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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 65
Rapid retooling and adaptation of EIE data processes and programming: Pashe Achhi Model in early childhood education in emergencies in the Rohingya camps of Bangladesh

In March 2020, after the coronavirus cases in Bangladesh were confirmed, both Humanitarian Play Labs (HPL) and mainstream Play Labs temporarily stopped their face-to-face operations according to the government mandate. The pandemic endangered people’s physical health and highly impacted their socio-economic and mental health conditions. Hence, BRAC explored alternative approaches and designed a telecommunication model, Pashe Achhi, to support all the direct beneficiaries during the pandemic. The objective of the intervention was to be connected with the beneficiaries and promote children’s wellbeing and development through play-based learning, positive parenting, and self-care practices of caregivers. Since caregivers are the core agent for children’s learning and development during the pandemic, the model provides psychosocial support and learning support to them. To facilitate the calls, the model trained facilitators on ECD, learning through play, playfulness, and mental health. Pashe Achhi is a telecommunication model consisting of tele-counseling and tele-learning components. After receiving the training, the Play Leaders started to call the families every week to conduct a 20 minutes phone session (10 minutes with the mother and 10 minutes with the child) based on the scripts delivered. In the first 10 minutes, Play Leaders give mothers and caregivers basic psychosocial support, tips on engaging with children and discuss health and hygiene issues.

The Little Red Hen and a Corona Giant: creative storytelling strategy in an early childhood classroom

Ilfa Zhulamanova; Jill Raisor

Published: April 2022   Journal: Global Journal of Transformative Education
Storytelling is a natural mean of communication between generations and is deeply rooted in culture.  In today’s classrooms, the act of storytelling is often overshadowed by a narrow focus on academics.  However, children can use storytelling as a way to demonstrate depth of their understanding. This study details the use of a creative storytelling strategy implemented in an early childhood classroom which was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic.  The end result is a two-phase study which concluded with pre-kindergarten aged children using storytelling to discuss and display their perceptions of Coronavirus in an academic setting.
An analysis of parents' perceptions about using smart gadgets by pre-school students during pandemic-19

Iqra Almas; Muhammad Salman Abbas; Abdul Waheed

This research examines the implementation of technology-based learning, such as the use of android, personal computers, and IPads. The action of this research is the use of digital technology for early childhood on the role of parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. This method was chosen because the researcher wanted to identify the parents' responses through a questionnaire on the use of technology as well as some of the roles of parents towards their children during taking advantage of this technology. That way, the survey method is considered very suitable to be used and in line with the function of survey research, namely to collect and explain opinions or opinions from a group of people (samples) on a particular topic. The number of samples in this study was 385 respondents (parents). The simple random technique is the sampling technique of choice used by researchers in sampling. Location research is Bahawalpur City. This research data was obtained online through the google forms platform. The instrument used is a questionnaire regarding the use of technology through the role of parents. The statements in this research questionnaire are 10 statements. There are five Likert scales used, namely very often (5), often (4), sometimes (3), never (2), and never (1).
Address and involvement in e-books about COVID-19 for young children: an analysis of the visual mode

Maria Koutsikou; Vasilia Christidou

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Visual Literacy
COVID-19 e-books have emerged as means for communicating information about coronavirus and the resulting disease to children during the pandemic. This material is multimodal, with images forming the most prevalent and crucial semiotic mode. Except for representational and compositional meaning, an image realises interpersonal meanings. The degree to which the reader is activated (address) and prompted to become engaged with what is represented (involvement) constitute interpersonal meaning dimensions that reflect crucial pedagogical perceptions about children’s learning. This study explored how address and involvement are visually realised in young children’s e-books about COVID-19. The sample consisted of 100 randomly selected images of living or anthropomorphic entities included in 18 COVID-19 e-books for young children. The framework of analysis was based on the Grammar of Visual Design.
Teacher experiences of facilitating play in early childhood classrooms during COVID-19

