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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The impact of Covid-19 on parents of children with disability: educational needs and challenges

Ahmad Rababah; Dareen Khlaifat; Faisal Abdelfattah (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: International Journal of Instruction
During the Corona pandemic, parents of children with disabilities experienced unprecedented situations. The aim of this study was to identify the educational needs and challenges which prevented parents from providing adequate support to their children during the outbreak. An online survey was launched on June 4, 2020, to gather information from 638 parents of children with disabilities.
Home schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom: the experience of families of children with neurodevelopmental conditions

Athanasia Kouroupa; Amanda Allard; Kylie M. Gray (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
The COVID-19 outbreak, and associated school restrictions affected the learning experience of students worldwide. The current study focused on the learning experiences of United Kingdom children with neurodevelopmental conditions, including autism and/or intellectual disability. Specifically, the aim was to examine families’ experience with school support for home schooling, families’ resources, and level of satisfaction with schools among families whose children engaged with home schooling, hybrid learning, and school-based learning during the pandemic. An online survey took place in 2021, approximately 1 year since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited mostly through social media with support via several charities across the United Kingdom. Participants were 809 parents/carers of children with autism and/or intellectual disability aged 5 – 15 years. Of these, 59% were learning from home daily during home schooling, 19% spent some days in school (hybrid learning), and 22% were going to school daily during school restrictions. Parents/carers reported on the support received from schools, the resources accessed, and the resources needed but not accessed to facilitate learning. They also reported on their level of satisfaction with school support and school management of COVID-19 risks.
An exploration into the implications of the Covid‐19 restrictions on the transition from Early Years Education to Key Stage 1 for children with special educational needs and disability: a comparative study

Jessica Wythe

Published: August 2022   Journal: British Journal of Special Education
This small-scale comparative study explores how the coronavirus pandemic has impacted on the transition from Early Years Education to Key Stage 1 (KS1) for children with special educational needs and disability (SEND) in a SEND specialist school in the UK. Two focus group interviews were conducted with nine professionals who work across three KS1 classes for pupils with moderate learning difficulties at a SEND specialist provision setting. This study aimed to compare their experiences and observations of how the children responded to this significant transition in September 2020, in the context of the coronavirus restrictions, and how their practice, provision and transitional support were adapted to meet the needs of the children and to adhere to the changing Covid-19 guidance.
Orientation and mobility for children with visual impairments during COVID-19: Creative and collaborative curriculum and instruction

Justin T. Kaiser; Danene Fast; Jasamyn Nichols DeGrant

Published: August 2022   Journal: British Journal of Visual Impairment
This research explored the instructional practices and strategies used by orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists in March and April 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Access and Engagement survey from the American Foundation for the Blind included open-ended responses from 318 O&M specialists. The authors used thematic analysis to examine the main themes regarding instructional practices consistent throughout the responses. This article focused on the themes of collaboration between families and professionals and the creative instructional strategies used for adaptive O&M lessons. Parents took on a more active role and professionals found creative ways to make instruction useful in most cases. There were fundamental changes to the content and structure of O&M lessons when they were moved from in-person to online instruction. Creative and collaborative practices were used to adapt for the absence of the travel environment. Virtual instruction in O&M will continue to be used in certain circumstances when in-person services are not possible, but we need to better explore how to ensure it is safe and effective.
Education services for children with special needs in inclusive schools during the pandemic era of COVID-19

S. Suharsiwi; W. S. Pandia; A. Suradika (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Sciences
This study aims to obtain information on educational services for Children with Special Needs during a pandemic in Indonesia, which includes 1) educational services for Children with Special Needs, 2) the role of parents, and 3) barriers for parents, teachers and children in learning during the pandemic. This study uses a descriptive qualitative approach, case studies of research subjects on 9 parents and 9 accompanying teachers from 4 schools in Jakarta and Depok, Indonesia. Data collection techniques using observation, interviews, and documentation collection. Thematic analysis is identifying patterns and themes by coding.
Animation based instructional approach for learning attainment and cognitive functioning of Indian children with ADHD during COVID-19 crisis

Jaishree Devi; Ananta Kumar Jena

Published: May 2022   Journal: Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
Animation based online instructional sessions were organised for enhancing learning attainment and cognitive functioning skills for children diagnosed with ADHD symptoms. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of animation-based instruction for the empowerment of learning attainment in relation to the cognitive functioning in students with ADHD during COVID-19 crisis. Quasi-experimental design was done on students with ADHD (n = 75, 11–12 years) from three different schools of Assam, India.
The reported effects of the pandemic on the academic and developmental progress of pupils in specialist provisions in England. Using estimates from school and college leaders to determine differences between economically disadvantaged and non-economi

Rob Webster; Amy Skipp; Claire Tyers (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
This paper addresses an identified gap in research during the COVID-19 pandemic: how the disruption impacted on pupils with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) attending specialist (i.e., non-mainstream) settings in England. Estimates provided by around 200 special school and college leaders at two time points during the pandemic are used to provide overall estimates of the extent to which the pandemic and time spent out of school had on the academic and developmental progress of pupils in these settings.
Lockdown in France: impact on families of young children with special needs

Stéphanie Pinel-Jacquemin; Amalia Martinez; Maud Martinasso (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Families with young children have faced serious challenges during the first lockdown as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to remote working, parents have had to monitor their children’s schoolwork and manage their daily lives. When one of the children also has neuro-developmental disorders, this results in an increased burden. We can therefore wonder how these families with one or more young children (under 6 years old) with special needs have experienced and dealt with this lockdown. In this context, the “COVJEUNENFANT” study focused more specifically on the subjective experience, as a parent, of those who cared for children with special needs (i.e., with developmental disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, proven disabilities or chronic health conditions) compared to the general population. It aimed to see if the consequences of the health crisis were significantly different from those perceived by respondents in the general population (n = 490) and if the sociodemographic structure of these families differed from those of other respondents.

