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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 87
Transforming teaching and learning in early childhood care and education during COVID-19 in a poor community of the Cape Flats, South Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Naseema Shaik

Published: March 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
This case study explored the dilemmas of three early childhood care and education (ECCE) teachers in a poor community in the Cape Flats of Cape Town, South Africa during COVID-19, and how they used these dilemmas to transform their teaching. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants and data was collected through a semi-structured interview and thematically analyzed. Ethical clearance was secured from the Cape Peninsula University of Technology. Mezirow’s transformative learning theory was used as an analytical framework for the study. In particular, Mezirow’s concept of disorienting dilemmas was used to engage with the dilemmas the ECCE teachers were confronted with during the pandemic.
Early childhood educators’ psychological distress and wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Emily Berger; Gloria Quinones; Melissa Barnes (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
There is growing awareness of the impacts of COVID-19 on children, families, and more recently, early childhood educators. This study aimed to add to this research and explore Australian early childhood educators’ psychological distress and wellbeing in relation to COVID-19. Accordingly, 205 educators (117 early childhood educators, 86 leaders and 2 others) completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, measuring levels of post-traumatic distress, and an open-ended question on wellbeing, both in relation to COVID-19. Educators’ responses to the open-ended question were matched to those who scored high, medium, and low on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised.
Early childhood educators’ provision of remote learning during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth A. Steed; Nancy Leech; Ngoc Phan (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly

This study utilized a nationally distributed survey to explore early childhood teachers’ experience of providing remote learning to young children and their families during the early months of the U.S. response to the COVID-19 pandemic. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used to analyze 805 participants’ responses to closed and open-ended survey questions. Results indicated that teachers provided various remote learning activities and spent more time planning instruction and communicating with families than providing instruction directly to children. Early childhood teachers reported several positive aspects of remote learning and various challenges during the initial months of the pandemic. Study findings are discussed in the context of policy and practical implications for supporting early childhood teachers to deliver high-quality and developmentally appropriate remote learning for all young children and their families.

Research priorities for early childhood development in the context of COVID-19: results from an international survey

AUTHOR(S)
Kerrie Proulx; Kristy Hackett; Shekufeh Zonji

Institution: Early Childhood Development Action Network
Published: February 2022

This project was undertaken in December 2021 using a short online questionnaire. Respondents were asked to provide demographic information and to select up to three urgent COVID-19 research priorities among a list of 15 topics related to early childhood development and nurturing care. This list was generated by reviewing the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Nurturing Care Framework and expert opinion. Space was provided for respondents to list additional research priorities not included in the list. The questionnaire was completed by 98 respondents from 47 mostly low- and middle-income countries. Most respondents were professionals in the early childhood development space and users or consumers of research (59%), including pediatricians, early childhood educators and program managers. Thirty-six percent of respondents were researchers, and 5% worked for research funding agencies.

Education and an ethics of care when working with refugee families during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Anne Keary; Andrea Reupert; Mervi Kaukko (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Early Years
Provision of early childhood education and care services for refugee families took on heightened challenges during COVID-19 restrictions. This study undertook a small-scale study to explore how Australian educators worked with and cared for refugee families during the COVID-19 outbreak in an urban Australian setting. This study emerges from a larger project that aimed to support social inclusion and cultural and linguistic diversity for refugee families in Australia. It draws on two group interviews conducted during a COVID-19 lockdown with four educators working with refugee families in early childhood education and care. Data analysis is framed by the ethics of care work of Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings. On the basis of these theories and the interview data, two vignettes on an ethics of care were developed. The importance of being cared for and cared about and genuinely listening were identified as crucial aspects of the care provided to refugee children and their families.
Early childhood care and education access in South Africa during COVID-19: Evidence from NIDS-CRAM