Christina O’Keeffe; Sinead McNally

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
he COVID-19 pandemic posed major challenges for the lives of children in terms of school closures, loss of routine, reduced social contact, bereavement and trauma. The pandemic also gave rise to a focus on play as a fundamental support for children’s wellbeing. This study examined early childhood teachers’ reported practices of using play upon returning to school in Ireland after lockdown restrictions which included a 6-month period of school closures. Building on previous research on play in early childhood education during the early stages of the pandemic, 12 primary school teachers in early childhood classrooms (children aged 3–8 years) participated in focus groups aimed at exploring teachers’ experiences of using play upon returning to in-class teaching. Through reflexive thematic analysis of the focus groups, four themes were identified that encapsulated teachers’ experiences: play in the classroom embodied similar characteristics and qualities during COVID-19 as before the pandemic; play was considered a priority in early childhood education classrooms; teachers planned carefully for facilitating play in the classroom in response to COVID-19 regulations; teachers’ noted the importance of the social and relational components of play for children in the context of COVID-19 regulations.
Early childhood education during the COVID-19 outbreak: the perceived changing roles of preschool administrators, teachers, and parents

Süleyman Yildiz; Gulenay Nagihan Kilic; Ibrahim H. Acar (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
Stakeholders (teachers, preschool administrators, and parents) in early childhood education have struggled due to the COVID-19 outbreak. The present study explores the experiences and perceptions reflecting the perceived changes in the roles of stakeholders in early childhood education as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. A criterion sample of two administrators, nine teachers, and seven parents in early childhood education institutions was interviewed.
Caregivers’ perceived changes in engaged time with preschool-aged children during COVID-19: Familial correlates and relations to children's learning behavior and emotional distress

Xiao Zhang

Published: April 2022   Journal: Early childhood research quarterly
The COVID-19 pandemic and its resulting containment measures have forced many children and their caregivers around the world to spend unprecedented amounts of time at home. Based on a sample of 764 households with preschool-aged children in Wuhan, China, where the pandemic began, this study examined how primary caregivers perceived changes in the amount of time spent engaging with their children (i.e., engaged time) from the start of the pandemic and whether these changes were associated with children's learning behavior and emotional distress.
Play in the time of pandemic: children’s agency and lost learning

Sue Rogers

Published: March 2022   Journal: Education 3-13
Children, their families and teachers are working and playing in the context of ongoing challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. During successive lockdowns, restrictions on domestic spaces to play, social distancing and homeschooling have impacted in diverse ways on children’s access to play. Additionally, the ways in which the pandemic has both exacerbated and uncovered inequality has led to the concept of ‘lost learning’. While it is important to understand how children have been affected by school and closures, little attention has been paid by policymakers to children’s lost opportunities for play. The article reviews the literature to date. It argues for a renewed appreciation of the importance of children’s agency and play, which it is argued could also play a significant positive role in our journey back from the effects of the pandemic.
Transforming teaching and learning in early childhood care and education during COVID-19 in a poor community of the Cape Flats, South Africa

Naseema Shaik

Published: March 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
This case study explored the dilemmas of three early childhood care and education (ECCE) teachers in a poor community in the Cape Flats of Cape Town, South Africa during COVID-19, and how they used these dilemmas to transform their teaching. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants and data was collected through a semi-structured interview and thematically analyzed. Ethical clearance was secured from the Cape Peninsula University of Technology. Mezirow’s transformative learning theory was used as an analytical framework for the study. In particular, Mezirow’s concept of disorienting dilemmas was used to engage with the dilemmas the ECCE teachers were confronted with during the pandemic.
Early childhood educators’ psychological distress and wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic

Emily Berger; Gloria Quinones; Melissa Barnes (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
There is growing awareness of the impacts of COVID-19 on children, families, and more recently, early childhood educators. This study aimed to add to this research and explore Australian early childhood educators’ psychological distress and wellbeing in relation to COVID-19. Accordingly, 205 educators (117 early childhood educators, 86 leaders and 2 others) completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, measuring levels of post-traumatic distress, and an open-ended question on wellbeing, both in relation to COVID-19. Educators’ responses to the open-ended question were matched to those who scored high, medium, and low on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised.
Early childhood educators’ provision of remote learning during COVID-19

Elizabeth A. Steed; Nancy Leech; Ngoc Phan (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly

This study utilized a nationally distributed survey to explore early childhood teachers’ experience of providing remote learning to young children and their families during the early months of the U.S. response to the COVID-19 pandemic. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used to analyze 805 participants’ responses to closed and open-ended survey questions. Results indicated that teachers provided various remote learning activities and spent more time planning instruction and communicating with families than providing instruction directly to children. Early childhood teachers reported several positive aspects of remote learning and various challenges during the initial months of the pandemic. Study findings are discussed in the context of policy and practical implications for supporting early childhood teachers to deliver high-quality and developmentally appropriate remote learning for all young children and their families.

