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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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181 - 195 of 200
COVID-19 pandemic: a unique opportunity to ‘build back fairer’ and reduce health inequities in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

AUTHOR(S)
Ahmed Al-Mandhari; Michael Marmot; Abdul Ghaffar (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal
Evidence has shown that some of the major causes of health inequities arise from the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age, in addition to a wider set of forces and systems shaping individuals’ and societies’ health and well-being. Such conditions are known as the ‘social determinants of health’. However, efforts to address these determinants have remained challenging and unsatisfactory in many parts of the world, including in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Policies to contain the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have further exposed and amplified the existing and even created new dimensions in social and health inequities, as we elaborate further below. Meanwhile, the pandemic offers a unique opportunity to tackle inequities and build back fairer.
Cite this research | Vol.: 27 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 217-219 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19 response, economic and social conditions, health care, multi-country, social inequality
Working children in crisis-hit Lebanon: exploring the linkages between food insecurity and child labour
Food insecurity has increased significantly in Lebanon during the past year; nearly 97% of the Syrian refugees on Lebanese soil are marginally or completely food insecure. Food basednegative coping mechanisms have also increased and infant and young child feeding practices have deteriorated. Food is the main expenditure for the most vulnerable households. According to the last available figure on this topic (2016), at least 100,000 children were working in Lebanon and this trend is expected increase. The objective of this report is to draw attention to the linkage between food insecurity and child labour, and its recent evolution in Lebanon. ACF and IRC developed questionnaires and interviewed 648 individuals between July and September 2020 in the Bekaa, Beirut, North and South Lebanon. The interviewees were mostly Syrian refugees but also Lebanese individuals and working children were included. The survey findings were complemented by existing research findings from NRC and CAMEALEON and data from the Lebanon Protection Consortium (LPC).
Impact of the 2020 pandemic of COVID-19 on families with school-aged children in the United States: roles of income level and race

AUTHOR(S)
Cliff Yung-Chi Chen; Elena Byrne; Tanya Vélez

Published: March 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
This study examined the experiences of families with school-aged children during the first three months of the 2020 pandemic of COVID-19 in the United States, while focusing on the roles of income level and race/ethnicity in their experiences. Two hundred and twenty-three parents of school-aged children participated in this study by completing an online survey.
Widening the gap? Unintended consequences of health promotion measures for young people during COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Stephanie A. Alexander; Martine Shareck

Published: February 2021   Journal: Health Promotion International
During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, global measures preventing the spread of the new coronavirus required most of the population to lockdown at home. This sudden halt to collective life meant that non-essential services were closed and many health promoting activities (i.e. physical activity, school) were stopped in their tracks. To curb the negative health impacts of lockdown measures, activities adapting to this new reality were urgently developed. One form of activity promoted indoor physical activity to prevent the adverse physical and psychological effects of the lockdown. Another form of activity included the rapid development of online learning tools to keep children and youth engaged academically while not attending school. While these health promoting efforts were meant to benefit the general population, this paper argues that these interventions may have unintended consequences and inadvertently increase health inequalities affecting marginalized youth in particular, as they may not reap the same benefits, both social and physical, from the interventions promoting athome physical activities or distance learning measures. This study elaborates on several interventions and their possible unintended consequences for marginalized youth and suggests several strategies that may mitigate their impact.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on economic security and pregnancy intentions among people at risk of pregnancy

AUTHOR(S)
Tracy Kuo Lin; Rachel Law; Jessica Beaman

Published: February 2021   Journal: Contraception
This study aims to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic affected women of reproductive age, specifically their economic conditions, desire for pregnancy, and access to contraceptive services during the pandemic. A total of 554 women respondents age 18 to 49 and reside in the United States were recruited using social media between May 16, 2020 and June 16, 2020. Logistic regression models assessed predictors of reporting pandemic-related changes in economic conditions, desire for pregnancy, and contraceptive access
Assessing the impact of changes in household socioeconomic status on the health of children and adolescents: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Alexander Ryan Levesque; Sarah MacDonald; · Selinda Adelle Berg (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Adolescent Research Review
Understanding how child and adolescent health is influenced by fluctuations in socioeconomic status has important public health and policy implications, as children are often subjected to both micro and macro-level socioeconomic events. This study provides the first systematic review to date on the relationship between changes in household or parental socioeconomic status and subsequent child and adolescent health outcomes.
The COVID decade: understanding the long-term societal impacts of COVID-19
Institution: British Academy
Published: 2021
This report outlines the evidence across a range of areas, building upon a series of expert reviews, engagement, synthesis and analysis across the research community in the Social Sciences, Humanities and the Arts (SHAPE). With the advent of vaccines and the imminent ending of lockdowns, we might think that the impact of COVID-19 is coming to an end. This would be wrong. We are in a COVID decade: the social, economic and cultural effects of the pandemic will cast a long shadow into the future – perhaps longer than a decade – and the sooner we begin to understand, the better placed we will be to address them.
Labour market shocks during the COVID-19 pandemic, inequalities and child outcomes

