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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Sociodemographic and mental health characteristics associated with changes in movement behaviours due to the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents

Amanda Lien; Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga; Karen A. Patte (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Activity, Sedentary and Sleep Behaviors volume

Control measures enacted to control the spread of COVID-19 appear to have impacted adolescent movement behaviours. It remains unclear how these changes relate to sociodemographic characteristics and indicators of mental health. Understanding these relationships can contribute to informing health promotion efforts. The purpose of this study is to examine sociodemographic and mental health characteristics associated with changes in movement behaviours (physical activity, screen time, sleep duration) due to the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents. This cross-sectional study used May–June 2020 survey data and included 7349 students from Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia (Canada). ANOVA, χ2 tests, and estimation of effect sizes using Cohen’s d and h tests were performed between self-reported perceived changes (increase; decrease; no change) to physical activity, TV watching, social media use, and sleep duration as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, depression and anxiety symptoms, flourishing-languishing, and self-rated mental health.

Contributions of work-to-family enrichment to parental food monitoring and satisfaction with food-related life during the COVID-19 pandemic in dual-earner parents and their adolescent children

Berta Schnettler; Ligia Orellana; Edgardo Miranda-Zapata (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Nutrients
Evidence shows that numerous family-related variables influence parents’ use of different food parenting practices (FPP), but less is known about the influence of parents’ work-related variables on their use of FPP, and their own and their children’s outcomes in the food domain. To fill this gap, the present study explored intra-individual and inter-individual effects between work-to-family enrichment (WtoFE), parents’ monitoring practices, the adolescent’s perception of their parents’ monitoring practices, and the three family members’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFoL), in different-sex dual-earner parents with adolescent children. The mediating role of monitoring between WtoFE and SWFoL was also tested. A sample of 430 different-sex dual-earner parents and one of their adolescent children (average age 13.0 years, 53.7% female) were recruited in Rancagua, Chile, during March and June 2020.
Impact of COVID-19 on child labor in the Province of Chimborazo

Cristian Alexander Mejía Ortiz; Gissela Estefania Mera Rojas; Vivian Lizbeth Ruiz Sudario (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: ESPOCH Congresses: The Ecuadorian Journal of S.T.E.A.M.
Child labor violates the children’s fundamental rights and interrupts their intellectual growth and potential. The prevalence of child labor in Ecuador has increased significantly in recent years, and the COVID-19 health crisis has only aided it. The province of Chimborazo over time has taken the lead amongst the other Ecuadorian provinces, showing a significant increase in the rate of child labor which has now become too complex to solve. Although, as a result of COVID-19, the rate of child labor has increased worldwide, the national and provincial rate of child labor in Ecuador significantly reduced due to the social distancing policies. However, once the infections were controlled, it resumed the pre-pandemic situation as many children from low-income families were forced to seek alternative income to survive during the pandemic; likewise, all commercial, production, and service activities were affected.
Pandemic-related socioeconomic disruptions and adverse health outcomes: a cross-sectional study of female caregivers

Erika M. Brown; Lia C. H. Fernald; Rita Hamad (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts to mitigate transmission resulted in sudden and widespread socioeconomic disruptions including school and child care closures, unemployment and underemployment, and housing precarity. Understanding the extent to which these disruptions may have contributed to adverse health outcomes is critical for establishing policy priorities that can mitigate further harm. This study explored the associations between pandemic-related child care, employment, and housing disruptions with depressive symptoms, self-rated health, and food security status among a sample of economically disadvantaged and racially diverse female caregivers of young children (n=464). Data were derived from the Assessing California Communities’ Experiences with Safety Net Supports (ACCESS) study, which conducted survey-based interviews with California caregivers with low-income from August 2020 – May 2021. We implemented a series of multivariable Poisson regressions with robust standard errors to assess the potency of each exposure, independently and within the context of one another.

