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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The mediation of exam-oriented cultural capital: economic capital and educational inequality of Chinese high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic and school closures

Shuheng Yu; Liu Hong; Gaoming Ma

Published: November 2022   Journal: Applied Research in Quality of Life
While children and adolescents’ education has been significantly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic and school closures, how they are impacted remains unknown. Based on Bourdieu’s theory, this paper aims to examine whether cultural capital mediates the association between economic capital and academic achievement during the crisis. Using a longitudinal dataset from the Chinese high school and the moderated mediation model, the result showed that economic capital had a total effect on academic achievement, especially on the students’ academic ranks. Meanwhile, economic-related inequality in education seemed to be mediated by cultural capital. Interestingly, the finding further indicated that the indirect effect was mainly attributable to exam-oriented cultural capital, compared with quality-based cultural capital. we discussed the theoretical contributions and policy implications in the end.
‘The urgency of financing education recovery: a call to action for children’s futures’: technical paper

Ivan Coursac; Daniel Kelly

Institution: UNESCO, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

This background paper outlines the scale and urgency of   financing education for SDG4 in the post-COVID Asia-Pacific  region.  The  paper  focuses  primarily  on  the  public  financing  of    education  and  it  directly addresses three main questions: (i)  What are the key issues and challenges for education finance in the Asia-Pacific?   Situating   public   education financing   within   the   broader  contexts  of     human   capital development   and  social  sector  spending;  (ii)  What  has  been  the  impact  of    COVID-19  on  education finance? From the immediate economic and education system impacts to the longer-term effects linked to  significant  and  inequitable  learning  loss;  and  finally  (iii)  What  are the  priority  areas  for  action?  The paper  proposes  five  main  recommendations  to  guide  post-COVID  recovery  and  the  financing  of    more inclusive, efficient and resilient regional education systems. The paper includes a list of   resources at the end to support the implementation of   the recommendations.

Education in emergencies financing in the wake of COVID-19: time to reinvest to meet growing needs
Institution: Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies
Published: June 2022
This study provides a detailed assessment of the state of EiE funding, including the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. It reviews financial data from a range of EiE funding modalities, including humanitarian assistance and development cooperation. In addition to presenting the key funding trends since 2016, it pinpoints the critical factors that influence EiE funding over time, with a view to identify what actions are required to address the noted gaps.
Supporting grandchildren's remote instruction during COVID-19: experiences of custodial grandmothers

Megan L. Dolbin-MacNab; Alexandra B. Jeanblanc; Carol M. Musil (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Psychology in the Schools
While negative impacts of COVID-19-related remote instruction on children continue to emerge, it appears that vulnerable students will disproportionately bear the burden. One such vulnerable population is children being raised by grandparents. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to gain insight into custodial grandmothers' (CGMs) experiences of their grandchildren's remote instruction, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with these experiences. A national sample of 315 CGMs, drawn from two randomized clinical trials, completed an online survey in Spring of 2020.
How much does universal digital learning cost?

Haogen Yao; Mathieu Brossard; Suguru Mizunoya (et al.)

Published: January 2022

COVID-19 school closures initially revealed more than 75% of children lacked access to critical digital learning opportunities. Three out of four were living in the poorest 40% of households. Digital learning is impossible without connectivity and electricity. However, in places like Chad, Malawi and Niger, the proportion of people with access to electricity is below 1 in 5. What efforts will ensure these children are not further left behind in future crises if schools are again closed? How much will universal access to digital learning cost? The answer is US$1.4 trillion. This paper estimates the cost of universalizing digital learning by 2030, in alignment with the conceptual framework of the Reimagine Education initiative. It provides a rationale for cost assumptions; classifies costs into enabling digital learning and delivering digital learning; and, finally, discusses financing achievability by comparing the estimated costs with current spending in education and other sectors.

Stop the setback: addressing the girls' education financing gap after COVID-19
Institution: Malala Fund
Published: May 2021
COVID-19 is creating a global education crisis. Millions of students haven’t been able to learn during the pandemic — and girls are the least likely to return to the classroom when it ends. To address this emergency, low- and lower-middle-income countries need to be able to invest in education at scale. However, they currently lack the fiscal space to do so.
Impact of COVID-19 on school education in India: what are the budgetary implications? a policy brief

Protiva Kundu; Shivani Sonawane

Published: 2020
COVID-19 has had an unprecedented impact on school education. It has affected a large number of children across states, class, caste, gender and region. The shutting down of schools and the decision of shifting traditional classrooms to digital platforms is not only increasing learning inequality among children, but also pushing a large number of children out of school due to the digital divide. Other than learning, the absence of schooling would also have a long-lasting effect on the health and nutrition of children. The role of the budget in the current situation as well as beyond the pandemic is very crucial to ensure inclusive education for all. This policy brief highlights some of the issues associated with school closures which need immediate attention. It also suggests some short-term policy measures that can be implemented in the coming Union and State budgets. However, the overall direction of allocations should not only be limited to addressing issues arising from the pandemic but should go beyond. COVID-19 has created an opportunity for governments to learn valuable policy lessons to deal with such situations and also to revamp the system so that it is better equipped to deal with them. In this context, the policy brief has also put forward a set of long-term measures that the government should implement in the due course of time.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.