Lessons from United States school district policies and approaches to special education during the COVID-19 pandemic

Melissa E. Mendoza; Timothy F. Brewer; Matthew S. Smith (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: International Journal of Inclusive Education
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in many school districts in countries around the world transitioning rapidly to partial or complete remote learning. These disruptions affected all children’s education, but students with disabilities (SWDs) were particularly at-risk because of the challenges of providing accessible support and services through remote teaching programmes. This study examines the experience of SWDs in 24 United States school districts of instructional and adaptation models between August 2020 and February 2021. Districts varied in their approaches to remote instruction, compensatory services and prioritising SWDs for returning to the classroom before other students. Districts also varied substantially in the information provided regarding Distance Learning Plans, changes to Individualised Education Programmes and related service delivery.
One school’s management of students with intellectual disabilities during the COVID-19 outbreak in Japan: a study based on interviews with teachers

Yusuke Kusumi; Mitsuaki Tominaga; Hironobu Nagasawa (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Journal of intellectual disabilities : JOID
This study aimed to elucidate how school employees caring for students with intellectual disabilities managed emergencies caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. It attended to decision-making by school managers as well as the engagement of local teachers in the outcome resolution process. A total of 10 teachers employed in different positions were purposefully selected from a school for students with intellectual disabilities in Osaka, Japan, and interviews were conducted with them via Zoom. The thematic analysis identified six significant premises: sensemaking, emergency responsive organization, high morale, planning through prioritization, risk management, and recovery from adverse incidents. The findings suggest distributed leadership functions to successfully sustain security in educational practices. Additionally, the empirical study consisting of interviews with staff in multiple positions reveals that all of the staff's proactive participation in decision-making and the communication process enabled the school to cope with the pandemic crisis as a united organization.
Successful school interventions for students with disability during Covid-19: empirical evidence from Australia

Catherine Smith; Massimiliano Tani; Sophie Yates (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher
Children and young people with disability are a “vulnerable” population within a pandemic context as they face structural inequities and discrimination as a result of their impairments. This paper reported research that sought to examine the learning experiences of children and young people with disability during the COVID-19 pandemic. It wanted to understand how this group fared and whether different interventions impacted on these experiences. Data were collected from an online survey organized by Children and Young People with Disability Australia (CYDA) that garnered responses from more than 700 families. The study contributes empirical evidence to the growing literature about COVID-19-related impacts on learners already recognized as experiencing multiple disadvantages in schooling.
Parents’ psychological stress and their views of school success for deaf or hard-of-hearing children during COVID-19

Sanyin Cheng; Shengli Cheng (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Communication Disorders Quarterly
This study mainly explored psychological stress due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children and how it related to parents’ views of school success in mainland China. The Psychological Stress Questionnaire and Views of Social and Academic Success were administered to 213 parents of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Results showed that parents’ and children’s characteristics were related to psychological stress due to COVID-19, which significantly negatively predicted parents’ views of school success. The contributions, limitations, and implications of the present research are discussed.
“This will likely affect his entire life”: parents’ views of special education services during COVID-19

Susan Sonnenschein; Michele L. Stites; Julie A. Grossman (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: International Journal of Educational Research
Research continues to emerge about the impact of COVID-19 on education; however, reports about the impact on students receiving special education services are more limited. This study examined parental views of distance learning for students with disabilities during the COVID-19 crisis. Using a survey disseminated via social media, this study examined parents’ views (N = 153) of PK-12 education for students receiving special education services during COVID-19.
Impacts of long-term COVID-19 school closures on Japanese school children

Chiaki Hayano; Shuichi Shimakawa; Miho Fukui (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Pediatrics International

This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 pandemic school closures on the mental health of school students with chronic diseases. Questionnaires were distributed from 4th-9th grade students diagnosed with chronic diseases at Osaka Medical College Hospital and their parents or caregivers. Questionnaires from 286 families were returned by mail after schools reopened. The students were divided into the “psychosomatic disorder” group (P, n = 42), “developmental disorder” group (D, n = 89), and “other disease” group (O, n = 155). Using students’ self-report on the Questionnaire for Triage and Assessment with 30 items (QTA30), this study assessed the proportion of students having a high risk of psychosomatic disorder in three groups. It investigated how the students requiring the support of somatic symptom (SS) felt about school during school closure. Further, using parents’ and caregivers’ answers, SS scores were calculated before and during school closure and after school reopening.

Impact of Covid-19 on the education of children with disabilities in Malawi: reshaping parental engagement for the future

Nidhi Singal; Jenipher Mbukwa-Ngwira; Shruti Taneja-Johansson (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: International Journal of Inclusive Education
Covid-19 has led to unparalleled school closures and bought about extraordinary and unique challenges to ensuring continuity of learning for children across countries. This paper focuses on the educational experiences of children with disabilities in Malawi. Using a telephone survey, 99 parents/carers were interviewed about the impact of school closure on them and their child with disabilities. Parents reported as being overwhelmingly dissatisfied with the educational experiences of their child with disabilities, with a significant number reporting that they had no contact with the school or the teachers during closures. Children with disabilities were reported as spending very little time on formal learning activities. Nonetheless, parents were confident that their child with disabilities would return to school once these re-opened, as parents noted the loss of structure for their child’s day and increased loneliness arising from lack of contact with their friends.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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