AUTHOR(S)
Claudia Hupkau; Ingo E. Isphording; Stephen Machin

Published: December 2020
This study analyzes the effect of negative labour market shocks borne by parents during the Covid-19 crisis on resource and time investments in children and the channels through which negative labour market shocks experienced by parents might affect children. Using data collected in the UK before and during the pandemic, it shows that fathers and mothers that were already disadvantaged were more likely to have suffered negative earnings and employment shocks. These shocks had an immediate intergenerational impact: Children whose fathers reported an earnings drop to zero are significantly less likely to have received additional paid learning resources compared to similar children whose fathers did not experience a drop in earnings.
Through their eyes: exploring the complex drivers of child marriage in humanitarian contexts

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth Presler-Marshall; Nicola Jones; Sarah Alheiwidi

Institution: Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence
Published: December 2020
Child marriage, while declining in most parts of the world, remains common in many communities – especially in countries beset by conflict and other humanitarian disasters. Indeed, all 10 of the countries with the highest rates of child marriage are considered fragile, and research has found that child marriage is one of the issues most sensitive to conflict. A growing body of evidence underscores that this is because although the drivers of child marriage tend to be similar across development and humanitarian contexts – and revolve around physical and economic insecurities and deep-seated gender norms – fragility, conflict and disaster augment concerns and can increase the risk of child marriage. This report begins with a brief overview of the evidence base. It then describes the sample and methodological approach used by Gender and Adolescence: Global Evidence (GAGE) to explore the drivers of child marriage in humanitarian settings and how tailored policy and programming might be brought to bear to reduce it.
Care matters: reimagining early childhood education and care in a time of global pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Joanne Ailwood; I-Fang Lee

Published: December 2020   Journal: Global Studies of Childhood

The pandemic has served to further highlight the politics of care, making space for public debate about who is worthy of care, who cares, for whom, and under what conditions.This short commentary is about the definition of care and related public policies.

COVID-19: a catastrophe for children in sub-Saharan Africa
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: November 2020

This report investigates how COVID-19 and other shocks have impacted child well-being in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 2020 and the potential role of cash transfers and external resources to help children and economies. It reviews the latest social, economic and financial information from a range of global databases and modelling exercises, draws on emerging country-level reporting and carries out projections where recent data are unavailable. Although information remains incomplete and things are quickly evolving, the outlook is alarming.



Aggregate and intergenerational implications of school closures: a quantitative assessment

AUTHOR(S)
Youngsoo Jang; Minchul Yum

Published: October 2020
A majority of governments around the world unprecedentedly closed schools in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper quantitatively investigates the macroeconomic and distributional consequences of school closures through intergenerational channels in the medium and long-term. The model economy is a dynastic overlapping generations general equilibrium model in which schools, in the form of public education investments, complement parental investments in producing children ís human capital.
The Avon longitudinal study of parents and children: a resource for COVID-19 research: questionnaire data capture May-July 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Kate Northstone; Daniel Smith; Claire Bowring (et al.)

Published: September 2020
The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a prospective population-based cohort study which recruited pregnant women in 1990-1992 and has followed these women, their partners and their offspring ever since. The study reacted rapidly to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, deploying an online questionnaire early on during lockdown (from 9th April to 15th May). In late May 2020, a second questionnaire was developed asking about physical and mental health, lifestyle and behaviours, employment and finances.
Covid-19 and the world of work: Rapid assessment of the employment impacts and policy responses Serbia
Institution: International Labour Organisation
Published: September 2020
This rapid country assessments launched by the Employment, LabourMarkets and Youth Branch (EMPLAB) of the ILO in around 14 countries aims to provide constituents and other policy-makers with a practical tool for the real-time diagnosis of the employment impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic to inform policy responses. Serbia adopted the most generous and comprehensive economic package among the Western Balkan economies, providing near universal support to both firms and citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic.
‘I have nothing to feed my family…’: covid-19 risk pathways for adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
Nicola Jones; Agnieszka Małachowska; Silvia Guglielmi (et al.)

Institution: Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence
Published: August 2020

Unlike the H1N1 influenza virus, to which younger people were relatively more susceptible, and Ebola, where adolescents were at greater risk than younger children but at lower risk than the most-affected age group (35–44 years), the demographic burden of covid-19 is highly skewed towards older persons aged 70 and over. Age-disaggregated statistics suggest that adolescents are least likely to be hospitalised and to die from covid-19. Young people have typically been portrayed in the mainstream media as ‘part of the problem’ – as both vectors of the disease and as reluctant to adopt preventive measures, rather than as key actors to be proactively included in the emergency and recovery responses.  As the spike in unemployment and predictions of global recession underline, Covid-19 is not only an unprecedented health crisis but also a profound economic and social one. This is the first in a series of briefs. It focuses on the short-term effects of covid-19 and associated lockdowns on adolescent girls and boys in LMICs. The next brief will focus on the effects of the pandemic six months after lockdowns.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.