Stressors and symptoms associated with a history of adverse childhood experiences among older adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Manitoba, Canada

Samantha Salmon; Tamara L. Taillieu; Ashley Stewart-Tufescu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada: Research, Policy and Practice

The COVID-19 pandemic has had major economic, social and psychological consequences for adolescents and young adults. It is unclear whether those with a history of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) were particularly vulnerable. This study examined whether a history of ACEs was associated with financial difficulties, lack of emotional support, feeling stressed/anxious, feeling down/depressed, increased alcohol and/or cannabis use and increased conflict with parents, siblings and/or intimate partners among 16- to 21-year-olds during the pandemic. Data were collected in November and December 2020 from respondents aged 16 to 21 years (n = 664) participating in the longitudinal and intergenerational Well-being and Experiences Study (Wave 3) conducted in Manitoba, Canada. Age-stratified associations between ACEs and pandemic-related stressors/symptoms were examined with binary and multinomial logistic regression.

Breastfeeding knowledge, attitude, and practices and its association with food insecurity during COVID-19

Syahrul Bariah Abdul Hamid; Syasya Nurazmiena Haris; Hui Jun Chih

Published: September 2022   Journal: Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal

Child hunger commonly occurs in families with household food insecurity when mothers fail to continue breastfeeding due to stress and inability to produce sufficient breastmilk. This study aimed to investigate the association of breastfeeding KAP with food insecurity during the pandemic of COVID-19. An online self-administered questionnaire related to the study was used to obtain data from 444 Malaysian 

Children's access to dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multi-country survey

Heba Mohamed Elkhodary; Heba Jafar Sabbagh; Omar Abd El Sadek (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Children's Health Care
This study assessed the impact of COVID-19 on children’s access to dental care and determine factors associated with problems in accessing dental care. A multi-country cross-sectional survey collected data from caregivers of children from August 2020 to February 2021. The questionnaire was developed guided by the framework of the Andersen’s model of factors (predisposing, enabling and need). Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between access-to-dental care problem and predisposing, enabling and need factors. A total of 4,843 caregivers from 20-countries reported on their children (52.3% males, mean age = 8.4 years) with 29.2% having access to care problem. A significantly greater percentage of caregivers from lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) than low-income countries (LICs), upper-middle-income countries (UMICs) and high-income countries (HICs) reported an access-to-dental care problem (P < .001). Caregivers living in LICS, university-educated caregivers, caregivers with older children and caregivers whose children had more frequent pain during the pandemic had higher odds of reporting an access to dental care problem.
Parenting and adjustment problems among preschoolers during COVID-19

Jamie M. Ostrov; Dianna Murray-Close; Kristin J. Perry (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
A critical area of developmental science explores factors that confer risk or protection as young children and their families experience stressful circumstances related to sociohistorical events. This study contributes to this important area by assessing relations between family context and child adjustment as children transitioned from preschool to home learning during COVID-19, and whether children higher in stress levels, indexed by morning basal cortisol, were more strongly affected. Parents of 74 children (Mage = 53.56 months, SDage = 3.68 months) completed reports spanning the home learning transition; children’s pre-COVID-19 transition salivary cortisol levels were assessed. Path analyses were used to test the preregistered study aims. Significant interactions were decomposed using simple slopes and Preacher’s Regions of Significance (ROS) method. Across the COVID-19 transition to home-based school, children with higher morning basal cortisol experienced the sharpest increase in anger when exposed to harsh/inconsistent parenting contexts. Importantly, these effects held when controlling for household chaos, socioeconomic resources, and supportive parenting. Parallel models with supportive parenting were also tested and are discussed. This study is one of the first to test and provide support for biological sensitivity to context theory within the context of a natural experiment like COVID-19.
Trajectories of parent and child well-being across the pandemic year: role of financial strain, social distancing, and COVID-19 prevalence

Yunying Le; Jacqueline A. Mogle; Mark E. Feinberg

Published: September 2022   Journal: Family Process
Existing research demonstrated large deteriorations in parent, child, and family well-being within 2 months after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, little is known about the trajectories of families' adjustment in the following months, including what risk factors are associated with changes in families' adjustment. The current study examined (1) change in the parent, child, and family well-being over time; (2) associations of pandemic-related stressors, financial and social distancing-associated stress, with well-being between and within families; and (3) the role of local COVID-19 prevalence, prior participation in family-focused prevention, and parent gender. From April 2020 to January 2021, 393 parents from 235 families reported five times on parent mental health, child behavior problems, family relationships, and pandemic-related stressors.
The impact and lived experience of Covid-19 restrictions for vulnerable children and families in a low-income Irish community