Research priorities for early childhood development in the context of COVID-19: results from an international survey

Kerrie Proulx; Kristy Hackett; Shekufeh Zonji

Institution: Early Childhood Development Action Network
Published: February 2022

This project was undertaken in December 2021 using a short online questionnaire. Respondents were asked to provide demographic information and to select up to three urgent COVID-19 research priorities among a list of 15 topics related to early childhood development and nurturing care. This list was generated by reviewing the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Nurturing Care Framework and expert opinion. Space was provided for respondents to list additional research priorities not included in the list. The questionnaire was completed by 98 respondents from 47 mostly low- and middle-income countries. Most respondents were professionals in the early childhood development space and users or consumers of research (59%), including pediatricians, early childhood educators and program managers. Thirty-six percent of respondents were researchers, and 5% worked for research funding agencies.

Education and an ethics of care when working with refugee families during COVID-19

Anne Keary; Andrea Reupert; Mervi Kaukko (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Early Years
Provision of early childhood education and care services for refugee families took on heightened challenges during COVID-19 restrictions. This study undertook a small-scale study to explore how Australian educators worked with and cared for refugee families during the COVID-19 outbreak in an urban Australian setting. This study emerges from a larger project that aimed to support social inclusion and cultural and linguistic diversity for refugee families in Australia. It draws on two group interviews conducted during a COVID-19 lockdown with four educators working with refugee families in early childhood education and care. Data analysis is framed by the ethics of care work of Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings. On the basis of these theories and the interview data, two vignettes on an ethics of care were developed. The importance of being cared for and cared about and genuinely listening were identified as crucial aspects of the care provided to refugee children and their families.
Early childhood care and education access in South Africa during COVID-19: Evidence from NIDS-CRAM

Gabrielle Wills; Jesal Kika-Mistry

Published: February 2022   Journal: Development Southern Africa
Using a longitudinal telephonic survey of adults, this paper provides empirical evidence from South Africa on early childhood care and education (ECCE) attendance trends just before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. About 39% of adult respondents living with children aged 0–6 indicated that at least one child had attended an ECCE programme in February 2020. After a period of ECCE programme closures and lockdowns, estimates fell to as low as 7% in July/August 2020, partially recovered to 28% in November/December 2020, dropped again to 7% in early February 2021 but then recovered significantly to 36% by April/May 2021. A decomposition analysis suggests that a large part of the recovery in ECCE attendance in 2021 was attributed to higher reported perceived ability to be able to afford ECCE programme fees. This could relate to lower fee ECCE programmes resuming operations in anticipation of government relief payments.
Understanding Caribbean early childhood teachers’ professional experiences during the COVID-19 school disruption

Sabeerah Abdul-Majied; Zoyah Kinkead-Clark; Sheron C. Burns

Published: February 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
The COVID-19 Pandemic and resulting school closures, present a serious threat to young children’s care, learning, and the achievement of their developmental potential (UNESCO, 2020a). Disruptions to normal school functioning worldwide have presented challenges for teachers who were generally unprepared to teach using different methodologies (United Nations in Policy brief: Education during Covid-19 and beyond, 2020). Since a child’s right to care and education extends even during emergencies this study was conceptualized to better understand the professional experiences of early childhood teachers as they navigated the teaching learning process during the COVID-19 school disruption. A multiple site qualitative case study was designed to answer two research questions: What were the professional experiences of Caribbean Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) teachers at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic period? And how did Caribbean ECCE teachers adapt to ensure continuity of children’s rights to access education? Almog and Perry-Hazan’s (2012) conceptualisation of the Right to Adaptable Education provided the theoretical foundation for this study. Data were collected using a questionnaire sent to teachers from seven Caribbean countries. Five themes were extricated from the findings: changed teacher experiences, significant new understandings, changed teacher collaboration practices, changed individual qualities, and warning signs for support.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.