AUTHOR(S)
Gabrielle Wills; Jesal Kika-Mistry

Published: February 2022   Journal: Development Southern Africa
Using a longitudinal telephonic survey of adults, this paper provides empirical evidence from South Africa on early childhood care and education (ECCE) attendance trends just before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. About 39% of adult respondents living with children aged 0–6 indicated that at least one child had attended an ECCE programme in February 2020. After a period of ECCE programme closures and lockdowns, estimates fell to as low as 7% in July/August 2020, partially recovered to 28% in November/December 2020, dropped again to 7% in early February 2021 but then recovered significantly to 36% by April/May 2021. A decomposition analysis suggests that a large part of the recovery in ECCE attendance in 2021 was attributed to higher reported perceived ability to be able to afford ECCE programme fees. This could relate to lower fee ECCE programmes resuming operations in anticipation of government relief payments.
Understanding Caribbean early childhood teachers’ professional experiences during the COVID-19 school disruption

AUTHOR(S)
Sabeerah Abdul-Majied; Zoyah Kinkead-Clark; Sheron C. Burns

Published: February 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
The COVID-19 Pandemic and resulting school closures, present a serious threat to young children’s care, learning, and the achievement of their developmental potential (UNESCO, 2020a). Disruptions to normal school functioning worldwide have presented challenges for teachers who were generally unprepared to teach using different methodologies (United Nations in Policy brief: Education during Covid-19 and beyond, 2020). Since a child’s right to care and education extends even during emergencies this study was conceptualized to better understand the professional experiences of early childhood teachers as they navigated the teaching learning process during the COVID-19 school disruption. A multiple site qualitative case study was designed to answer two research questions: What were the professional experiences of Caribbean Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) teachers at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic period? And how did Caribbean ECCE teachers adapt to ensure continuity of children’s rights to access education? Almog and Perry-Hazan’s (2012) conceptualisation of the Right to Adaptable Education provided the theoretical foundation for this study. Data were collected using a questionnaire sent to teachers from seven Caribbean countries. Five themes were extricated from the findings: changed teacher experiences, significant new understandings, changed teacher collaboration practices, changed individual qualities, and warning signs for support.
I felt like I was going crazy: understanding mother’s and young children’s educational experiences at home during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Samantha Burns; Calpanaa Jegatheeswaran; Michal Perlman

Published: February 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
The COVID-19 disruptions to children’s education have been a major issue for families. This study examined how demographic, family, and mental health characteristics of 375 low-income children and their mothers from the City of Toronto were associated with children’s educational experiences at home during COVID-19. Many mothers (82.3%) reported that they and their children (80.0%) experienced challenges related to children’s education at home during the pandemic. However, a small percentage of mothers (1.1%) reported that this mode of learning was better for them and their children (4.3%).
An ecological perspective on early educator well-being at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Emily C. Hanno; Madelyn Gardner; Stephanie M. Jones (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Early educator well-being is increasingly understood as a critical ingredient of high-quality early education and care. The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened educator well-being by exacerbating existing stressors and introducing novel stressors to all aspects of early educators’ lives, and early educators have had differential access to resources to cope with these new circumstances. Using survey data collected between April and June 2020 with a sample of 666 early educators in community-based center, family child care, Head Start, and public school prekindergarten programs across Massachusetts, this study documents the pandemic's initial influence on educators’ sense of well-being.
Professionals’ perspectives on service delivery: the impact of COVID-19 on early childhood special education providers

AUTHOR(S)
Doug Gomez; Megan Kunze; Elizabeth Glenn (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Topics in Early Childhood Special Education
Early childhood special education (ECSE) professionals were forced to drastically change their methods of providing services as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. This qualitative study conducted interviews to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted ECSE professionals both personally and professionally. ECSE rofessionals described challenges as well as unexpected positive outcomes associated with continuing to work in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Professionals also explained the importance of increasing parent interaction through coaching interventions while engaging in remote service delivery.
SARS-CoV-2 infections and public health responses in schools and early childhood education and care centres in Victoria, Australia: an observational study