Margaret Curtin; Maria O’Shea; Claire Hayes

Published: September 2022   Journal: Child Care in Practice
The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted on all aspects of life. The physical health burden predominately impacts adults. However, the psychological burden has impacted significantly on the development and wellbeing of babies and young children. The aim of this research was to explore the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on vulnerable children (aged 0–6) and their families who were registered with a prevention and early intervention programme in an area of socio-economic disadvantage in southern Ireland. A convenience sample of 15 mothers were contacted by the staff from the multidisciplinary Infant Mental Health home visiting team.
Social insecurity and varieties of family resilience strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Tauchid Komara Yuda; Misbahul Munir

Published: September 2022   Journal: International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy

This study is aimed at developing an understanding of the consequences of the pandemic on families' socioeconomic resilience, and the strategies adopted by the families in overcoming social vulnerabilities amid uncertainty. The materials for this study consist of semi-structured interviews with 21 families spread across the South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Families in the study represent four different income levels, namely very high, high, middle and low, and who also work in the informal sector. Each family has at least 1 or more members who fall into the vulnerable category (children, the elderly, people with disabilities unemployed or having potential economic vulnerability).

The impact of household economic deterioration caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and socioeconomic status on suicidal behaviors in adolescents: a cross-sectional study using 2020 Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey data

Sanggu Kang; Yeri Jeong; Eun Hye Park (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
Economic hardship has a serious impact on adolescents’ mental health. The financial impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was more severe for low-income families, and this also impacted adolescents. This study aimed to examine the associations of economic deterioration (ED) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and low socioeconomic status (SES) with adolescents’ suicidal behaviors. This study analyzed data from the 2020 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, which included 54 948 middle and high school students. Odds ratios (ORs) of suicidal ideation, suicidal planning, and suicide attempts related to ED and SES were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. We calculated relative excess risks due to interaction to assess additive interactions.
Implementation supplementary feeding program and infant and young child feeding counseling as a stunting prevention program during pandemic

Tasya Sabila Febriyati; Dewi Marhaeni Diah Herawati; Gina Megawati

Published: August 2022   Journal: Jurnal Kesehatan Prima

Large-Scale Social Restrictions (PSBB) as an effort to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic itself hasan impact on stunting prevention program carried out by Public Health Centers (Puskesmas), including the Supplementary Feeding Program (PMT) and Infant and Young Child Feeding Counseling (PMBA) and this condition occurs in various regions in Indonesia, including Bandung. This study aimed to examine the implementation of PMT and PMBA counseling program during the COVID-19 pandemic in the working area of the Buahbatu Public Health Center as one of the public health centers with the highest stunting number in Bandung. This study using the mixed methods concurrent embedded method, in this study quantitative data were used to determine percentage of PMT and PMBA counseling coverage before the COVID-19 pandemic (2017-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (in 2020) as supporting qualitative data done with in-depth interviews.

Slovak parents' mental health and socioeconomic changes during the COVID-19 pandemic

Lenka Vargová; Gabriela Mikulášková; Denisa Fedáková (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
The changes in people’s mental health have become one of the hot topics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents have been said to be among the most vulnerable groups in terms of the imposed anti-pandemic measures. The present paper analyzes the trends in mental health indicators in a sample of Slovak parents (N = 363) who participated in four waves of data collection over a year and a half of the COVID-19 pandemic. The mental health indicators were represented by general levels of depression and anxiety as well as COVID-related stress and anxiety.
Early pandemic impacts on family environments that shape childhood development and health: a Canadian Study

Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac; De-Lawrence Lamptey; Jane Harley (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Child

Changes to income and employment are key social determinants of health that have impacted many families during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research aimed to understand how changes to employment and income influenced family environments that contribute to early childhood development and health. A concurrent triangulation mixed method design was used through a cross-sectional survey on early impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic involving families with young children in the Canadian Maritime provinces (n = 2158). Analyses included multivariate regression models to examine whether changes to employment and income predicted changes to Family access to resources and social support, parenting Abilities and self-care at home, and home Routines and Environments (FARE Change Scale). Content analysis was used to identify themes from the open-ended questions.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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