from 16,161 families with target child of 3-6 years old in Hubei, China during COVID-19 pandemic, this study examined the association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and preschoolers’ anxious symptoms (PAS). Parental investment and parenting style were tested as mediators for this association. Home quarantine length was tested as a moderator for this direct association and for the associations between family SES and parenting processes, whereas regional pandemic risk was tested as a moderator for the entire model.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on respiratory morbidity during infancy: a birth-cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Nataly Rosenfeld; Avigdor Mandelberg; Ilan Dalal (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

To evaluate the incidence of wheezing and overall respiratory morbidity in healthy infants born during the first peak of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, compared with infants born during the preceding year. This was a single-center retrospective birth cohort study to compare a cohort of children born between February and March 2020 (COVID-19 group) to a control group of children born between February and March 2019 (pre-COVID-19 group). At 1 year of age, this study collected respiratory data using parental and telephone questionnaires. Primary outcome: wheezing incidence and/or bronchodilator use. Secondary outcomes: recurrent wheezing, emergency-room visits, hospital admissions, pneumonia diagnosis, and admissions due to lower-respiratory-tract-infections (LRTI). It included the following covariate risk factors in the logistic regression models; atopy, daycare attendance, breastmilk feeding, parental smoking, C-section, siblings, and gestational age.

COVID-19 infections in day care centres in Germany: social and organisational determinants of infections in children and staff in the second and third wave of the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Franz Neuberger; Mariana Grgic; Svenja Diefenbacher (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, German early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres organised children’s attendance in different ways, they reduced opening hours, provided emergency support for a few children, or closed completely. Further, protection and hygiene measures like fixed children-staff groups, ventilation and surface disinfection were introduced in ECEC centres. To inform or modify public health measures in ECEC, we investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in ECEC centres in light of social determinants (i.e. the socioeconomic status of the children) and recommended structural and hygiene measures. We focus on the question if the relevant factors differ between the 2nd (when no variant of concern (VOC) circulated) and the 3rd wave (when VOC B.1.1.7 (Alpha) predominated).
Mother and child hair cortisol during the COVID-19 pandemic: Associations among physiological stress, pandemic-related behaviors, and child emotional-behavioral health

AUTHOR(S)
Nicole B. Perry; Bonny Donzella; Michael F. Troy (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Psychoneuroendocrinology
The current study assessed the associations between pandemic-related stressors and physiological stress, as indexed by hair cortisol concentration (HCC), for mothers and their children (N = 180) aged 5–14-years old (M = 8.91). The associations between maternal HCC and children’s HCC and children’s behavioral adjustment were also examined. Mothers reported on COVID-19-related behaviors and children’s adjustment, and both mother and child participants collected and mailed hair samples between August and November of 2020.
Quality of facility-based maternal and newborn care around the time of childbirth during the COVID-19 pandemic: online survey investigating maternal perspectives in 12 countries of the WHO European Region

AUTHOR(S)
Marzia Lazzerini; Benedetta Covi; Ilaria Mariani (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe

Multi-country studies assessing the quality of maternal and newborn care (QMNC) during the COVID-19 pandemic, as defined by WHO Standards, are lacking. Women who gave birth in 12 countries of the WHO European Region from March 1, 2020 - March 15, 2021 answered an online questionnaire, including 40 WHO Standard-based Quality Measures.

The impact of COVID-19 on experiences of pregnancy and/or early parenting in Chile

AUTHOR(S)
Marcia Olhaberry; Catalina Sieverson; Pamela Franco

Published: December 2021   Journal: Infant Mental Health Journal

The unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic has impacted families’ mental health around the globe. In June 2020, 1163 parents of high (43%), middle (47%), and low socioeconomic status (SES) (10%) participated in an online survey developed to explore how daily life changes and restrictions that came with COVID-19 affected the experiences of pregnancy and/or parenting children under the age of 5 in Chile. The survey's design had an exploratory and descriptive scope, with a mix of qualitative and quantitative questions. With the aim of exploring differences before and after COVID-19, two time periods were established, and the 47-item questionnaire covered participants’ sociodemographic information, support networks, health concerns, mood changes, self-regulation, adult and children's perceived well-being, parental competencies and parents’ perceptions of the unborn baby and/or their children's needs.

The impact of COVID-19 on the continuum of integrated perinatal, infant, and early childhood behavioral health services

AUTHOR(S)
Ayelet Talmi

Published: December 2021   Journal: Infant Mental Health Journal
This is a brief introduction to four papers examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the continuum of integrated infant and early childhood mental health services offered across hospital and community settings. The COVID-19 pandemic profoundly impacted the delivery of perinatal, infant, and early childhood behavioral health services. Perinatal and early childhood integrated behavioral health services ensured access to early childhood and family mental health services, adapted service delivery to meet the needs of the populations being served and comply with public health guidelines, and promoted appropriate utilization of preventive, primary care, and hospital services for populations with and without medical complexity during the COVID-19 pandemic.
COVID-19 and early childhood development in low- and middle-income countries: a research roundup

AUTHOR(S)
Kristy Hackett; Kerrie Proulx; Shekufeh Zonji

Institution: Early Childhood Development Action Network
Published: December 2021

The global response to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed daily life in many ways for children, families, and care providers. A sharp increase in research worldwide on COVID-19 and its impacts on children’s development and wellbeing has been seen. This research roundup, describes the nature and scope of the existing early childhood development (ECD) evidence related to components of nurturing care for young children, including health, nutrition, child protection, opportunities for learning, and responsive caregiving.

Movement behaviors and mental health of caregivers of preschoolers in China during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jie Feng; Wendy Yajun Huang; Patrick Wing Chung Lau (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine
This study aimed to examine the associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), sleep, and the mental health of caregivers of preschool children following the COVID-19 outbreak. From 5 October to 16 December 2020, responses from 2476 respondents in China were collated through an online survey or a written questionnaire. Movement behaviors (PA, SB, screen time, and sleep), mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress), and demographic information were self-reported by the respondents. Linear mixed models were used for data analysis.
Parenthood in the shadow of COVID-19: the contribution of gender, personal resources and anxiety to first time parents' perceptions of the infant

AUTHOR(S)
Miriam Chasson; Ofir Ben-Yaakov; Orit Taubman – Ben-Ari Taubman – Ben-Ari

Published: November 2021   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
This study sought to examine new parents' perceptions of their infant during the worldwide spread of COVID-19, exploring the contribution of gender, personal resources (attachment orientation, presence of meaning in life and intolerance of uncertainty) and COVID-19-related anxieties. A convenience sample of 606 Israeli first-time parents (137 fathers and 469 mothers), whose child was 3–12 months old, was recruited through social media during April 2020.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.