AUTHOR(S)
Kathleen Ryan; Kathryn Snow; Margie Danchin (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific
The epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in children is an important consideration for control measures. To inform the safe re-opening of Victorian schools and early childhood education and care (ECEC) in late 2020, a detailed analysis of local data was undertaken. Data on all Victorian SARS-CoV-2 confirmed cases, their close contacts, and ECEC/school events from the first case in Victoria to the end of the third school term (25/01/2020 – 18/09/2020) were analysed. This study compared temporal and geographic trends in cases linked to ECEC/school events and community cases; and describe events with onward transmission by age of first case, and public health actions.
Political prioritization of early childhood education during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparative policy analysis of low- and middle-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
Michelle J. Neuman; Shawn Powers

Published: January 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Despite strong evidence of its importance to the welfare of children and societies, early childhood education has been comparatively neglected as a policy priority both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper seeks to understand what factors have contributed to the relative lack of priority for early childhood education in distance learning and school reopening plans by applying a political prioritization framework to the pandemic context in four low- and middle-income countries: Ethiopia, Jamaica, Liberia, and Pakistan (Punjab Province). Some aspects of the pre-COVID-19 status quo which disfavored early childhood education have continued, including a lack of cohesive support from civil society and a greater focus by international partners on norm promotion and technical assistance than financing. In other respects, the pandemic put early childhood education at an even greater disadvantage. These include perceptions that early childhood education is less suited to distance delivery than other levels of education, concerns about young children's ability to comply with health protocols, and competition with high-stakes examinations for education ministries’ attention. Previous country experience with pandemics (in Liberia) and a strong coordinating entity (in Jamaica) were mitigating factors.
Reopening childcare and early learning services: guidelines for East Asia and the Pacific
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: January 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic threatens this once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for children in early childhood to develop healthy brains, bodies, and lives. While countries in East Asia and the Pacific have made substantial progress in investing in early childhood development (ECD), services supporting the development and learning of young children will likely suffer more than other education levels as they remain closed or in limited duration for fear of children contracting COVID-19.  This publication has been developed based on LACRO’s publication and adapted to suit the East Asia and the Pacific regional needs and context. It is intended for UNICEF country offices in the region to support their role in providing technical assistance to government partners and other organizations. The publication provides guidelines for reopening of services for young children aged 2 years up until the official primary school entry, either 5 or 6 years, and their families. It also includes a checklist to conduct rapid analysis of the services’ conditions and designing plans for a safe reopening. 

COVID-19 infections in day care centres in Germany: social and organisational determinants of infections in children and staff in the second and third wave of the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Franz Neuberger; Mariana Grgic; Svenja Diefenbacher (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume
During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, German early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres organised children’s attendance in different ways, they reduced opening hours, provided emergency support for a few children, or closed completely. Further, protection and hygiene measures like fixed children-staff groups, ventilation and surface disinfection were introduced in ECEC centres. To inform or modify public health measures in ECEC, we investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in ECEC centres in light of social determinants (i.e. the socioeconomic status of the children) and recommended structural and hygiene measures. We focus on the question if the relevant factors differ between the 2nd (when no variant of concern (VOC) circulated) and the 3rd wave (when VOC B.1.1.7 (Alpha) predominated).
Home environment and social skills of Japanese preschool children pre- and post-COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Xiang Li; Dandan Jiao; Munenori Matsumoto (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Early Child Development and Care
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the daily life and social relationships of pre-school children globally. While many studies have examined the impact of the pandemic on children, few have compared the home environment and children’s social skills before and after the pandemic. To address this research gap, this study used data from the Japan Child Care Cohort study, which included questions on home environment answered by parents (1748 in 2019 and 1349 in 2020) of children aged 0–6 years using self-reported questionnaires and data on the social skills of children aged 1–6 years (1917 in 2019 and 1989 in 2020) that were evaluated by childcare professionals in childcare centres. Using the Chi-square test, home environments and social skills were compared.
31 - 45 of 87

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.